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By no means alone among.Indian cities of old renown, Kanauj has shrunk from the once proud position of a metropolis into a town whose extent and importance are now most inconsiderable. If the entire

site of its ruins was ever peopled simultaneously, its habitancy may at one time have competed with that of London ; and yet our knowledge of its political vicissitudes, and even of its rulers and of its men of letters, is scarcely more than a dreary blank. It is my purpose, in the present brief paper, to collect, and, as far as possible, to connect, the detached facts, bearing on a portion of its mediaeval history, which recent research has rendered available. These facts, in no small share, are of my own discovering.

From the Harsha-ckarita* of Bzina, likewise author of the Kzi0lamban, and of the Cha1_u_i1.'-s'ata7ca,1' we learn, that, in his time, which is

' For a page or two, here, I do little more than copy from my preface to the Véaavadatizi ,- a publication not likely to meet the eyes of many readers of this Journal, or to be consulted for matters of historical fact.

1' For a story about this poem, see my preface to the Vdsavadattzi, p 8. Whother the Cha1_u_l1/'-s'ataka was written in rivalry of Ma_vi'1ra’s Stirya-s’ataka, or whether the latter was prompted by the former, each of the compositions reminds One vividly of the other. I have seen but a single copy ofthe C'hagu_i[-s’atal¢a ,- and that was very incorrect. It contains one hundred and one stanzas, and is attributed, in the epigraph, to Béna Bhatta. The beginning and end are sub

joined, without amendment : _
-an wsguii fimri igtfngtmannimi (arr-I

wit swim =1-is-J anvil: wnnnnni fir‘ fnugnnl

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=|'|'='1?m sinrnz: mag gtté {mat a: '6 is: n Its sixty-sixth stanza occurs, anonymously, in the Saraswati-kagitlzébharaqna. It is found in the Sflirngadhararpaddlaati as well, and is there ascribed to Béna.

fqgfq “W are the initial words.

* He was reigning when Hiouen-Thsang was in India, namely, between A. D. 629 and 645. Voyages des Pélerins Bouddhistes, Vol. 11., p. 247. Bins was a contemporary of Harsha, whom he first saw, he tells us, at S’rikar_itha.

Hionen-Thsang declares, that Harsha was called S’iladitya also. But of this assertion there is not an inkling in what I have seen of the Harsha-char-ita. Its truth is, indeed, open to grave question ; for the titles of none, I suspect, but Kshatriyas end in aditya ,- and the Chinese pilgrim informs us, that Harsha was a Vais'ya. For the rest, he has, pretty evidently, confounded him with another S'il£ditya, whom he terms a Kshatriya. Was Dhruvapatu,— called son-in-law of S'ilz'\ditya,—another name of Grahavarman, soon to be mentioned? Voyages, &.c., Vol. 1., pp. 111, 112, 206, and 370; Vol. II., p. 251 ; and Vol. III., p. 163. , For Dhruvasena, son of S’iladitya, see the Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. III., Part IL, p. 216.

Of this Dhruvasena, or of some relative of his, bearing the same name, and under the title of Réjé of Vallabhinagari, Lakshmivallabha, the Jaina, tells a story, in his Kalpa-drama-kalikri.

The partiality for Bauddhas, asserted, by Hiouen-Thsang, of Harsha, must, very nrobably, be received with liberal discount.

1' Not Ra_javardhana,—an all but impossible name,—as Hiouen-Thsang has it; but venially, considering the slight difi"erence, to the ear, between the syllables rafja and 'ra'j_ya. This I pointed out some years ago. But M. Julien still adheres to his authority. He says: “Lo-chefa-t‘an-na (Radjavarddliana); en Chinois,‘"* Wang-tseng Yaugrnentation, Yagrandissement du roi —Sur la suppression de cl devant dh, voyez § XV. P. 76 of Méthode pour déchifrer et transcrire lea Noms Sanscrita gui ae rencontrent dam les I/ivres Chinois, &c. Paris : 1861. In passing, there is no necessity for supposing, in this case, that d is suppressed before dh; for vardhana is just as correct Sanskrit as varddhnna.

I I have no time to dwell on the speculations of Professor Lassen touching these persons. Misled by Hiouen-Thsang’s indeterminate style of expression, he makes two kings, Harshavardhana and S'iléditya, out of one. Again, characteristically enough, he gratuitously provides, in S’|'I:iditya, a father for one Dharméditya,-—a foundling, for anything ascertained to the contrary,-wholn he elevates, and his son Jayaditya after him, to the throne of Kanauj. See the Indische Atterthumskumie, Vol. III., pp. 669-715, and 1162 ; and Voyages, &c., Vol. I., pp. 111, 112.

