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day perceived to be in perfect unison / ginning and progress of the sixteenth with the dictates of right reason, and century. The Paulicians and Katharvi the testimony of the word of God, and of an early date; the Albigenses and which many of them avowed, as the Waldenses of a later; Bishop Hooper, only means of preserving conscience who had refused to be ordained in and worship pure in the sight of the pontifical habits in a former reign; and omniscient One. They saw the queen's some others, were their honoured preauthority enjoin practices, and rites, decessors in the essential principles and ceremonies in religion which were which they adopted, and the noble at utter variance with her avowed Pro- stand which they made against the intestantism, and with the analterable trusions and impositions of human decrees of eternal truth, and they authority in the worship of God. Nay, simply said to the power which imposed Wickliffe himself, " the Morning Star them, •Whether it be right in the of the Reformation,” the illustrious sight of God to hearken unto you more

Pastor of Lutterworth, was probably than unto God, judge ye." Nay, they the first on British ground who publicly felt it their duty to declare, with those avowed the maxims of Puritanism, and heroic worshippers on the plains of was as much entitled to that bonourDura, " Be it known unto thee, O sove. able appellation as any that came after reign, that " (we dare not]" we will not him. “He maintained, further," says worship the golden image which thou a truthful historian, “most of those hast set up." They honoured the points by which the Puritans were queen's majesty. They obeyed her afterward distinguished : as that in most willingly in all the institutions the sacrament of Orders there ought to and requirements of her civil rule. be but two degrees,-presbyters (or There was nothing which they would bishops) and deacons; that all human have with held, or would not have done, traditions are superfluous and sinful ; to establish and perpetuate ber reign, that we must practise and teach only and no subjects in the kingdom more the laws of Christ; that mystical and rejoiced in her sway than did they significant ceremonies in religious But when they saw her bent upon a worship are unlawful; and that to spiritual usurpation, when they saw restrain men to a prescribed form of her reject the " Man of Sin” only to prayer is contrary to the liberty granted scat herself in the temple of God, them by God.”

Here is the very God,” and begin to exercise a pre-kernel of the controversy: the root sumptuous rule in things sacred and and key of all. Had those wise centispiritual, in matters between conscience ments, and scriptural sayings, been and the Eternal, on which no mortal observed in the century following that has a right to intrude, they remembered in which he lived, England had never the saying of Him who is greater been disturbed by intestine divisions, the than all the sovereigns of the earth : queen had never seen her mandates " Render unto Cæsar the things which disobeyed, nor the rulers of the state are Cæsar's, and unto God the things church assisted to forge fetters or kindle that are God's.” In silent subjection flames for their Protestant brethren. they adored. The queen's majesty But “if the foundations be destroyed, should govern them in all earthly what can the righteous do?” Then it things: in all others, the heavenly becomes theirs to "suffer for righteousThis gave rise to the Puritans.

ness' sake;" to avoid the stroke of Not that they were only of that age, oppression as best they can; to mainor commenced their noble career of tain a good conscience in all; and, if protest and of suffering with the be- necessity compel them, and the storm




of persecution still gather, and drive a conscience void of offence" in all them before its fury, to forsake things, to render to their earthly sovetheir native land. And these were reign her due, and to their heavenly the consequences which fol. Ruler his, did they become obnoxious lowed the enactments of the imperi- | to the powers that were, and were ous daughter of Henry on the British sought out, and hunted down, or conthrone.

strained to appear before a tribunal It would be an unthankful, as it is a which they could not acknowledge, and very uninviting work, to record all the answer for deeds which were only in bitter sufferings and privations which unison with heaven's righteous and were endured by faithful men of God eternal laws. Many pined away, and during the reign of this otherwise illus- died of the cruel treatment to which trious Princess, or even to allude to they were subjected. Some were excesthem. Bitter, indeed, and deeply min. sively mulcted of their earthly possesgled, were the ingredients which were sions, and “ took joyfully the spoiling put into the cups of not a few of the of their goods, knowing in themselves most eminent servants of Christ in that they had in heaven a better and those days, and the very dregs of the more enduring substance." Others same the “ excellent of the earth " had trial of cruel mockings and scourgcompelled to drink. The spirit of Po-ings,” and were made the “offscouring pery had infused itself into the Pro- of all things,” by being compelled, as testantism of those times, and from the expiation of their alleged crimes, to that prolific source of evil sprang all stand in some public place, exposed to the deadly strifes and sorrows which the insults and scorn of all that passed fell to the lot of many. The Court by. Oh! who can ever think of the of High Commission was instituted; sufferings of such men as Cartwright, the Star Chamber followed: and be- Barrowe, Greenwood, Penry, and hunneath their oppressive and vindictive dreds more, whose only accusation was operation, the most innocent, upright, that they were the advocates of spiand holy of the land could not escape. rituality of worship, and simplicity of Fines and imprisonments were the order constitution in the Church of Christ, of the day. Evil counsellors encou without weeping, with unfeigned lamentraged them. The queen would have it ation, over the perversion of authority,

