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Three Sanskrit Inscriptions: Copies Qf the Originals, and Prefatory Observations.—B_y FITZ-EDWARD HALL, Esounm, D. C. L.

The first among the memorials now edited has already appeared in the pages of this Journal ;* but in a. transcript so unfaithful, as to have concealed all its facts of highest value. Otherwise, it would not, certainly, have been left to the writer to discover the position of the ancient kingdom of Chedi; and, probably, the researches of some other investigator would have identified the insignificant village of Tewar with Tripuri, the Chedian capital.1"

* For 1839, pp. 481—495. Specimens of the errors which bestrew the old decipherment—a most careless and uuconscientious performance,—vvill be given in foot-notes. Nor is the English translation a. translation properly so-called.

+ Tr-ipuri is mentioned twice; Ohedi, once. The places will be indicated.

For T1-ipuri, in connexion with Réjé Vékpati, alias Munja, of Ujjayinf, see the note after the next.

At Bhelsé, within the fort, I recently found a fragmentary inscription, built into the outer wall of a modern house, and looking upon one of the streets of the town. Subjoined is all that remains of a record of which perhaps a full half

is missing :

* * * * * * * fwqwunfir =r-"srfwar wrsfwnrsw
3"? 13 imam f%rqFe?r§r=r=ri'£riw=e1rsw=-=r=s=1l
%F7i1-'i=H=l €I§§w?1'firfFr fT=rfi?irss<?mssai§szi
misisifiwvrrwn rfatwg gee erfwfi fimtian u
%<"1vi {mi fiifaw mi‘ €=ee1 féeied
Iiwrwvirzwiqifwfir sggqi srfirerw T1’ 1

is zgfiwrslfii 1:fi?rsrT€11a' rife? ‘Ii
=a1wrznvsTa"via\‘n?eTw{arq gifswawmfw: 1|
nisrtfiié ifirtrssri sfitr eftasrangiiaeza
mgiw firft-rfisvrr ?h'I1'l€Ii * * * * 1|

. The inscription begins with a doxology to Vishnu; to the lotus

of his navel; to Brahma, who originated therefrom; to Brahmzi’s son, Atri; and to the Moon, which emanated from one of Atri’s eyes. , From the Moon, by a daughter of the Sun, sprung Bodhana; and from him was born Purliravas, who had to wife Urvas’ i and Earth. Among the descendants of Puriiravas was Bharata. To him the Haihayas traced their origin ; and from these came Kartavirya, the founder of the family of Ka.lachuri.* To this family belonged the last dynasty that do'minated over Chedi.

For want of context, and from other causes, entire certainty as to the drift of this throughout is impossible. But that thus much is asserted, one may be pretty confident. Kaundinya, entitled Véchaspati, was premier of a Réja K;-ish_ rm, and dwelt on the Vetravati. After discomfiting the lord of Chedi, by slaying a S’abara named Sinha,—probably the Chedian generalissimo,———he established the district of R515, and Rodapidi, which, also, seems to denoniinate a district. Manifestly in honour of these successes, be repaired to the places where the inscription was set up, and had these lines written in praise of the sun, under the epithet of Bhailla; which divine luminary is invoked to serve as King K;-ishr_1a’s protector. Gaj:inkus'eya composed the eulogy, and Kzikuka copied it.

Apparently, Krishna's newly annexed districts were wrested from Chedi. But whether that kingdom reached, previously, as far towards the west, as the banks of the Vetravati, is undetermined. As for the antiquity of the memorial, it would be unsafe to base any conclusion on its palaeography. 1 am convinced, from inspection of inscriptions nearly contemporary, that archaism of appearance was sometimes studiously afl'ected in these records.

There is no ground to suppose, that the inscription was brought to Bhelsé from a distance. Once displaced from its original position, it must have had— such is the Indian indilference to relics of the past——no value except for the feet and inches of the tablet on which it is engraved; and the vicinity of Bhelszi does not want for stone-quarries. The sun, as Bhziilla, was, we see, once an object of worship. At first sight, the word has, certainly, a. barbarous aspect ;“‘ and yet it may possibly have been formed, anomalously, from bhé, “light” and the Vaidika root il, defined by the grammarians “to throw :” “ the thrower of light." Euphony may have doubled the final consonant. To Bhailla add is/a, and the combination is B/uiilles'a. Soften this, and we easily account for Bhelsé. Bhailla, as will be seen a few pages on, at one period gave name to a tract of country comprising twelve districts.

It may now be considered as certain, that ]3hels:i was not so called because of it occupation by Bheels. See this Journal, for 1847, p. 745.

Independently of the references in this paper, Bhéilla, the divinity, is mentioned in an inscription somewhere in Gwalior, of which I have formerly spoken. I/ide p. 7, Supra, second foot-note.

