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The Gayiil or Mit’hun (Bos FEONTALIS) I have vainly endeavoured to trace southward of Akyab; but it abounds (in the domestic state)

intelligentwood-man, stopped suddenly and dropped on his knee, a backward motion of his hand told me to be quiet, I followed his example, repeated the signal to those behind, and so we all remained still, until the leader, without venturing to look round, motioned me forward with ii finger. The nature of the groti_i1ii]c:l 8I!2ll})1l6((iI trpe togtreipeirg a;ll:arr;cer‘witlio}p_t(1(1tli: noise even of my footstep, uni reaoc iesp ir i awasi e.

“ A beautiful spectacle now opened upon us. A few bushes screened us from ii. circle of verdant herbage, which had apparently been covered with water in the rainy season, and in this little shallow basin were to be seen a herd of wild Cows quietly grazing on the rich pasture [i. e. not brow-ring, like so many Gayéls]. The herd might have numbered about sixteen or eighteen, and from the placid, unconcerned manner in which they enjoyed their food, appeared to have no sense of danger or knowledge of the proximity of any unusual intruders. Not so the bull ; when I first caught sight of him he was motionless as a statue, his bold front turned towards us, and his head and neck stretched so erect towards the sky that his nose was perpendicular with his fore-legs. He could not see us, but he evidently smelt us, though there was no wind to carry the scent in his direction. It was a hot day and a dead calm. The sight was beautiful beyond description.

“ I remained gazing at them in deep silence and admiration for more than half a minute, my double-b=.\ri'elled gun laden with balls wiis in my hand, and I could easily have brought down the bull, as he was not more than thirty yards off; but the sight was too engaging, and I let him off. On ii sudden the beantiful statue seemed to have come to the decision that there was (longer in the wind, as he set off at full gallop into the forest in the direction opposite to me ; the cows, who to the last manifested not the slightest sense of danger, left off feeding in a moment and followed their lord at full speed, the crashing of the brushwood for some time after we lost sight of them attesting their alarm. I did not know at the time what a, rare sight I was witnessing, one which I was afterwards told by an accoipplislied naturalist had not been enyoyed by any European traveller before. lhis was unfort-unate, as, had I known it, my ohgervatiloizls would have been more minute. lhe following facts, however, may be

epenie upon :—

“ The cows were small in stature, considerably smaller than the breed of Alderney [P]; their shape and figure were light and elegant; they did not possess humps, like the domestic cattle of India; they were, without exception, of the same colour, :1 light reddish-dun; their beautiful slender legs being, all four, white below the knee. The hull was rather larger and thicker-set than the cows, he had a respectable dewlap, which, together with the breast and shoulders, was covered with longer dark hair, approaching to black. I do not well remember the horns, but I am inclined to think that they were not long, or I should most likely have remarked them. Both the bull and the cows were exceedingly il§€l_{l1I'lbtl1(?llI'_OOl1,E5, which shone as though they had been subjected to care u bll y rus iing.

The above is the most detailed description that I have yet met with of the Tsoing ofthe Burmese countries, and (so for us it goes) it tallies sufliciently with B. BONDAICUS; the bull evide1itly_young, with horns not fully developed, and in progress of assuming the blackish colouring of the body.

On the coast of_the N. E. of Borneo, near Quabong, remarks Mr. Spencer St. John—--- Along this beach, herds of wild Cattle are often seen wandering, particularly on blight inooiilight nights, in search, most probably, of salt, which they are so fond of licking. All the natives dooh_ire that the species found here isk slmalllel‘ than ‘those rpondsteys IIji_i}_w_up the Limbang and Barapg. , It is very

lge y t iere may e we in s_. _ i e in the Forests of the Far East (1862), I, 2b3_. In the narrative of his Limbang Journey, the same author 1'emarks" Pigs [SUS BABBATHS] are very numerous here, and wild Cattle and Deer are also abundant." Ibui. II, 38. He designates them Tambadau, and mentions

in the hills along the Kaladyne river (which flows from the north into Akyab harbour), and thence northward through Chittagong and Tipperzi, to the Khzisya hills and ranges of mountains bordering the valley of Asam to the south, and along them eastward to the Mishmi hills at the head of that valley, where abundantly wild. The domestic herds are even found together with those of Yaks: thus Lt. K. Wilcox, in his memoir of a survey of Asam and the neighbouring countries (As. Res. XVII, 387), notices that “ Mit’huns and chori-tailed cows were grazing in great numbers ;” which indicates that the Gayal can withstand a considerably low tempera

ture for a member of its particular group, that of the fiat-horned taurine cattle of S. E.'Asia.*