Her courtiers and ministers, with and the departure from the principles but few exceptions, and, unhappily, some of equity, truth, and love, which such of the bishops among them, whom she proceedings displayed ? Assuredly, had had raised to power, but who ought to He been on earth who rebuked the two have felt more their responsibility to disciples who would have called down Christ their Lord, were the too willing fire from heaven on those that followed instruments of carrying into effect her not with them, He would have said, in unrighteous purposes. The principles of accents of sternest anger, to the abettors the Reformation were kept in abeyance. of such unrighteous doings, “ Ye know The theory of a human head to the not what manner of spirit ye are of." church was carried out to perfection, But there was nothing to restrain or and dreadful was the havoc made check them. The queen, the council, amongst all that was pure, and lovely, and the bishops, had their own way. and of good report, among professed and though the visible structure of the brethren. The good were depressed, Church of England was then set up, the bad were exalted. In proportion as and, as its advocates affirm, carried to individuals were solicitous to maintain perfection, they must admit, as we think

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all impartial beholders are compelled the Atlantic to the untrodden forests of to do, that its foundations were laid in the western world, there were enough tyranny, sufferings, and blood. There left in the kingdom to impregnate it is not one of her devout and spiritual with precious leaven, and to perpetumembers at the present day but would ate their principles to successive geneshed a tear over the injuries, privations, rations. Indeed, during this very peand wrongs endured by their unoffend- riod it was that the good seed was ing Protestant brethren during Eliza- scattered far and wide, on the mountains beth's reign.

of Wales, the plains of the South, and The queen had, doubtless, intended the hills of the North, which afterwards by all this, as she professed to do, to sprung up, and bore such fruit, and is bring all the people into one external still bearing it, to the glory of God, way of worshipping God, and that the the welfare of the land, and the spread way which she herself was pleased to of the true Church of Christ within the adopt and prefer. Nay, she had even British Isles. “Not by might, nor by told the French ambassador, on one oc- power, but by my Spirit, saith the Lord casion, that, along with her hatred of of hosts," was this performed. “ To the Papistry, and her determination that it Puritans we are indebted,” testifies that should " not grow," she was resolved to too courtly historian, David Hume, root out" Puritanism, and the favour- | " for the preservation of those principles ers thereof !” Alas! how mistaken was which now form the glory of our laws the haughty Princess, and how inade- and constitution.” And if so, undoubtquate was she, with all her appliances, edly for all that the Protestant churches to such a task! As with the ancient within these realms have, since that Israelites, so with them: “ the more time, been enabled to do for the cause they were afflicted, the more they grew." of Protestant truth, the kingdom of Her proceedings, and those of her abet- | Christ, and the good of mankind, in tors, were productive of just those re the world. sults which all who study the philoso And now, how can we sufficiently phy of human nature, and the principles admire the wisdom and goodness of of vital godliness, could have foretold. God in raising up and qualifying such There is a tendency in the one to resist, men for “the good fight of faith,” and and in the power of the other to over- supporting them in the arduous services come, all that is done in opposition to they were called to render, and in the it; and as surely as the principles perilous conflicts they had to sustain, of the Puritans were founded on the at a time when the interests of our unalterable verity of the word of God, native land, and of Protestant truth the rights of conscience, and the in- and holiness in it, required them ? alienable freedom of man, so sure was Had their perceptions been less vivid it that those principles, and their advo- of the sacred importance of principle, cates, would multiply and grow. They truth, and conscience; had their coudid. All the devices of Popery, or of a rage been less firin; had their zeal Protestantism half moulded and guided been less fervent; or their love to God by its genius, could not suppress them. and man been less powerful than it was, At the conclusion of her reign, they they had sunk under their heavy woes, were far more numerous and powerful they had flinched in the day of trial, than at the beginning; and although and the precious cause of the purity multitudes had taken shelter on the free and liberty of the gospel had perished shores of Holland, and the May Flower with them. “ Had the Puritans of the was preparing to waft away more across sixteenth and seventeenth centuries,”

observes an intelligent writer of the legacy to the church and to the world, present day, “ been common men, how of which, as Englishmen and Protesteasily might they have escaped the ants, we may all justly be proud,-a fetters and dungeons, and various forms legacy of suffering "for conscience of martyrdom, which they endured. sake,” of faith, of prayer, of principle, It was only to do what thousands of and of bright example. The nearer others did; it was only to make con we can resemble them, and the more science bend to authority and custom. assiduously we tread in their steps, the They might in one moment have pro- better will it be for our own souls, and fessed to believe what they did not for the gospel of Christ in the world ; believe, and promise to do what God and the farther shall we verge from had forbidden, and then they might Rome, and from all sympathy with have been quiet in their own homes, Puseyite or Papal infection of the and many of them might have been church of God. These are not the carls, and dukes, and dignitaries in times for the Puritans to be forgotten, Church and State. But these holy men or for their principles to be cast into acted from higher principles. These oblivion. Their spirit cultivated now, daring spirits, trained in the fires of their vigilant solicitude awake and persecution, were not afraid of death. active at the present time, would do Cæsar, at the summit of his power, more to secure the ark of God, and the with all his victorious legions, could institutes of bis worship, pure from the not have subdued their more than innovations of men, than all the proRoman heroism. He might have tests of ecclesiastical rulers, or the enhewed them limb from limb, but every actments of all the civil powers that one of them would have died a con

be. We want only the mind of those queror.