* Or, optionally, it should seem, Kulachuri. In the sixth stanza of the following inscription is Kulschuri; but Kalachuri is implied in the thirteenth stanza. The latter form is read, unmistakably, on the Gopélpur tablet. See, further note d, at p. 517 of the Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. VI.

The tablet just adverted to is said to have been transported from Karsnbel, a few miles distant from the spot where it now lies. I examined it on the fifth

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Beginning with Yuvaréja, father of Kokalla, and ending with Ajayasinha, heir-apparent, the line of kings recorded in the inscrip

of last January. Gopélpur is a small village on the Nerbudda, about ten miles from Jubulpore. Some twenty or thirty years ago, as I was informed, in an attempt made to remove the tablet, it was broken.

The space occupied by writing,--twenty lines and two-fifths,—measures about a yard and a half by two feet. The inscription is entirely in verse, and it has no date. Its left-hand portion, the smaller, contains few words any longer decipherable ; and the right-hand portion is legible only here and there. Still, the fragments which I here annex leave no doubt as to its origin.

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Here we have the names of Arjuna the thousand-armed, of Kalachuri, Karna, Yas'ahkarr_ia, Jayasinha, Gosalaf, and Vijayasinha; and these names indicate, that the inscription is Chadian, and of nearly the same time with that of the inscription printed at large in the coming pages. Whose concubine madam Jogulii was, does not appear. Nor is it known who Hal-iguna and Malhana were. Equally in the dark are we as to the bigamous husband of Mahridevi and of another lady whose name has been obliterated. Finally, a part, at least, of this memorial was composed by one Somaréja.

Malhana, I think, is a name that occurs in the Rajnfarsngini. But I write in the wilderness, with few books about me. For Malhnna of Kanauj, see Dr. Aufrecht’s account of the Vis'wa-praka's'a in Cal. Cod. Manuscript. Sanscrit. &c., p. 187.

Last Christmas I was encamped at Bilahari,-—in the Jubulpore district,—which place the common fame of the neighbourhood connects with Réjé Karna. It must once have been a town of some importance. I found there one complete inscription, in the character of twelve or fifteen hundred years ago, but well nigh completely obliterated by time and weather; and two fragments of a second

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tion is so well-known, that their names need not be repeated.* Of their family we are here furnished with a few facts additional to those which I have detailed on former occasionsrt Gangeya died at Prayéga, or Allahabad ;'_}j and we are led to infer, that his wives, amounting, in round numbers, to a hundred, underwent cremation with the mortal remains of their lord.§ Karna built the city of KarI_1'£1vati.|| The consort of Gayékarna, or Gayakarna, was Alhana; and that of Vijayasinha was Grosala. The appellations of these two ladies have hitherto been misrepresented.*

inscription, less ancient, and yet, what from discontinuity and eifacement, no longer intelligible. It mentions a Réjfi Indra.

* An inedited inscription, much mutilated, which I have very lately examined at Udayapura, in Gwalior, sets forth, that Vakpati,—whom 1 know to have been the same with Munja,—-defeated Yuvaréjé, and took possession of Tripuré. Vakpati lived in the tenth century; and a synchronism of some value is thus established. I must, however, choose a time of leisure to enlarge upon its consequences.

Bnt the inscription adverted to settles one point to which I cannot here forego reference. The father of Bhoja of Dliéré was Sindliu, not Sinha ; and he is called younger brother of Vakpati, not elder brother. Vakpati had issue in Vairisinha ; and Vairisinha had a son, Harsha. It seems probable, that the accession of Bhoja to the throne was owing to their having pre-deceased him.

At p. 205 of last year's Journal, building on what now turn out to be imperfect and erroneous data regarding the rulers of Malava, where I have spoken of Vékpati as being cousin-german to Bhoja, I ought to have written “ first cousin once removed.” But my new inscription shows, as has been seen, that he was Bhoja’s paternal uncle, Nor was Vakpati's kingdom distinct from that afterwards subject to his nephew. Nor, again, is it now to be surmised, by way of consequence, that Bho_ja’s sway extended over less than the whole of Mélava.

1 return to the king Krishna spoken of two notes back. And who was he? Bho_ja‘s grandfather’s grandfather, Krishna, or Upendra, long preceded the presumed founder of the last Chedian dynasty, Yuvaréja, who is reported to have been routed by Bl1oja’s uncle, Vékpati. It seems more likely, that we have here to do with the master of a kingdom intermediate to Ohedi and Mélava, and which was eventually absorbed by the latter.

Kokalla, of Chedi, son of the Yuvaréjé, just mentioned, is said to have defeated a Rajé Krishna in the south. A short time ago I expressed the opinion, that this Krishna. “was, not impossibly,” that ancestor of Bhoja with whom, as my fresh facts admonish, it is impossible to identify him. Future investigation may establish, that he was one with the Ki-islina of the Bhelsé inscription.

