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I propose that the work be entrusted to Colonel Cunningham, with the understanding that it continue during the present and the following cold season, by which time a fair judgment of its utility and interest may be formed. It may then be persevered in, and expanded, or otherwise dealt with as may seem good at the time.

Colonel Cunningham should receive Rs. 450 a. month with Rs. 250 when in the field to defray the cost of making surveys and measurements and of other mechanical assistance. If something more should be necessary to obtain the services of a Native subordinate of the Medical or Public Works Department competent to take photographic views, it should be given.

It would be premature to determine how the results of Colonel Cunningham’s labours should be dealt with, but whilst the Government would of course retain a. proprietary right in them for its own purposes, I recommend that the interests of Colonel Cunningham

should be considered in the terms upon which they may be furnished to the public.

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proposed investigation of the Archzeological remains of Upper India. _

During the one hundred years of British dominion in India, the Government has done little or nothing towards the preservation of its ancient monuments which, in the almost total absence of any written history, form the only reliable sources of information as to the early condition of the country. Some of these monuments have already ‘endured for ages, and are likely to last for ages still to come; but there are many others which are daily suffering from the effects of time, and which must soon disappear altogether, unless preserved by the accurate drawings and faithful descriptions of the archwologist.

2. All that has hitherto been done towards the illustration of ancient Indian history has been due to the unaided efforts of private individuals. These researches consequently have always been desultory and unconnected, and frequently incomplete, owing Partly to the short stay which individual oiiicers usually make at any particular place, and partly to the limited leisure which could be devoted to such pursuits.

3. Hitherto the Government has been chiefly occupied With

the extension and consolidation of Empire; but the establishment of the Trigonometrical Survey shows that it has not been unmindful of the claims of science. It would redound equally to the honor of the British Government to institute a careful and systematic investigationof all the existing monuments of ancient India.

4. In describing the ancient geography of India, the elder Pliny, for the sake of clearness, follows the footsteps of Alexander the Great. For a similar reason, in the present proposed investigation, I would follow the footsteps of the Chinese pilgrim Houen Thsang, who in the 7th century of our era, traversed India from West to east and back again, for the purpose of ‘visiting all the famous sites of Buddhist history and tradition. In the account of his travels, although the Buddhist remains are described in most detail with all their attendant legends and traditions, yet the numbers and appearance of the Brahminical temples are also noted, and the travels of the Chinese pilgrim thus hold the same place in the history of India, which those of Pausanias hold in the history of Greece.

5. In the North Western Provinces and Behar the principal places to be visited and examined are the following, which are also shown in the accompanying sketch map :—

I. Klzalsi, on the Jumna, where the river leaves the hills. At this place there still exists a large boulder stone, covered with one of Asoka’s inscriptions, in which the names of Antiochus, Ptolemy, Antigonus, Magas, and Alexander are all recorded. This portion of the inscription, which on the rock of Kapurdigiri (in the Yusufzai plain,) and of Dhauli (in Cuttack) is much mutilated and abraded, is here in perfect preservation. A copy of this inscription and an account of the ruins would therefore be valuable.

II. Hurdwar, on the Ganges, with the opposite city of Mayurpoora.

III. Mundorc, Sumbhul, and Saswan, in Rohilkund.

IV. Karsana near Khasgunj.
V. Sunkissa, between Mynpoorie and Futtehgurh, where it is

known that many remains of Buddhism still exist. This was one of

the most sacred places amongst the Buddhists. VI. M'uttra.-—In one of the ancient mounds outside the city, the

remains of a large monastery have been lately discovered. Numer

ous statues, sculptured pillars, and inscribed bases of columns have been brought to light. Amongst these inscriptions, some, which are dated in an unknown era, are of special interest and value. They belong most probably to the first century of the Christian era and one of them records the name of the great King Huveshka, who is presumed to be the same as the Indo-Scythian King Hushka.

VII. -Delln'.—The Hindoo remains of Delhi are few but interesting. The stone pillars of Asoka and the iron pillar are well known, but the other remains have not yet been described, although none have been more frequently visited than the magnificent ruined cloisters around the Kutb Minar, which belong to the period of the great Tuiir dynasty.

VIII. Kano1{]'.——No account of the ruins of this once celebrated capital has yet been published. Several ruins are known to exist, but it may be presumed that many more would be brought to light by a careful survey of the ite.

IX. Kansambi.——On the Jumna 30 miles above Allahabad. The true position of this once famous city has only lately been ascertained. It has not yet been visited, but it may be confidently expected that its remains would well repay examination.

X. .Alla7zabad.—The only existing relics of antiquity that I am aware of are the well known Pillar of Asoka and the holy tree in one of the underground apartments of the Fort. Many buildings once existed, but I am afraid that they were all destroyed to furnish materials for the erection of the Fort in the reign of Akber.

