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at the temple. The Brahmins, of course, A little beyond this is also a little level would not allow us to go down to the yard ground, which is used for the erection of huts, where the temples are, nor did we care for do- formed of branches of trees, at the season ing so. Hideous images were in front of the when the greatest concourse of pilgrims takes teinple and cut in the walls. In the temple place; these, and the caves, are the means of itself is a ling, or black stone, the object of protecting hundreds of the wretched pilgrims devotion. All pilgrims, who visit this place, from the rigour of the climate, and of thereby present some offering. One of our men, who preserving their lives. The natives call a earns four rupees a month, offered here four cave Oodar, and bave added Bhim; for they ánás, at Gaunu Koond eight ánás, as much at say that Rajah Bhim, with his host, occupied Kidarnath, and nine ánás at Budrinath, and, them for a time. The hills in the background I believe, at some other place at least three are on the left side of the river Kedar Ganga. ánás, so that he had offered one-half of his The glen is very narrow and precipitous, so monthly wages to the temples. If supersti. much so that one could throw a stone across it tion has such a power, how great the influence to the other side of the hills. We shot a deer that the true faith of Christ ought to exercise here across this glen, wbich was grazing on on the hearts and lives of its professors!” the other side. Considering that the moun
tains on cach side are often nearly perpen"We left Tree Jogee early on the next dicular, rising to the height of five or six morning, and breakfasted at a place called thousand feet, it appears next to impossible Gauru Koond. Here is a hot spring, which that they could be clothed with beautiful flows into a tank of about twenty feet square. forests up to the highest line of trees, but In this tank all pilgrims bathe, without any such is the case. There are oak, rhododendistinction of caste. Before bathing, every dron, yain, and, towards the summit, pine one, whose father and mother are dead, shaves
and cypress trees. We pitched our tent close his head and beard, and makes some offering to this spot, but had a very narrow space on for the dead. We could scarcely recognise the slope of the hill for a lodging; however, some of our people after undergoing this by digging a little away from the side of the operation, they presented so grotesque an ap- hill, we got as much room as the width of pearance. The scenery from Gauru Koond our tent required. Near to our pitchingto Bhim Oodar is exceedingly grand. The ground there was a dangerous snow bridge, mountains are precipitous, and there are nu- over which the pilgrims had to pass. This merous cascades, one of which falls about a
snow bridge was hollowed out beneath by a thousand feet perpendicularly down from a precipitous mountain stream, and over it was precipice, in a white line of spray--a truly a narrow causeway, which slopes outward tomagniticent object. The road winds along wards the roaring torrents below. The day the side of the lulls, sometimes cut into the before we arrived here, an old woman had rock, sometimes like a bridge built over a slipped down this narrow path, and was inprecipice, now close to the brink of the river, stantly carried away by the torrent beneath then eight hundred or a thousand feet above a large bed of snow, wliere no human power it; innumerable little streams shooting out could save her. We spoke to the Pandas or from their sources, and tumbling down from temple servants, whose business it is to look rock to rock, on both sides of the glen, into after the roads and bridges, concerning this the roaring and foaming river below. Occa- accident, but they very coolly remarked that sionally you catch in front a glimpse of the it was a piece of good fortune for this enormous snowy mountain of Kedar, at the old woman, that she had thus died on her sight of whiclı every other object is forgotten. way to Kidarnath, having at once obtained
" About one o'clock, P.M., we reached our salvation. As the summits of all the mounhalting place, Bhim Ooda
There are a tains around us were covered with snow, and great number of natural caves in the rocks, much snow also in the bed of the river, it was which the pilgrims have improved by excava- very cold in the evenings and through the tions, and these are used as resting places for night. But having rolled a few large pieces them, between Gauru Koond and Kidarnathi. of wood towards our tent, we made a huge
fire, which was a great comfort to us in this wilderness." voi
“The roaring stream, on the brink of which we had pitched our tent, occasioned us a restless night. We breakfasted at eight, and started for Kidarnath. We left our tent and all the baggage at Bhim Oodar, as none of the pilgrims stay over night up at Kidar. nath, on account of the excessive cold and accumulation of snow. We had to climb and walk over three or four miles of deep
