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heavy, not smooth like thegravel of the sea-shore or beds of rivers, but rough and many-sided, like as if stone had been broken into particles and then become somewhat rounded from having been rubbed together."‘ This gravel has no doubt given the name to another Pass, a little to the west of that of Morah which we were ascending, known as the Charat Pass. I noticed the path leading into that Pass; and have been told that it is very steep and diflicult, and only practicable for parties on foot, and animals without loads. The direction we proceeded in from’i first branched oil‘ a little to the right; and the path to the Char-at Pass lay to our left, in a direction about north-west. I had collected a small quantity of charata'i to send to you, but lost it, somehow or other, before I reached Peshawar. In Upper Suwét they call it _qitta’i, but this is the Pushto term for gravel in general. I have no doubt but that it is some mineral substance containing iron, and that it has become rounded by the action of water; for, in the winter, the ravines become the beds of torrents.

We saw numbers of partridges of two species, the grey and the black, besides a great many quail.

By degrees we had now reached the crest of the Pass; and on descending a short distance on the other side, we came to a plane tree, beneath which there is a spring of the most cool, pure, and sweet water; and round about it numerous spikenards were growing. In short, it was a very delightful spot ; and we sat down and rested for some time, and refreshed ourselves with draughts of the crystal element. This is the only spot in the Pass where water is procurable. When standing on the crest of the mountain, at the summit of the Pass, I could see the Suwat valley to the north, but could not perceive Tzirrnah, for it was screened, or hidden, by the mountains. I could, however, see the village of N al-banddah ; and by going a little on one side, in an easterly direction, I could discern Shfrkh:ina’i to the south.

We now commenced to descend into the Suwét valley. The southern side of the mountain which we had just ascended, was extremely steep; but we did not find it anything near so much so descending on the northern side, the Suwat valley being much more elevated than that of Baz-darah and Pa1a’i which we had recently

* Emery ?

passed. At the foot of the Pass, and directly under the mountains, we came to the village of Nal-bénddah, the first we reached in Suwét. It is said, that a husbandman of this place once found a number of gold coins in a well close by; but the other villagers, hearing of it, took the treasure from him, and shared it amongst themselves, after which they filled up the well, that no one should get any thing out of it in future. We asked two or three parties on what side of the village the well was situated, but they would not point it out, and said to us: “ So you are come here to discover treasure, are you! be under no concern ; for your wishes will not be fulfilled.”

After proceeding two case or three miles further on, we reached the town of Tarrnah, to the west of which there is a small stream; and on the banks of it, there is a fine grove of chinér or plane trees, about a hundred in number, all very ancient, very large, and very lofty; and here we came to a halt.

Mir ]Ealam Khan, the chief of Térrnah, came to pay his respects to the KHAN S._in1B; and after some conversation, the chief, who had been eyeing me for some time, inquired who I was. The KHAN SXHIB replied, “ He is a Mulhi, and is going on a pilgrimage to the Akhrind Sahib.” He replied, “ He is no more a Mulla than I am ; but you have made him one for the nonce.” On this the KHLN S5111}; observed, “Probably Amir Ullah Khan of Pala’i may have advised you of my being on my way into Suwat.” He laughed, and replied: “ The day you left Jamil Garrai I heard of your coming to

' pay your respects to the Akhfind Sahib. It is all well: allow no

matter of concern whatever to enter your mind; but the people of Suwat are so celebrated for their stupidity and thick-headedness, that it is necessary you should be prudent and circumspect in every thing.” The Khans or Chiefs of Tzirrnah are descendants of Hamzah Khén,* the founder of the village of that name in the Yusufzi district south of Suwrit, and about eight miles north of Hoti Mardén. He lived in the time of Khushhal Khan, Khattak; for it was his daughter that Khushhail mentions in his poem on Suwat, as having married when there, or whom he was about to marry ; and she was mother of his son, Sadi Khan. Hamzah Khan was the then ruler of Suwat, and held sway over the Samah also. It was he also fixed

*' See the extract from the poem at the end of this paper.

upon Tairrnah as the permanent residence of the Chiefs, as it was centrally situated, amongst his own clan, the Solizis of the Ba’i-zi division, By which name the people of Tarrnah are still called; but they are, sometimes, also styled the Khan-khel, or Chieftain’s clan. The Khan-khel too may be subdivided, according to what the KHAN SXHIB said. The one being the family to which the Chief de facto belongs, the whole of the males of _which are called Khans; and the other, the family to which the Chieftainship rightfully belongs, or the Chief de jure, but whose family may have been set aside, or passed over, which is merely the Khan-khel. For instance: if a Suwatibe asked to what clan a. certain person belongs, he will say the Khan-khel; but it must be then asked whether the person is a Khan or only one of the Khan-khel. If he be a member of the family of the Chief Je facto, he Wlll reply he is a Khan; but if of the family who may be the rightful claimants to the Chieftainship, but passed over, or set aside, he will say he is of the Khan-khel. The Tarrnah Chiefs defacto, who are the heads of the Ba’i-zi division, are of two families, the bar-kor, or upper family or house, and the kziz-kor, or lower family or house, in reference to Tarrnah and its dependencies above the Morey Pass, and Pala’i, and its dependencies below. These two families are descended from J alal Khan, son of Hamzah Khan, above referred to, and are always at feud. Mir ]Ealam Khan Chief of Tzirrnah, Amir Ullah Khan ruler of Pala’f, and Mamsfim Khan, their brother, who dwells at Tarrnah, are of the bar-kor; and Khurasan Khan, ruler of Zor-manddai, Sher-khana’i,