The domestic humped cattle of Burma are remarkably handsome animals, though with small and commonly abnormally developed horns, that are mostly directed forward. Col. Yule notices this race as one of “ sturdy and well-conditioned red oxen.” The prevalent colour is, indeed, a chesnut or bay of various shades, or commonly a dun, as in the cows and immature bulls of B. SONDAICUS. White or pale grey cattle, retaining the black tail-tuft, so very general in India, are rare, even at Akyab, where the common Bengali type prevails. Col. Yule continues--“ These cattle, though much smaller than the stately breeds of central India and the Deccan, are considerably larger than the Bengali bullocks, and are more universally in good condition than is the case perhaps in any other country. The carts are small, and the cattle share with their masters in the exemption from everything like overwork. But probably the main reason of their good condition is, that there is no demand for milk ; the calves are robbed of no part of their natural food,”* I was much struck with the game appearance of these animals, which are as superior to the ordinary Bengali bullock as are the admirable Shan ponies to the wretched tats of Bengal (seen also at Akyab). They are longer in the body and shorter in the l-imbs than ordinary Indian cattle, more as in the humpless B. TAURUS; invariably in fine condition (as Col. Yule remarks), and particularly active and graceful in their movements, which are those of a wild animal, especially the cattle seen about the villages of the interior; and they are of Shan origin, so far as Burma is concerned, as I am assured. _

an islet which is named Tambadau Island from the occurrence of these wild Cattle upon it. Elsewhere, he mentions a piebald individual ! “ About 2 A. M., our garei [boat] being well ahead, we saw before us a herd of wild Cattle, quietly picking at a few blades of grass on a broad pebbly flat. I landed with a couple of men, to get between them and the jungle. I was within twenty yards of the nearest, a piebald, and was crawling through the tangled bushes to get a sight of him, which I could hear browsing [grazing P] near me, when there arose a snort, then a rush, and the Cattle were 01? clashing close to me, but perfectly concealed by the matted brushwood. It was the crew of one of the newly-arrived boats that, regardless," &c. &c. “ About five, we were passing down a rapid at a great pace, when one of the men touched me and pointed. I looked up, and there was a magnificent bull, three-parts grown, standing within fifteen yards of me.” Ibid, II, 162-3. Such cursory notices are all that are given by Mr. St. John I

Since the above note was printed, I have received a living two-year-old bull of B08 BONDAIOUB from Col. Phayre, for presentation to the London Zoological Society. He is more nearly akin to the Gaour, and less so to the true B. TAURUS, than I had anticipated; and is perfectly quiet and tractable. He habitually grazes. Colour that permanent in the cow, a bright chesnut-dun, with the white stocking: and oval rump-patch on each side.

* As regards the notice by Col. Low of three presumed species of wild taurine cattle in the Malayan peninsula, and that by Dr. Helfer, of three presumed species in the Tcnasserim provinces (both quoted in J. A. S. XXIX, 299), I have now arrived at the conviction that both writers intended B. GAURUB and the dilferent sexes of B. EONDAICUS, the latter supposed to be distinct animals. Of the Jungli Gem, figured M. Fred. Cuvicr, I may remark that the male und

doubtedl-y represents a hybrid between this and the humped species ; but his female would seem to be a Guyal of pure blood.

The Buffalo does not appear to be indigenous either in the IndoChinese or Malayan countries, though many have reverted to a state of wildness, as elsewhere. At Tavoy I first observed the superb domestic Buffaloes of Burma, which differ in no respect from the wild animal of Bengal : they are large and plump in condition, with well developed horns. Tavoy is famous for its Buffalo fights; and I was shown the ‘champion’ Buffalo, which had vanquished every competitor: he is a splendid creature of his kind, and so gentle that children fondled him. Near Tavoy I saw a large herd of albino Buffaloes, with about half a dozen of a buff colour intermingled. Stalking amidst this herd were about a dozen of TANTALUS LEUCOCErnanus, and numerous white Egrets (Hnnonms INTERMEDIA. of my Catalogue). The leprous-looking albino breed of Buffaloes is common also in Siam,the Malayanpeninsula, and Sumatra. I saw some immense bull Bufialoes drawing hackeries near Martaban station, that would have astonished the natives of Bengal; and many others in the interior, feeding in the forest near the Karen villages, and which are oftentimes unsafe for Europeans to approach, though quite tractable to the natives to whom they are accustomed.*

*" Col. Yule adds, in a noto,—“ I believe the aversion to milk, as an article of food, obtains among nearly all the Indo-Chinese and Malay races, including specifically the Khésias of our eastern frontier, the Géros and Négas, the Burmese, the Sumatrnn races, and the Javanese. In Chinaitself, it is also prevalent, as Sir John Bowring mentioned it in a letter on the population of China, published in the Journal of the Statistical Society. The use of milk has, however, been adopted at the Burmese Court, and the supply is furnished by some families of Kattra Brahmans, who maintain a number of cows near the capital. But it is a foreign usage.” (Narrative ofthe Mission to the Court of Ava in 1855, p. 2. Vide also J. A. S. XXIX, 286, 302, 378). Of the natives of Kandy, likewise, Sir J. E. Tennent remarks, that—“ Milk they never use, the calves enjoying it unstinted ; and the prejudice is universal, that the OOWB would die were it otherwise disposed of.” (Ceylon, II, 452- 5th edition.)