We soon reached the limit of the forest line, where the character of the scenery undergoes a disagreeable change. Emerging from the beautiful forest, you enter the region of bleak rocks, covered with ice and snow. About twelve o'clock we arrived at an open valley, surrounded on three sides by huge mountains. In this glen the temple of Kidar stands. Half a mile before reaching the temple, we had to cross the Kedar Ganga, which issues out of the snow, and is only a very short distance visible, and then disappears again beneath the snow. Though this river is as cold as ice, yet a great many of the pilgrims bathe in it. A little further in advance, between the river and the temple, is a small house, built over a hot spring, in which all pilgrims bathe preparatory to their presenting themselves before their idol at the temple. The temple, which is dedicated to an incarnation of Seva, is a substantial edifice, built of stone handsomely carved. The top of the temple is surmounted by gilt balls, which give it a brilliant appearance. This present building has only recently been completed at the expense of Kajee Amer Sing and his family. The temple (see Engraving, page 249) stands about 12,000 feet above the sea, and the snowy mountain which overhangs it tises 12,900 feet more; the total altitude, therefore, of the Kidarnath Peak, is 24,900 feet above the sea. These mountains, the Pandas say, consist of gold and alabaster, on which Siva and his wife Parvati reside. When conversing with them about this fiction, they
said, that to sinful men these mountains appear to be nothing but snow and ice, but in reality they are gold. The scenery here is awe-inspiring; as far as the eye could reach nothing but snow, and ice, and huge glaciers. In the sketch you see, on both sides, in front of the temple, what appear to be little hil. locks: these are the roofs of rows of houses still buried under ten to twelve feet of snow. In winter the temple is submerged in the same way. I have endeavoured to represent some pilgrims going up to Kedar, and among them a rich Hindoo, who is carried in a Jampán by four men. Another is carried in a basket on the back of a hill-man. Near the bridge is a blind man led by another. The most devoted of the pilgrims walk barefooted over the snow—so our Pandit did. The num. ber of pilgrims visiting this place is in some years from fifteen to twenty thousand. A few annually devote themselves to destrue. tion there, either by precipitating themselves from the summit of a particular rock, or by penetrating into the Himalaya till overwhelmed in the snow. The greater number of these pilgrims come from very distant places. Rajputáná, Gwalier, Panjab-ill. One man we met, who came from Cutch; he travelled through central India, up to Gango. tri, down again to Sreenagar, thence to Kidarnath, and he said he intended to visit Budrinath, and down again to Allahabad, Benares, Gaya, to Juggarnath, from which place he intended to return home. He had already been more than seven months on his journey. He was an old man, and had seven children at home. The Rawal, or chief priest, of this temple is invariably a native of the Malabar coast, and the Limgam sect; he does not however, live at Kidarnath, but at Okinath, three marches below that place. More than fifty villages belong to the temple, the revenues of which the Rawal draws. We did not stay long at Kidarnath, having got very wet feet from walking in the snow. About three o'clock we reached Bhim Oodar again in safety, but quite knocked up with fatigue."
MISSIONARY PROGRESS IN INDIA. In former numbers we have taken occasion to refer to the decisire testimony borne by the advocates of Hindooism to the fact, that not. withstanding all their efforts to stay the progress and lessen the influence of Christianity, its great leading truths have, through the teaching of the Missionaries, become extensively known among the rising, generation of India. Seeing that they cannot deny the evidence of facts, the friends of the ancient superstition now resort to the artful, but stale device of attacking the Christian faith with the weapons of the infidel writers of Europe.
'? Ito In illustration of these remarks, we have the pleasure to give insertion to the following article, from the Friend of India of the 12th of August, ult., and nothing can be more satisfactory than the admissions made by the Hindoo writer, as quoted in the article, with regard to the actual progress of Christian light and knowledge :
“A number of educated Hindoos, in de- where the religion of Jesus is found to form spair of checking the progress of Christianity the national faith.' by the ordinary weapons of calumny and " It would scarcely be possible to bear persecution, have resorted to the more civil. stronger testimony to the zeal, activity, and ized expedient of attacking its doctrines at success of the Missionary body than is con. the root. They have commenced the pub. tained in these few lines. They indicate a lication of a monthly periodical filled with profound conviction on the part of the Hin. extracts from infidel writers, which they are doo community, that their strongholds are no endeavouring to circulate as an antidote to longer impregnable, that the ground has been the teaching of the Missionaries. We have
mined beneath their feet, and that the movenot the slightest intention of admitting a po- ment may commence at any moment which Iemical discussion into these columns, but we
will terminate in the subversion of the system cannot allow the admissions with which they
which they have surrounded with so many preface their objections to pass without a safeguards. The feeling of indifference alword of comment. They say:
most approaching to contempt with which " . The vigorous exertions of the preachers
Missionary effort was once regarded, las of the gospel have tended to spread widely given place to that vague alarm which is the the knowledge of the Christian religion among forerunner of gratifying success. It is felt the natives of India: these can hardly be found
even by those who are most wedded to their an educated Hindoo that knows not something about it. They leave nothing untried that
own superstition, that the cause of which the can efficiently contribute to its propagation.
