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to come in two days from Bankok, and fuel (billets of wood) in quantities (about 20,000 pieces) was collected. There was a schooner of about 150 tons lying oil‘ the shore at about 50 yards distance in 5 fathoms of water, but there is a. bar, above where the schooner lay, across the mouth of the river Tsoompeon, with only 1?; fathoms over it at low water. There would be no difficulty in making wharves for large ships, and, so far as we could observe, there would be no difliculty in making roads from Ts0ompeon, to this place. We found store-houses here with a couple of 32 Pr. Carronades belonging, we supposed, to the King’s steamers, though we asked no questions about them. From the general appearance of the buildings, &c., we think it is a place not open to severe storms or heavy sea. This is confirmed by an extract from Commander Richards’ “Gulf of Siam,” taken from the Bankok Calendar, stating that “Heavy gales are unknown in the gulf.” With a view of establishing a communication across the Isthmus of Krau, it would be necessary, accurately to determine several points which would render such communication practicable with reference to the gulf of Siam, as we had ascertained in regard to our own side; this the time and commissariat at our disposal prevented us doing satisfactorily and we did not wish to exhibit a curiosity by asking too many questions which might have proved offensive to a friendly power. We made the distance from Tsoompeon to the sea shore 21 miles, making the total distance from Krau to the shore of the gulf about 50 miles.
14:. At 7% P. M. etth April we returned to Tsoompeon, surveying the river roughly; we passed Tayoung about 41 miles from the mouth a short distance up a creek which here falls into the Tso0mpeon, we were told that two vessels of some 200 tons were loading there. Tayoung is large, said to consist of some 200 houses, we had not time to land, as we wished to get back to Apay this night.
15. We arrived at Tsoompeon at 10% A. M. and after much civility, which we hereby acknowledge, from Payer Teet the Governor, who provided us with two more elephants, we started on our return through heavy rain. Slept at Apay this night (4th April). Got to Krau the next day, 5th at 4! 1?. M., passing through the streams which had swollen a little from the heavy rain, the commencement of the monsoon. Went straight on board our boat, tested the cor
rectness of the survey of the Pakchan (hereto annexed) said to have been executed by an Officer of the “Ganges” Steamer, which some fifteen years ago, was employed in conveying Captain Durand on an expedition up this river to settle a boundary question. Anchored for the night; arrived next day at noon on board the “Nemesis.”
151;. On the route from Krau to Tsoompeon we were struck with a remarkable change of geological features. We had observed, as we emerged on the plains of Tsoompeon, very marked looking abrupt hills, which, being accustomed to such in the limestone Islands of the Mergui Archipelago, we concluded were of the same group, but on closer examination they turned out to be sedimentary rocks of either the secondary or primary series, Captain Forlong inclines to think the latter, and to be closely allied to the old red sandstone group, the dip was N. E. by N. We were unable to collect specimens worthy of being forwarded. All the Islands of the gulf, that we could see, seemed of the same formation, worn into smooth rounded tops, but with perpendicular sides, some of the layers were as fine as thread, although generally half an inch thick,* all abounded in pebbles, and what Captain Forlong believes to be minute fossils. The rocks across the pass were mostly a quartzose sandstone.
16. It seemed, from our survey of the route, so manifest that a communication might be established with little comparative expense across this narrow neck of land, thus connecting the Bay of Bengal with the China sea by a route which would avoid the long, dangerous, and circuitous passage by the Straits of Malacca, that we thought it Worth while to enter into a few calculations by which might be shown in figures the comparative advantages of the two routes. The following is the result, one which, to our minds, makes a further examination of the Isthmus of Krau worthy of immediate consideration by our Government in communication with that of Siam, as likely to prove of advantage to each, and of enormous value to commerce and the travelling world in general. It would relieve the commercial world to a great extent of the enormous steam charges which keep up the prices of the goods which form the staples of trade between Europe, India and China, and which render travelling almost prohibited, and it would open up and introduce a hardy and hard-working population (the Chinese) into provinces which contain mineral Wealth in known and unknown quantities; wealth, which merely requires labour to develop to any extent, and in search of which the Chinese even now find their weary way, but who would then come in large numbers, especially as the new treaty allows them to emigrate with their families. Much and valuable information regarding the great mineral wealth of these provinces may be found in some interesting papers by Colonel Tremenheere, Bengal Engineers, and Professors Helfer and Oldham.
a new and interesting country to the geologist and the botanist, [* Sic cw conject. The copy received has 1} “ t-hick. EDs.]
17. The Tables annexed I. II. & III. show the economy of fuel, establishment, and time, which would be arrived at by establishing easy communication across the Isthmus. A canal we consider out of the question. A railroad is not only quite practicable, but likely to cost less per mile than any other in India. 1st. Table I. exhibits the costs of the present line
of steamers per month, without taking into consi
deration the expenses of idle vessels, or any inci
dental expenses whatever, merely the cost of fuel
and establishment per trip, for running steamers,
as kept up by the P. and 0. Company from Ceylon
via Singapore to Hong-kong, 39,700 0 0 Table II. the cost of ditto, (kept up we believe by
Messrs. Apcar &. Co.) direct from Calcutta to
Hong-kong via Singapore, Table III. the ditto, of ditto, kept up by C. &. B. S.