Of birds, the following new species were procured by Col. Phayre.

Gnonrunns vrmms, nobis, n. .s-. Diifers from G. Gnsnrm, (McClelland), in being wholly of a dull green colour, more yellowish towards the nape; the rump feathers crimson-tipped: inner webs of the wingfeathers dusky, with round white spots as seen from beneath, these spots being much smaller than in G. GBANTIA: tail dusky above, the feathers green-edged for the basal half, and all but the middle pair having four small whitish spots bordering the basal half of their inner webs. Bill ivory-white, save laterally towards base, where livid. Feet green. The male would doubtless differ (as in G. GRANTIA) by having a red coronal patch. From Tounghoo.

CRYPSIRINA ouoonnsm, J erdon."1' Form typical, except that the beak is much shorter than in Cu. vanmlvs, and there is no velvety frontal band as in the other: ten tail-feathers only; and the long middle pair expanding greatly at tip, as in CR. vanmus. General colour silvery pearl-grey, with a black hood and white nape; the primaries and their coverts black, the secondaries having a whitish exterior border; middle tail-feathers black, a little tinged with greyish except on the expanded tips; the graduating lateral tail-feathers albescent-greyish, with a faint tinge of brown. Bill black, the base of both mandibles, below the nasal tuft of the upper, bright yellow in the young; and feet dusky. Length about 13 in., of which tail 7% in., its penultimate feathers 1% in. less : closed wing 4-} in.: bill to gape 1 in. ; and tarse the same. Tounghoo.

" At Mergui, I was riding along a beautiful jungle-road, when, coming to a swamp, a herd of about thirty of these huge beasts rushed suddenly from the jungle, and made direct for me through the shallow water, menacing by tossing their heads and raising their tails and stamping with their fore-feet, when at last they came to a halt, one after another. I confess that I did not overmuch like the look of them, but still could not help admiring their noble appearance. To have run from them would have been to entice them on ; so I checked my pony, not to appear alarmed, and walked quietly by in front of them, they continuing to menace all the while ; after a short time I broke into a trot, and thought that I had well passed the Bulfaloes, when, looking behind, I found that I was pursued by two bulls, who were already in unpleasant proximity to my nag’s tail, their foot-lhll producing no sound on the thinly turfed sandy road. I turned suddenly round and shouted at them, when they made off right and left, to my relief and rather to my surprise. I was afterwards necessitated to repass the same herd on my return, when half a dozen of them were fronting me in the centre of the only path, though scarcely threatening as before. I thought it best policy to ride direct towards them at a fast pace, and, when quite close

_to them, again shouted aloud, whereupon they at once dispersed, trotting off

quietly into the swamp. A little afterwards I passed another and much larger herd of these wild-looking Buffaloes, but which took not the slightest notice of me. A native child will belabour them with a stick, and soon clear a passage through the herd. But they are not always to be trusted. When I was first at Moulmein a must bull tore through the main street of that town, killing one man and injuring others, and then betaking himself to the river, when the ebb-tide being at the time very strong, it was supposed that he was carried out to sea.

1' This and the next species, with some others procured at Thayet-myo, have been lately described by Dr. Jerdon in The Ibis. My written descriptions, however, of this and one or two others, were awaiting publication for a considerable time before my friend, Dr. J erdon, obtained his specimens. Of course I now adopt his appcllations.

The CR. VARIANS (also sent) is particularly common in the hills behind Moulmein ; and is one of several Javanese species that likewise inhabit the Burmese region, and have not hitherto been observed in the Malayan peninsula. Another is Pnocsus HYPOXANTHUS, (Daudin), a flock of which I observed in Rangoon (in addition to the common Bziyd, the two species associating apart), and specimens were obtained by Dr. Jerdon in Thayet-myo. CRYPSIRINA CUCULLATA is interesting, as constituting a second well-marked species of its genus, both of them being remarkable among the C01’viclous Pies for having only ten caudal rectrices.

TEMENUCHUS BURMANENSIS, Jerdon. A fine species, approaching to ACBIDOTHERES in size, the markings of its wings and tail, and also in having the skin bare under and behind the eye. Length about 9% in., of closed wing 4-} in., and tail 3 in. ; bill to gape 1% in. ; and tarse 1% in. Culmen of bill compressed and elevated above the nostrils. Head, cheeks and throat, white ; the back and scapularies pure ashy; and the lower parts vinaceous, passing to white on the lower tail-coverts : wing-primaries white at base, the remainder black ; secondaries and tertiaries, with their coverts, bronzed, and having a narrow black margin to each feather ; underneath, the wing is white on the anterior half and dusky for the remainder; middle tail-feathers brown, and black-margined like the tertiaries, the rest black-— each feather more largely white-tipped to the exterior. Bill coralcoloured, with the basal half of the lower mandible and below the nostrils black: legs and claws bright yellow. Tounghoo. Procured also at Thayet-myo by Dr. J erdon, and at Ava by Mr. W. T. Blanford.

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