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material, one of brick stuccoed, the other of stone elaborately wrought. And yet of this form we find no type any where in India that I know of; the nearest being those Cashmere temples, but altogether different in their style and ornamentation.* They must have had a common original. \Vhere was it? It is impossible to suppose that Buddhists in India were familiar with certain styles of building, and when emigrating, or driven forth, to two very different quarters of the further East, developed a new style and that substantially the same in each case. The natural and general belief is that the emigrations from India to Java took place from the coast of Kalinga and Orissa, and the name of Kling, given by the Malays to the Indians among them, confirms this notion. But there is no resemblance whatever in the plan of these edifices to the great temples of that coast, such as Bhobaneswar, Juggurnath and Kanarak. Raffies has a tradition of connexion with Guzerat ; and it is possible that in Western India the original type may be found. I have LBV6!‘ seen any drawing of the temple of Soinnath except a very coarse one in the Society’s Journal, and in that there are some remarkable traces distinguishable of the same style. I am not able to go a step in solving the problem, but I think I show that there is a problem to solve—if there were but anybody now-a-days among us who cared about such problems lf
P. S.——Though the matter has no relation to the subject of the preceding paper except as being connected with Java, it may be interesting, with reference to the late discoveries of stone celts in Central India, which formed the subject of a communication from Mr. H. P. Lemesurier some time ago, to mention a very fine collection of celts which I saw in Java.
The possessor was Mr. Kinder Van Camarecq, the Resident of the province of Bagelén, in the south of the Island. His collection of stone weapons numbered some 200 specimens, found in all parts of
* The general period of the Javanese Buddhist temples as stated by Crawfurd (Brambanan 1266-1296; Boro Bodor 1338) is not very different from that of the great temples at Pagan (1066-1200). _ _ _ _ _ _
1' The roughness of the drawings supplied in illustration ofthis paper requires apology. I have had to prepare them under a great pressure of other work, in winding up my Indian service, and amid the duties of a laborious olhce.
the Island, but chiefly in the west. They far surpassed anything I have seen in my limited experience. Some of the hatchet-like
- weapons were fully ten inches long, beautifully finished and polished.
There were also examples of spear-heads and axes in an unfinished state, roughed out with conchoidal fractures, very like the representations of those articles which have lately made such a stir in Europe, as hearing on the antiquity of man. The most curious was the weapon represented (in Fig. 14) of which there were several examples beautifully finished, even the lines marking the bevil on each side being curves of perfect symmetry. The use of this weapon is a prob-. lem, as well as the question how a people ignorant of metal tools could arrive at such perfect workmanship.
It is worth mentioning that in every instance the back end of the weapon was left rough and unwrought.
Mr. Kinder Van Camarecq’s collection contained many bronzes and other objects of the greatest interest, and some specimens of wretched forgeries of bronzes at which the Javanese try their hands to take in‘ strangers. I will only mention two of the articles in his collection besides the celts. One was a small bell decorated in the usual Buddhist style, but the handle of which by some strange chance was formed into a genuine Iona cross.* The other was a very curious implement of some white metal, the use of which is unknown. It is shown in Fig. 16. It is -5 or 6 inches long, perforated throughout, and the bottom furrowed from end to end by parallel grooves. The natives have no idea of its use, but it is said to have some distant resemblance to a tool used in Java to polish the paper of the country.
' I regret that I have lost my sketch of this curious bell. That given in Fig. 15 is from recollection.
The Trigonometrical Survey of India, (Communicated by Major‘ J. T. WALKER.)
The following is the first of a Series of papers on matters of general interest connected with the Trigonometrical Survey of India, which it is proposed to extract from,the manuscript volumes of the Survey, for publication in the Journal of the Asiatic Society. It is taken from the Introduction to the General Report of the North-East Longitudinal Series of triangles (G. T. Survey, Vol. XV.) drawn up under the Superintendence of Col. Sir Andrew Waugh, when Surveyor General of India, by J. B. N. Hennessey, Esq., 1st Assistant G. T. Survey.
The North-East Longitudinal Series derives its name from the circumstance of its following the course of the corresponding boun
dary of British India. It extends from the valley of the Debra Dhoou to Purneah, connecting the northern extremities of the
Calcutta Meridional Series and the celebrated Great Arc, measured by Cols. Lambton and Everest, on the meridian of Cape Comorin. Its object was to form the most direct connexion practicable between two base lines of verification, one measured in Dehra Dhoon, the other in Purneah. Thus it serves to close and verify the Meridional Series, 10 in number, which lie between the Great Arc and Calcutta Meridional Series and emanate from the longitudinal triangulation, connecting the Calcutta base with the Seronj base on the Great Arc in Central India.
This is the general system followed in the triangulation of India, which thus resembles in outline the form of a gridiron. At each angle of the gridiron, a base line is measured. The outer series form the frame-work on which the inner ones depend, and are especially valuable for the data they contribute towards the determination of the great problem of geodesy, the accurate measurement of the figure of the earth. By restricting the meridional, or inner series, to distances of 60 to 100 miles apart, all the necessary data for topographical operations are obtained, at a moiety of the cost that would be incurred in throwing a net work of triangles over the whole of India after the manner of European surveys, which require greater detail than is necessary in this country.