I write without the privilege of access to what M. Reinand has published on India as represented by the Arabian travellers.

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Whether Pushpabhiiti was, or was not, of regal condition does not appear. In religion, he was a S’ aiva ; and one Bhairava Kehzirya was his mystagogue.

Prabhékaravardhana accorded his preference, in matters of devotion, to the sun ; and Médhavagupta served him as spiritual co1msellor. His exploits, as recorded, include the subjugation of the I-I\’1x_1as, with Sindhu, Guijara, Gandhéra, Lata, and Mailava. Due allowance must, of course, here be made for exaggeration. Unquestioning eonfidenee in the representations of Indian panegyrists would entail the conclusion, that, in the bygone days of this country, everybody, above all if a patron, was constantly vanquishing everybody else.

Réjyavardhana, by command of his father, made an expedition to

the north, against the Hi'1rah1'u_1as.* Harsha followed him. While hunting on the skirts of the Himalayas, a domestic, Karangaka, brought intelligence, that the king was critically ill. Harsha hastened baek, and was just in time to see him expire. On the very day of Prabhé.karavardhana’s decease, Grahavarman was massacred by the king of Miilava, who also threw Réjya.s'ri into chains. This took place at Kanauj.

Grahavarman, son of Avantivarman, of the Maukhara family, was husband of Réjyas’ri. As we do not find it stated distinctly, that the king of Mzilava had aggressed on Kanauj, we should understand, it may be, that Grahavarman owed his death to the son of that sovereign, who, it is said, was staying at the Kanaujan eourt. Apparently, he was there in character of hostage ; and perhaps he received the assistance of troops from his home unexpectedly.

Rajyavardhana, taking with him Bhandin,1'—a subject of high rank, by whom his education had been superintended,——and an army of ten thousand horse, marched to attack the king of M zilava. Him he slew; but his own fate was defeat and death at the hands of Gupta,* king of Gauda, of which the news was brought back by Kuntala, a chief officer of cavalry. Sinhanada. and Skandagupta, the generalissimos, urge Harsha to make reprisals; and they lose no time in embarking on the enterprize.

5 As I have noted elsewhere, the Hérah1'n_1as—and they may have been the same 5; fl1eH|’1rahi'1r_ms,——are coupled with the S’akas in the Mahébhdrata, SabIui

paruan, s'l. 184-3, 1844,. See some remarks on the Hfinas in the Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. VI., pp. 528, 529.

For the Hslahiinas (P), see Professor Weber's Catalogue of the Berlin Sanskrit MSS., p. 241. _

Colcbrooke, speaking of a. King Devapfila, says: “ The tubes of Liisatn and Bhota, as well as Hun, are mentioned among his subjects, with the tribes of Gauda, Mélava, Karnéta, &c. He was, therefore, sovereign of Thibet and Bootan, as well as of Hindusthan, Bengal, and the Dekhin. It was, probably, in Tbibet that he encountered the Hnns, and reduced them to subjection." Tramactiom of the Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. I., p. 227.

The Hiinas are, thus, not recognized, by Colebroohe, as other than a people foreign to India. The notion, that there were not Hindu Hiinas, I have previously shown to be, anyhow, not established entirely beyond scope of question.

1' 1‘he minister “P'o~ni"—-M. Julien’s Biini, Bhani, and Bhani (?)—-into

The account of Harsha’s progress towards the south-east I omit.1' Before he could reach Gauda, Bhandin arrived, with spoils of the Mélavas. Enquiries were at once made for R/éjyas’ri. She had escaped from Kanauj, and had fled towards the Vindhya mountains. Thither Harsha directs his steps. He is visited by Bhfikampa, a. military retainer to some local dignitary, Vyaghraketu, son of S'arabha-ketu. These names, by the bye, seem to be coinages suggested by the fancied fitness of circumstances. Bhiikampa knows nothing of Réjyas'ri’s present quarters, and recommends, that Harsha. should seek for information at a neighbouring hamlet. She is discovered, when on the very point of burning herself.