N. Company from Calcutta to Maulmein via Akyab
and Rango0n,............................................. 11,900 0 0
40,200 0 0
Total Cost of present arrangement per month, 91,800 0 O
2nd. Table I. shows again the cost of a line run
ning from Ceylon to Krau and from Gulf of Siam
(Tayoung) to Hong-kong, Rs. 32,900 0 0 Table II. the cost of a line from Calcutta viii Akyab,
Rangoon, Maulmein, Tavoy, Mergui and Siam and
thence per China-line to Hong-kong, 17,300 0 0 Total cost of two lines which would answer all the
3rd. The -saving therefore which would be derived by commerce and the travelling World, by establishing a communication across the Isthmus of Krau (provided it be quick and efficien.t,) by the mere calculation of saving of fuel and establishment of running steamers, will be represented by the sum ofilts. (91,800—50,200)= 41,600 per mensem, or Rupees 499,200 per annum which sum at 5 per cent. would give a capital of 100 lakhs, or one million sterling.
4th. The Tables do not show, however, the vast further saving which would accrue, by running two lines of steamers instead of three in the Bay of Bengal, and one line instead of two on the China side of the Siamese and Malay Peninsula; the reduction of the number of steamers, the saving thereby of steamers lying idle while not running, the concentration of coal depots, and many other incidental expenses which of course increase according to the number of lines running.
5th. The Tables again do not show what_ a vastly more profitable undertaking it would be to run one throuyh line from Calcutta via Akyab, and Rangoon to the Pakchan, and thence to China, instead of one with a terminus inland at Maulmein getting no traflic as compared with that which would open up to the tlzrozagh line, and another line direct from Calcutta to China, only touching at the Straits’ Settlements. '
6th. The 12 millions trade (if positive, but which is probably only a transit trade) of Singapore, Malacca and Penang, and the 14} millions of Netherlands-India, could easily command a steamer of its own, to run alternately on either side of the Malayan Peninsula, communicating with Krau on the one side for the Bay of Bengal, and Tayoung on the gulf of Siam, on the other, for China and Europe, as shown by dotted green lines on the general sketch map. It may occur to some, that the cost of this steamer should be deducted from the saving calculated in the 3rd clause. We think -not, but there is much more than sufficieut for it; and we may place this cost against that of the other private steamers, between Calcutta and Hong-kong via Singapore, not included in our calcu
lations. 7th. From Point de Galle to the five-fathom anchorage in the
Pakchan river, and from Tayoung, in the gulf of Siam to Hong-kong, Table I. shows to be 281 hours’ steam (more or less does not matter
for calculation, as the same rate of steaming is taken for all) while the route viii Singapore is shown to be 337 hours’ steam. Vi/e calculate, as hereafter shown, that the passage across the Isthmus of Krau would not ordinarily occupy more than twelve hours, with a. liberal allowance of time.
WVe have therefore a difference of time in favour of the Krau route [337 + 12 I 281 -l- 12] 56 hours. This is of much importance when we hold in view the costly nature of the produce and goods conveyed. It has also long been a desideratum to have a weekly communication with England, but thb immense cost of putting on four steamers per month from Calcutta to Aden has hitherto, we suppose, deterred the P. & O. Company as they would thereby obtain no extra trade. \
But supposing the communication through Krau established, the extra trade that would be brought by the extension of the line of P. & O. Co.’s vessels to Krau, would pay for an extra steamer between Point de Galle and Aden, by means of which by making it meet the Bombay mail at Aden by bi-monthly steamers from Ceylon viii Krau, the communication between England and Calcutta would be weekly; twice per month by the P. & O. Co.’s line via Point de Galle and Madras, and twice by the vessels via Krau to Calcutta, thus providing for the whole of the Eastern Coast of the Bay of Bengal viii Krau, as the P. & O. Co. does for its western Coast via Madras. The time from Ceylon to Calcutta viii Krau (by the direct steamer as hereafter mentioned) would be as follows.
Ceylon to Krau, 126 hours.
Or 9% days,... ... 228 Nearly as quick as the route via Madras. 8th. By Table II. including 3 hours’ stoppage at Akyab, 12 at Rangoon, 12 at Maulmein, 3 at Tavoy (Mamoogan) without going up the river, and 3 at Mergui, (the trade of the two latter places being about 5 lakhs), the number of hours between Calcutta and Krau by those places is shown to be (143 + 33) 176, while the further progress to China. from Tayoung would be about 153 hours, or with 12 hours across the Isthmus of Krau, a total distance