Missionaries are the pioneers is advancing By means of schools, sermons, lectures, offer- rapidly, and that with whatever rigour - the ing handsome prices to successful essayists, external observances of Hindooism may be and other indirect measures, they insidiously maintained, its' vital strength is rapidly decause the youths of this country to be initia
clining. They dare not rely upon the vigour ted in the doctrines of Christianity. The labours of the Missionaries, it must be con.
of idolatrous attachment in the rising generafessed, have been in this respect, to a certain
tion, and are consequently compelled to search extent, crowned with success, though in pro- for new weapons, and to place themselves in ducing conviction on the mind of the Hindoo an attitude of defence, instead of depending population in regard to the soundness of the
solely upon the vis inertice which has so long claims of their religion, they have not met
befriended them. They occupy very much with equally happy results. But when it is found that the acquaintance of the people with the position held by paganism in the time of the subject of Christianity has grown so gene
Diocletian-not yet defeated, but fairly frightral, and that they have got it, with some en. ened into a fierce, spasmodic activity most lightened exceptions, of course, through no, favourable to the progress of truth. The other medium than that of its advocates, it is
admissions of weakness do not come from one exceedingly desirable that they should be made aware of what is said against it by
quarter alone. We quoted recently from the eminent men born and educated in countries Bhaskur, the statement of a moderáte Hindoo
that the rising generation care nothing for the prejudices of antiquity. The Vedantists, who have themselves abandoned the essential pe. culiarities of Hindooism, are also beginning to feel that their attitude is insecure, and manifest a bitterness of spirit very different from the tone of triumph they at first assumed. There are signs on every hand that we are witnessing the beginning of the end.
“ We make these remarks not so much for the benefit of our readers in India, to whom the facts are sufficiently patent, but for those in England who are of course able to perceive only the external signs of Missionary progress. We have observed with regret, that at the great May Meetings of the metropolis there was a disposition among some of the principal speakers to assume a defensive attitude in respect to Indian Missions, as if
they felt that the striking manifestations of improvement in the islands of the West Indies and the South Seas, in Africa and New Zealand, were wanting in Hindostan. Such run
an attitude is totally uncalled for, and proceeds, we believe, mainly from the difficulty of making Englishmen understand the enormous strength of circumstances-if we may be al. lowed the expression--which environs an old superstition long after it has lost its vitality. The forest is still standing, and they cannot from their distant point of view see that the trees have been marked, and the ground surveyed, and that nothing but the work of demolition remains to be accomplished. Meanwhile, it is well that they should learn from the mouths of Hindoos themselves, how far the cause which they have at he: has been silently yet steadily advancing."
FIRST IMPRESSIONS OF THE MISSIONARY. The Rev. W. Wyatt Gill, who formed one of the Missionary band on board the John Williams, on her leaving England, in July, 1851, for the Islands of the Pacific, has furnished the following lively and descriptive narrative of the incidents of the voyage between Tahiti and Mangaia, his own destination, and of his feelings and impressions on coming into contact, for the first time, with the interesting scenes of Missionary lite and labour. Under date Mangaia, March 10th, ult., Mr. Gill writes:
We arrived at Tahiti on February 4th Thiey are certainly a fine set of men. Wien after a pleasant voyage. Whilst there, I had I saw them, all I had heard and said in farcur the pleasure of accompanying Mr. Chisholm of native agency, rushed upon my memory on a visit to some distant outstations. We with two-fold force. I had, afterwards, ile travelled to Malaena (distant twenty miles pleasure of a visit to Papara, along with from Papeete) on a Saturday. On the fol- several others of our party. Upon the whole, lowing day, four services were held in the I have been delighted to find, that the people different villages on our homeward route. still hold dear their Evangelical and Protesta I shall never forget my emotions, when, for ant principles; and that French arins and the first time in my life, I worshipped with a Catholic priests had done so little, during the congregation of native Christians. With great years they have been trampling down this pleasure I delivereil brief addresses, which garden of the Lord. May our bretliren, who Mr. Chisholm kindly translated to the people. accompanied us thus far, be enabled to do I was everywhere struck by the numbers much for the God of peace and truth! in attendance, and the decorum observed.
