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79. Kampfrevier = Kampfbezirk. This word is omitted in Grimm's Dictionary. Revier (n.) is a word derived from Ital. riviera, Fr. rivière, in the general sense of 'district.' It is very common in modern German and belongs, moreover, to the earliest importations from the Romance languages.

81. die Spötter werth=die werthen (i. e. edlen) Spötter. In poetry, the adj. is frequently placed after the subst.

82. This is an absolute construction of the participle, corresponding to a Latin abl. abs. oculis deiectis. The same construction would be permitted in French, les yeux baissés. A very good instance of this absolute construction occurs in Schiller's ballad, die Bürgschaft:

Da sinkt er an's Ufer und weint und fleht,

Die Hände zum Zeus erhoben,

i. e. manibus ad Iovem sublatis. The noun is in the accusative, comp. 27, 52, and Aue § 373.

87. It was the ancient custom of the Franks and of the German tribes generally to proclaim their king by lifting him up on their shields.

91. Observe the omission of the auxiliary hat in the relative sentence. It is not a very common phrase, einen Löwen fällen, in the sense of tödten, niederschlagen, überwinden, the Latin caedere. It should be borne in mind that, just as from cadere is formed caedere, we have in German fallen and fällen, in English to fall and to fell.

92. Demüthiglich is an instance of adverbial formation by means of the suffix lich, which corresponds to the Engl. -ly.

93. der Barde (originally a Celtic word) denotes an inspired minstrel; the word has become part and parcel of our poetic phraseology since the time of Klopstock (second half of the 18th century).


Charlemagne (Karl der Grosse), the son of Pepin, reigned from 768-814 (at first together with his brother Karlmann who died 771); in 800 he was crowned Emperor by Pope Leo III. In the legends of the middle ages, Charlemagne forms the central figure of a group of heroes (Paladine), among whom Roland is the most conspicuous. According to tradition, Roland was nephew to Charlemagne, being the son of his (merely legendary) sister Bertha and Count Milon of Anglante (i.e. Angers); but the genuine records of history know no more of Roland than that he was marquis of Brittany, in which quality he occurs

in Eginhard. This writer relates (c. ix.) that Eghart, Anshelm, and Rutland (i.e. Roland) fell at Roncevalles during the retreat from Spain, which country had been invaded by Charles in 778. Uhland has written a series of ballads on the legends of Roland, and one of them, containing a marvellous act of valour performed by the boy Roland, has been selected by us. The subject-matter appears to be entirely of Uhland's

own invention.

2. The city of Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle) was Charlemagne's favourite place of residence. He was also buried there in the splendid Cathedral founded by himself.

3. das Wildpret, venison. This is the common form, though Wildbret or Wildbrät would be a better spelling, the second part of the word being derived from braten (Wild zum Braten). In Middle High German the word is daz wiltbræte.

6. Observe the omission of the copula und between the two adjectives. This would be inadmissible in prose.

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It is also usual to say tie

18. feiern, to delay, müßig sein. Compare the sentence quoted from Niebuhr by Grimm, wörterb. 3, 1437: So lag das römische Heer müßig, der Krieg feierte. See below 11, 3.

19. Stahlgewand, lit. 'steel dress,' i.e. armour. Ge-wand (from old Germ. wat Engl. weed, in widow's weeds) denotes any kind of habit. Observe the perfect sie haben begehrt, instead of the more correct sie begehrten, which would, moreover, be in closer agreement with the next line. The employment of the perfect as a narrative tense (perf. hist.) is in German limited to the popular style and dialects.

20. heißen, with the infinitive without zu, corresponds to the Greek KEλEVEL, Engl. to bid.

23. More correctly it would be lieber Vater. The shorter form is often used by children.

24. This is a shortened conditional clause, instead of wenn ihr mich auch zu schwach vermeint (i.e. wähnet, glaubt) or mich für zu schwach haltet. 26. winzig, tiny.

28. Samt (not much used in prose as a preposition) is of the same root as the well-known zu-samm-en; this sam being identical with the English same and the Greek äua. Comp. v. 172 and v. 189, where we have zusammt.

32. Da thäten sie sich trennen is said in imitation of the tone of the popular ballads, instead of the correct da trennten sie sich. See below, v. 60. 33. In prose: hinter seinem Vater.

37. In prose: umherstreifen.-Degen (originally derived from dîhen= (ge)beihen ('to thrive ') in modern German, and akin to Greek TéкVOV, Old Saxon thegan, whence the well-known thane, all these words originally denoting 'boy' or 'son') is often used in poetic diction in the sense of hero. In the ancient poem of the Nibelunge Hagen is often styled der küene degene.

39. das Ge-heg, wood; an intensified form of der Hag, v. 152. (Comp. the Hague, the capital of the Netherlands.)-The omission of weder before noch is poetical.

41. More correctly it ought to be schlafend; he lay sleeping, or asleep. But the form preferred by Uhland is, perhaps, more, conformable to the popular tone observed throughout this ballad. It is, however, quite correct to say, sich schlafen legen.