and the two Baz-darah villages, and Babfi Khan, who resides

also at Tarrnah, belong to the 70122-lcor. Mir Ealam Khan, who is considered the greatest of the Tarr-nah Chiefs, is about fifty years of age. The next in rank and consideration is Maaasiim Khan, his brother, who is about thirty years old; then comes Amir Ullah of Pala’i, aged forty, and Khurasan Khan of Zor-maudda’i who is about fifty years of age ; and Babii Khan of Tarrnah aged fifty, besides numerous children. ,

The day passed away pleasantly enough under the shade of these beautiful trees; and in the evening we went to the residence of the chief; and in his guest chamber we remained the night.

'l‘:irrnah, which is the most considerable town in Suwat, contains somewhat more than 1,000 houses, which, at the usual computation,

gives about 5,000 inhabitants. The people are Afghans of the Ba-i-zi branch of the powerful and numerous tribe of the Y1’1sufzisAbout a hundred houses are inhabited by Hindus, Paranblialis, and other traders, who also follow such occupations as that of shoemakers, smiths, barbers, &c.

The town of Térrnah lies a short distance from the skirt of the mountains bounding Suwét to the south, and on the eastern bank of the river of the same name, the Suastus of the Greeks, from which it is distant about half a mile. 8

The village of N al-Bénddah, which was previously referred to, lies at the very skirt of the Morah mountains, on a spur which has become separated from the higher range and runs about three, or three and half miles a little to the mouth of Térrnah.

After passing Nal-Bénddah, the land slopes down to the river, but not in such a manner that anything set a-going will, of itself, ride down to the river. The land of the whole of Suwat, in fact, is like a boat, the sides of the boat are the mountains, and the bottom part the land, as different materially from the mountains. The lowest land in the valley is that portion through which the river flows ; and it gradually rises until close up to the mountains. It may also be compared to the two hands placed together like as when one wishes to drink out of them; but only just sufficiently raised so as to prevent the water from running out.

I found, from what I heard of the most respectable inhabitants of Tarr-nah, that Shaykh Mali was a Yfisufzi Afghan, and that his

- descendants still dwell in Suwat; but they could not give me

full particulars as to what village they might be found in; neither couldtbey inform me regarding the place where the Shaykh was buried. Khan Kajli, or Kachli belonged to the Rarrnizi branch of the Yfisufzi tribe; and his descendants also dwell in the valley, at the village of Allah Ddaud, and will be mentioned in the notice of that place, further on.

The historical work written by Shaykh Mali is not in the possession of the Térrnah chiefs; and they, moreover, informed us, that the work would not be found in the whole country, save in the possession of Khan Kaj1'1’s family.

We now prepared to start from Térrnah towards Upper Suwfit. On the morning of the 22nd August, we left Térrnah, bending our

steps towards the north, but inclining to the east, which might be termed N. N. E. We passed the villages of Jalala, Haibat Grzim,* and Ddandakaey, and reached the mountain of Landdakaey, close at the foot of which the Suwait river runs. On this account, in the summer months, when the river is swollen from the melting of the snows towards its source, in the direction of Gilgit, the pathway, lying along the banks, at the foot of the mountain, is impracticable from the force of the stream, which foams and boils along with great violence. A road, has, consequently, been made over the crest of Landdakaey itself; but it is extremely narrow, and so frightfully steep, that one of our own party, an Afghan, and accustomed to the mountains from his childhood, passed with the greatest difliculty; for when he ventured to look down he became quite giddy. In the cold season, when the volume of water decreases, the path at the foot of Landdakaey is used. This last named mountain has no connection with that of Morah; but it is a spur of the range, of which Morah is a. part, that has come down close upon the river, or rather the river washes its base, as appears from the map, which you sent with me to be filled up. In this part of the river, there are two branches, one much more considerable than the other. The lesser one becomes quite dry in the cold season, and in the hot season has about three feet depth of water. This is very narrow, with steep banks and rugged bed, along which the water rushes impetuously. The other branch contains a much greater volume, and lies furthest from the Landdakaey mountain. On ascending the mountain, up to the end or extremity of the spur, where, in the map, I have brought the mountain and river together, the road leading along the side of the precipice is very difficult, being naturally scarped, like a wall, for about fifty paces ; and the road, if it can be so called, is built up into rough steps with slabs of stone, so very smooth, that a person is liable to slip. After this dangerous path has been passed over, you have to ascend about fifteen paces, then some twenty more in a horizontal direction; and, finally, fifteen paces, or thereabout, down again. I mentioned before, that one of our party had great difficulty in getting along: this was no‘ other than the KHAN SXHIB himself. When we came to this dangerous passage, he stopped and waxed pale; and turning towards me said: “ I die for you.” I was

“ Gram in Sanskrit signifies a village.

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