“On February 12th, we set sail for Eim.co; When we returned to Papeete, we fonnd a and, on Sunday, the 15tlı, we landed at Huagathering of native teachers at the house of hine. In consequence of the difñculty of Mr. Howe; I think seventeen trere present. warping the vessel into barbour, for the first time, morning service was omitted. In the ashore. The first thing that struck me was afternoon we attended native service on shore; the large chapel; and the comfortable and and, at night, good Mr. Barff preached to us altogether creditable dwelling in which I am on board. We found things quite peaceful now writing. Our reception by Mr. G. Gill, here. The old queen had been discarded, and the people, has been most cordial. Such and an interesting young man had been ap- a shaking of hands--one almost wanted an pointed her successor, without a blow being extra pair for the occasion. struck. Whilst at this island, a large party “ Next day, several of us set off with Mr. of us went to visit an inland lake. After Buzacott to see the inland villages. Mr. sailing, or rather paddling over it, we rested Buzacott preached at both, to the great dein a little chapel, built on the site of a light of the natives. We found in each vilmarae (heathen temple).
lage a substantial stone chapel, and a school. “ We afterwards climbed a steep hill to see house in preparation. I suppose 600 were the old national marae, --now overgrown with present at one village chapel, and 800 at the lofty trees. Around lay the memorials of other. In the largest of these villages (Tamany a human sacrifice. As I looked at marua) I am eventually to labour. The all this, I could not but thank God for the people, of course, wish me to go at once; but mighty and happy change he has here that would scarcely be wise. It is intended wrought.
for me to reside at Oneroa with Mr. G. Gill, “ Feb. 24th, we left for Raiatea, which or near him, for three months, and then go we reached in a few hours. War had not to Tamarua; meantime paying the people yet broken out, but was continually appre
occasional.visits. We parted from our dear hended. It was interesting to visit the scene friends aboard the John Williams, on March of Williams's labours; but sad to find such the 4th, after a meeting had been arranged drawbacks to the prosperity of the work now for the Missionaries of this group in the cxisting. On the 26th we left Raiatea, and month of May or June next. I esteem it no reached Borabara. The gentlemen went slight privilege to have gained the friendship ashore with the Captain; but our anchor was of such excellent people as Mr. and Mrs. not cast. We remained ashore just long Buzacott. To them, in a considerable degree, enough to see Mr. and Mrs. Krause, and their the comfort of our voyage was owing. two young German friends. I was much “ We have received the greatest kindness pleased with the chapel. After an hour's from our esteemed fellow-labourers. I now stay ashore, we returned to our ship. The long to acquire the native language. What same evening we were sailing direct for was done aboard, with Mr. Buzacott's kind Mangaia. Very early on Monday morning, assistance, is a decided advantage. It will March 1st, its outline was visible. What a be no slight pleasure, when I can freely ex. tumult of feeling that gave rise to! A long press myself to natives on the momentous voyage of seven and a half months just ter- topics of Christianity. minated, and the scene of my future labours “ The Bibles have excited great interest. full in view. After breakfast, Mr. George All the superior copies, allotted for Mangaia, Gill came aboard. When he found there are disposed of; in all, about 120 copies have was a Missionary for Mangain, he wept tears been distributed already. The day before yesof joy, and then with the natives that accom- terday, the first case was opened in the chapel, panied him, he gave a long shout of triumph. after special thanksgiving had been oferi!. Well, I thought this was a good beginning. It is quite refreshing to observe the great inI found that my fellow-labourer had a warm terest with which the sacred volume is pe. heart, and that is something valuable. After rused by these people. May it be abundantly a wetting in crossing the reef, we all got blessed!"