47. es, i. e. das Blizen und Leuchten.


er gedachte is more emphatic than the simple verb, 51. Schrecken Schreckniß, object of terror.

53. The expression would be completed as follows: während er noch im besten Schlafe ift.

58. Das Waffen is archaic instead of die Waffe. Comp. v. 165.

60. See note on v. 32.

62. ganz fachte, quite softly.-der Tann is archaic instead of ber Lannenwald. Comp. below, v. 173.

66. Der Fant, ‘a wight' (so again v. 206), from Ital. fante which is abbreviated from infante=Lat. infans. In Dutch vent means a young fellow or lad, and even in Old High German we find fendo, 'a footsoldier,' comp. infantry.

68. It might also be so lang wie er. It is, perhaps, more correct to use als after a comparative, and wie after a positive.

69. schier, almost, nearly-an old word (M. H. G. schiere).

73. die Tartsche, 'a shield,' is in this form derived from the old Fr. la targe, but originally the word is Anglosaxon targe, corresponding to High Germ. die 3arge, the border of a buckler.

79. auslangen, to reach forward, as far as possible.

88. unbehende, not agile enough, unwieldy: behende is from O. G. be hende, 'by (the) hand, at hand.' Compare the phrase bei der Hand sein, 'to be at hand, ready,' and hence 'to be quick, alert.'

89. schlug=traf.

95. mit Schmerzen, with a sad (sorrowing) heart.


We more commonly use the compound ein Blutstrom.

104. licht leuchtend (scheinend, glänzend, strahlend).

106. gut should be taken as an adverb.

107. We say both der Quell and die Quelle.

110. In prose it is zurück. The trisyllabic form employed by Uhland is, however, the original one.—jung, instead of junge. Comp. vv. 22 and 23.

112. schlafend should be understood as accusative: invenit eum dormientem.

I14. In English we say overcome with, or conquered by sleep. (The Greek idiom is quite parallel to the German, vrvy daμels.)

121. We have now had three feminine substantives of the same formation: die Ferne, die Weite, die Wilde. Thus we also say die Nähe. The subst. used in the present line is not so common as the others. See also v. 205.

122. Comp. v. 33.

125. hätt', instead of hatte, is in the tone of popular poetry.—jüngst, 'a short while ago.'

127. It is common to say, er kann kaum seinen Augen glauben (or trauen). Comp. also the proverb, was meine Augen sehen, glaubt mein Herz. This use of so, instead of the relative Observe also the omission of the auxi

130. So welches or vas. pronoun, is very antiquated. liary hatte.

133. In prose we should be obliged to add the article, der Rumpf. 137. In prose war would be placed at the end of the sentence. 139. Etwas verschlafen means to lose by sleeping, to sleep away. 141. stund is a less common form of the imperf. than stand. 143. gesund was formerly used in a wider sense than now; here it means not only 'healthy,' but whole and unhurt.

144. weilen, to tarry.

148. Muth is commonly used in modern German in the sense of 'courage'; it is, however, originally the same as the Engl. mood, which may, perhaps, be employed here to translate it (e.g. 'with moody brow').

152. Comp. v. 39.

156. It might also be des Riesen Handschuh. The compound expresses a wider idea than the original genitival term, ein Riesenhandschuh being a glove fit for a giant, and the other meaning one actually belonging to a giant.

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159. schön instead of schönes.—Neliquienstück, a somewhat jocular expression, 'a specimen of a relic.' Comp. Waffenstück, v. 174.

165. See note on v. 58.-The form lange is now only used as an adverb of time, and produces a very peculiar and quaint effect in the present passage.

167. Bavarian beer is considered the best of the various kinds brewed in Germany.-Schluck, draught.

171. die Wehr(e): comp. our note on Kohlrausch, p. 26, 1.

175. The omission of es before the verb is in conformity with popular speech.

176. ferne von ferne, or in der Ferne, at a distance.

178. Der = dieser.—deß =dessen, gen. of possession: huius est.

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191. Observe the difference between the German and the English idioms: sie kamen geritten (gegangen, gefahren, gelaufen, etc.), they came riding. Comp. 7, 1; 13, 2.

193. in der Mitten is archaic instead of Mitte.

195. wunderklar, wondrously clear.

199. frohgemuth instead of mit frohem Muthe, this being the opposite of the expression read v. 148. A more common word is wohlgemuth, 'cheerful' (8, 2).

204. gewandt, instead of the compound umgewandt (or umgedreht in vulgar parlance).

205. die Helle: see note on v. 121.

207. Geselle is often used like lad or fellow. Originally the word means one who shares a room with somebody else, ge+sal=Saal, 'hall.' Comp. the parallel expression comrade, from camera, 'room.' 208. Um Gott, for God's sake'; comp. perdy in old French and English.

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209. Wicht, the same word in point of etymology and of meaning as wight, is now commonly used as a contemptuous term.


210. Derweil the while (though the German is orig. a genitive of die Weile), is obsolete as a conjunction. Comp. 19, 41.—eben, just. In English we should say, 'while you happened to be asleep.'

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