OfKokal1a I further wrote: “ Again, the Bhoja whom he is recorded to have vanquished in the west, was, without much question, one of the two kings of Kanauj who bore that appellation.” As Vakpati was of the same age with Yuvaréja, we may conclude, that it was Bhoja of Miilava, Vékpatfs nephew, against whom Kokalla, son of Yuvaraja, claims to have been successful. See last year’s Journal, p.

1- See the Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. VI., pp. 499-537 ; and this Journal for 1861, p. 318.

1 Col. Wilfor(l,—./isiatic Researches, Vol. IX., p. 108,-—cla-iming the authority of a copper-plate grant for what he states, alleges, that Gangeya had the title of Vijayakantaka, and that “ he died in a loathsome dungeon." This seems doubtful. Facts of such a nature would scarcely be spoken of, by an Indian panegyrist, of any one related to the magnate he is engaged in belauding.

§ See the eleventh stanza of the following inscription.

H In a literal translation, the twelfth stanza is as follows : “ By whom, Kama, was established, on earth, a realm of Brahma, known as Karnévati ; the foremost

A crown-village, Choralsiyi, in the pattald of Sambalzi, is transferred by the relique under notice, a, legal document. The donor is Gosala, on the part of her son, Ajayasinha, a minor. The donee is a learned Brahman, one Sidha, son of Chhiktfi, son of Siilhaga, son of Janérdanahf Six royal functionaries are enumerated in the grant; and the ofiicial designations are added of three more whose names are not specified.I

abode of happiness, a root to the creeper of Vaidika science, a frontlet to the celestial river, a stay of Bréhmans.”

The epithet of “ celestial river” is usually appropriated to the Ganges. It is given, above, to the Narmada.

Ionce suggested, that Karnivati might have been misread for Karnévali, and that the letter word might have been corrupted into Karanbel, the vernacular name of some ruins, marking the site of a once extensive city, adjoining Tewar, or Tripuri. Those ruins I have carefully explored. There is nothing to be said of them, further than that they now serve as an inexhaustible stone~quarry, and supply countless torsos of the most obscene sculpture that depravity could easily conceive.

As for the word Karanbel, its first two syllables may well be a. corruption of Kama. The ending bel is not unknown to India, in designations of places : witness Bébfibel and Ohaubebel, in the district of Ghazeepore. Sir H. M. Elliot thinks, that “ it may possibly be connected with the Mongol balu, ‘a city,’ as in Khén-baln, the city of the Khan.” Appendix: to the Arabs in_Sind, p. 2141, foot-note.

Karnévali would have softened into Karnauti, or, more likely, into Karnauli ; Karnévati into Karnauti.

“ In the forms Arhana and Gisele.

1' It is set forth, that he was of the gatm of Sévarrii, and that to this gotra appertain the Bhérgans, Chyévana, A’pnavéna, Aurva, and Jémadagnya praruras. There is a singular mistake here ; for the pravuras of the Sévarnyas are the Bhérgava, Vaitahavya, and Sévetasa.

Agotra is a family sprung from one of a certain number of Rishis, and from him denominated. Pmva/ras appear to be names of the families of certain persons from whom the founders of goiras were descended, and of the families of the founders themselves.

We read in the A’s’wala'yana-kalpa-szitra : ‘15lFl7T€lTSS§"ql7|l '5lT°."il%l' QT??? “$7 -WT. 5Wl'Fl"l1l Néréyana Gérgya, fi_(s'wal'¢'1yana’s commentator, says: wide: ‘$131’ (fit w5n?n sum? szf‘sY=iu=r1=iY?I#:=,1\Fr1ssI1fe‘§\uI<11= 115;: 33%| Baudhéyana. asserts, in his Kalpa-saitra: f3§lfil%T EIF§lII":l'(5I§flS!T §lT?{?T‘- IIiE=1'<if¥m= mil‘? K7315 ‘Ef$I§f5T$II@IE11T?Il WW HP-Z ?|Tiffl'R_.R*1'fi'|

The explanation of pravara, on which Professor Max Miiller’s view of the

'BXpl'essi0n is based, seems too artificial to demand acceptance, unless it turns

out to be strongly corroborated by other Bréhmanical authority. See A History of Ancient Sanslcrit Literature, &c., first edition, p. 386.

I Séivéchérya Bliattéraka was make’-manta-in, Vid_1/ti-deca, 1-éja-guru ,- Yajnadhara, mahd-purofiita; Kiki Thakkura, dbarma-pradhdna; Vatsaré_ja,—a pluralist, happy, or unhappy,——mahékshaprt!alil¢a, malui-pradlzaflza, arifia-lelrhin, and daa'a-mu'~lilca ; and Purushottamu, ma/1a'~sa'ndhi-vi;/rahika.

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