XI. To the south of Allahabad there are the ruins of Kajrailza and .Zl[a7zoba, the two capitals of the ancient Chandel Rajas of Bundelkund. The remains at Kajrzilza are more numerous and in better preservation than those of any other ancient city that I have seen. Several long and important inscriptions still exist which give a complete genealogy of the Chandel dynasty for about 400 years.

XII. Benares.—The magnificent Tope of Sarnath is well known; but no description of the Tope, nor of the ruins around it, has yet been published. At a short distance from Benares is the inscribed pillar of Bhitari, which requires to be re-examined.

XIII. Jaunp0o1".—-Although the existing remains at this place are Mahomedan, yet it is well known that the principal buildings were originally Hindoo temples, of which the cloisters still remain almost

unaltered. These ruins have not yet been" described, but from my own success, in the beginning of this year, inrdiscpvering a Sanskrit inscription built into one of the arches I believe 'a‘§ careful examination would be rewarded with further discoveries‘: . interest illustrative of the great Rathor dynasty of Kanouj. '


XIV. 1111/zobad.—The ruins of Ajoodhya have not been described.

Numerous very ancient coins are found on the site, and seve1‘:a*l.,'; _

ruined mounds are known to exist there ; but no account has yet been

published. As the birth-place of Rama, and as the scene of one of the early events in Buddha’s life, Ajoodhya has always been held equally sacred, both by Brahmins and by Buddhists, and I feelsatisfied that a systematic examination of its ruins would be rewarded by the discovery of many objects of interest.

XV. SrZioasti.—Even the site of this once celebrated city is unknown, but it may be looked for between Fyzabad and Goruckpoor.

XVI. Kapilavastu.—The birth-place of Buddha, was held in special veneration by his followers; but its site is unknown.

XVII. .Kusina_gara.—The scene of Buddha’s death, was one of the most holy places in India in the estimation of Buddhists; but its site is at present unknown. It may, however, confidently be looked for along the line of the Gunduk river. At Kapila and Kusinagara, the scenes of Buddha’s birth and death, numerous Topes and stately monasteries once existed, to attest the pious munificence of his votaries. The ruins of many of these buildings must still exist, and would no doubt reward a careful search. At Mathiah Rridkialz, and Bakra, in Tirhoot, stone pillars still remain, and mother places ruined Topes were seen by‘ Major Kittoe; but no description of these remains has yet been made known.

XVIII. Vais¢ili.—This city was the scene of the second Buddhist synod, and was one of the chief places of note amongst Buddhists. At Bassar, to the north of Patna, one Tope is known to exist, but no search has yet been made for other remains. The people of Vais:‘iliwere known to Ptolemy, who calls them Passalae.

XIX. Patna, the ancient Palib0thra.—I am not aware that there are any existing remains at Patna, but numerous coins, gems, and seals are annually found in the bed of the river.

XX. Rajagriha, botwecn Patna and Gaya, was the capital of Magadha, in the time of Buddha. Some of the principal scenes of

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'.'_é0:u-nt'ry, as lasting proofs of the high veneration in which this reli

'3-'gious capital of Buddhism was held by the people.

6. In this rapid sketch of the places that seem worthy of examination, I have confined myself entirely to the N. W. Provinces and Behar, as containing most of the cities celebrated in the ancient history of India. But to make this account of Indian archaeological remains more complete, it would be necessary to examine the ancient cities of the Punjab, such as Taxila, Sakala, and Jalandher on the west, the caves and inscribed rocks of Cuttack and Orissa on the east, and the Topes and other remains of Ujain and Bhilsa, with the caves of Dhumnar and Kholvee in Central India.

7. I believe that it would be possible to make a careful examination of all the places which I have noted during two cold seasons. The first season might be devoted to a survey of Gays. and Rajagriha, and of all the remains in Tirhoot to the eastward of Benares and Goruckpoor ; while the survey of all to the westward of Benares

would occupy the second season.

8. I would attach to the description of each place a general survey of the site, showing clearly the positions of all the existing remains, with a ground plan of every building or ruin of special note, accompanied by drawings and sections of all objects of interest. It would be desirable also to have photographic views of many of the remains, both of architecture and of sculpture ; but to obtain these it would be necessary to have the services of a photographer. Careful fac-similes of all inscriptions would of course be _made ; ancient coins would also be collected on each site, and all the local traditions would be noted down and compared. The description of each place, with all its accompanying drawings and illustrations, would be complete in itself, and the whole, when finished, would furnish a detailed and accurate account of the archaeological remains of Upper India.

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