Had those men bowed before renowned heroes of our British Israel the storm that beat upon them, what to whom we have now referred (and would the world have been in the nine- they existed at that day both within teenth century? Shrouded in moral and without the Establishment), to proand political darkness. So far as we mote the more rapid progress of spican judge, the pre-eminent advantages ritual piety, of Christian union, and of of this age are owing, under God, evangelical charity among us; and chiefly to the spirit of the Puritans. then the emissaries of Rome would And what was the secret of their return to the centre of their despotism energy? They acted not merely for the unladen with spoils, and the interests present moment, as too many of us do, of Protestant truth, and of the church but for hereafter. They acted for God, of the Redeemer in our land, would be for posterity, for eternity.”

uninjured and secure. The spirit of Such were the men, such their doings, the glorious Puritans, which was one guch their sufferings, in the cause of of indomitable opposition to Rome, and human liberty, Divine truth, and "the no compromise with her; the principles great salvation." How much do we for which they suffered, and for which owe them!

How affectionately and many of them died, would raise up among reverently should we think of them! us a host of defenders and warriors, “ Other men have laboured, and we against which all the assaults of the enter into their labours." There is Papacy would be but as the touch of an not a Dissenter nor a Churchman in insect's wing against a wall of brass, or the present day but is indebted to them. as the harmless waves which dash and Let us be willing to confess our obliga- die upon the shore. Then might wesing, tions, and to render honour where nor fear to have our song of triumph honour is due. They bequeathed a turned into the wail of defeat, “The



Lord of Hosts is with us; the God of
Jacob is our refuge."
"Then let our souls in Zion dwell,
Nor fear the wrath of Rome and hell;
His arms embrace this happy ground,
Like brazen bulwarks built around.

"God is our shield, and God our sun:
Swist as the fleeting moments run,
On us he sheds new beams of grace,
And we reflcct his brightest praise."

M. C.


I. REVELATION. CHRISTIANITY,” he observes, at page | heaven conscious of the same thing? 113, “like every other religion, consists How, then, can that be a proper deessentially in a state of man's inner finition of Christianity as a subjective consciousness, which develops itself in- state of the human soul, which, without to a system of thought and activity only altering a single term, expresses things in a community of awakened minds. -- so different? Must not the subjective Apostolical Christianity consisted essen state of an angel, and that of a soul tially in the religious consciousness of redeemed by the blood of Christ, and the first great Christian community.” living by faith on the Son of God, be

Now, we affirm, that Christianity and essentially different? Yet this differ. Apostolical Christianity consist in more ence is completely merged in the dethan these, and that they have a dis- finition. He overlooks the cardinal tinct existence independent of the fact, that the substratum of the Chrisminds that receive them. Clear and tian consciousness is a sense of sin; palpable as this distinction is, and re and its essence that peculiar attitude cognised even by Mr. Morell himself, it which the soul assumes towards Jesus is almost instantly disregarded, and his Christ, expressed by the one word, whole philosophy of religion is based faith. on the implicit denial of this obvious He then defines Christianity objectfact.

ively, as“ that religion which rests upon Ho defines Christianity subjectively, the consciousness of the redemption of

that form of religion in which we the world through Jesus Christ.” We are conscious of absolute dependence are puzzled with the terms of this deand perfect moral freedom being har- finition. What does he mean by the monized by love to God.” It is some- redemption of the world?” The phrase what remarkable that, in framing a has a definite meaning in the Bible, definition of Christianity, he did not and in the language of evangelical think of going to the only book that Christendom; but we look in vain for authoritatively describes its nature. this, or, indeed, any distinct meaning And it is still more remarkable, that he of it, in the work before us. has given us a definition which really charily told that its “nature and extent does not define it at all. We have, in cannot be decided in a general definifact, scarcely a single peculiar element tion.” Again : what is meant by a conof Christianity brought out in this de- sciousness of this redemption? Does finition. Was not Adam in Paradise it mean what old-fashioned people call conscious of absolute dependence and faith? If not, what exactly does it perfect moral freedom, harmonized by mean? We are forced to say, that love to God? Are not the angels in there is a sort of cuttle-fish obscurity


We are

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