At this juncture my least imperfect manuscript of the Harskaeharita unfortunately breaks off. With one more reference, I shall take leave of it. Among the Vindhyas, Harsha meets with a holy mendicant, Divaikaramitra by name, a Bauddha pervert from Hinduism. In his vicinity resided various religionists, whose denominations I detail; it being interesting to know what Indian sects had existence in the seventh century. There were A'1-hatamaskarins, S'wetavratas, Pzindurabhikshils, Bhagavatas,iVarr_1ins, Laukayatikas, J ainas, Kapilas, Kzinaidas, Aupanishadas, I's'\varaka1'a1_1ins, Dharmas’astrins, Pauranikas, Siiptatantavas, S’abdas, and Pancharatras.

whose mouth a long speech is put, in the Chinese, is, in all probability, my Bhm_1¢_1in, or Bhar_u_li-—to write the wordin the nominative : only Béna provides Bha1_u_iin with an alibi at the time Hioucn-Thsang sets “ P’o-ni” to harnnguing at Kanauj. 703499;, &c , Vol. 1., p. 112 ; Vol. II., p. 24-8 ; and Vol. III., pp. 435, 492.

“‘ According to Hiouen-Thsang, R-ajyavardhana fell a victim to the machinations of S’as'énka, who reigned at Karnasuvarnu. May not that potentate's full name have been S’as'{mkagupta ?

The ruins of Karnasuvarna have been discovered, by Captain F. P. Layard, about twelve miles to the south of Murshidabad. See this Journal, for 1853, pp. 281,282. ,

I have taken the last paragraph from my preface to the Va'.s'avadatia, p. 52 The sentence standing just before it, in that page, is to be expunged.

1' At Prégjyotislnaliui-a he entered into an alliance with Bliasknravurmnn, the king of K:’1m'n'1'ipa whom Hiouen-Thsang visited. Vu_yage.r, 840., Vol. 1., pp. 390, 391 ; and Vol. ‘III , pp. 76, 77.

Harsha’s immediate successors in empire have still to reveal themselves. It cannot have been a short catalogue of names that connected his own with those of the next known masters of Kanauj. Of these persons we catch a glimpse in an inscription* of which a redeciperment will conclude this paper. For two facsimiles of the original I am indebted to the kindness of our Secretary. The kings,

and their consorts, with whom that document brings us acquainted, are as follows :

Kings. Queens. I. Devas'akti."l' Bhiiyiké. II. Vatsaraja, son of D. Sundari. III. Négabhata, son of V. Mahisatzi. IV. Ramabhadra, son of N. Appa. V. Bhoja I., son of R. Chandrabhattairiké. VI. Mahendrapala, son of B. Dehanéga and Mahidevi, moVII. Bhoja. II., son of M. thers, respectively, of Nos. VIII. Vinéyakapala, son of M. VII. and VIII.

Of these, Nos. I. and VII. are called Vaishnavas; No. II., a. Mahes'wara; Nos. III., V., and VI ., devotees of Bhagavati; and Nos. IV. and VIII., heliolators.

Since Vinéyakapala bestowed away land in close proximity to Benares,I we have proof, that, still in his time, which may have been as late as the middle of the eleventh century, the jurisdiction of Kanauj§ was of great compass.

' It has already been printed in this Journal, for 1848, Part I., p. 71. For Professor Lassen's groundless assignment to Udayapnra of the kings with whom it is concerned, see my paper at pp. 195-210 of the last volume of this Journal.

1' Every king is styled, in the original, deva, and every queen, devi,--—or Oebs and (led ;-—a mode of nomenclature which the later Greek-speaking people employed very generally, and the Romans, to some extent, in the same way. The author of the Curiosities of I/iterature, had he read excursively in the classical languages of Europe, must have modified his chapter on the “ Titles of Sovereigns."

I We are informed, that the village of Tikkariké, the object of donation, was situate in the bkukti of Pratisht_ha'\na, in the vishaya of Vfmir_i:\si.

Pratishthéna once designated, no less than other places, what is now Allahabad. It was, I apprehend, at this locality, characterized--to distinguish it from other Pratishthénas,-—as S'1'is'a.’s, or Vishr_1u’s, Pratis11tlu'ma,- that Goviudachandra, of Kanauj, bathed in the Ganges, previously to issuing a patent which, a few years ago, was still in existence. See this Journal, for 1858, p 248. Bhulrti appears as a synonyms of Mega. Vide ib'id., for 1861, p. 197. Tikkariké lay on the high road opposite Kés’i. There is a Tikari about two miles from Benares, across the river.

Thus, at a period when Kasi was, presumably, the more popular name of the city of Benares, the circumjacent territory was known as Vérrinasi.

§ In the seventh century, the principality of Kanunj was one of four into which nortlreastern Hindusthau was distributed. All)irt'u\i-gives Iliad/z_ya-dee’a,

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