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THE

ANALYTICAL THEORY OF HEAT

BY

22
JOSEPH FOURIER.

TRANSLATED, WITH NOTES,

BY

ALEXANDER FREEMAN, M.A.,

FELLOW OF ST JOHN'S COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE.

EDITED FOR THE SYNDIC'S OF THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.

V

Cambridge:
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.

LONDON: CAMBRIDGE WAREHOUSE, 17, PATERNOSTER ROW.

CAMBRIDGE: DEIGHTON, BELL, AND CO.
LEIPZIG: F. A. BROCKHAUS.

1878

[All Rights reserved.]

Phys 2378 78 Plus 2538.78

А

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PREFACE.

In preparing this version in English of Fourier's celebrated treatise on Heat, the translator has followed faithfully the French original. He has, however, appended brief foot-notes, in which will be found references to other writings of Fourier and modern authors on the subject : these are distinguished by the initials A. F. The notes marked R. L. E. are taken from pencil memoranda on the margin of a copy of the work that formerly belonged to the late Robert Leslie Ellis, Fellow of Trinity College, and is now in the possession of St John's College. It was the translator's hope to have been able to prefix to this treatise a Memoir of Fourier's life with some account of his writings ; unforeseen circumstances have however prevented its completion in time to appear with the present work.

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1. Object of the theoretical researches

2-10. Different examples, ring, cube, sphere, infinite prism; the variable

temperature at any point whatever is a function of the coordinates

and of the time. The quantity of heat, which during unit of time

crosses a given surface in the interior of the solid, is also a function

of the time elapsed, and of quantities which determine the form and

position of the surface. The object of the theory is to discover these

functions

11. The three specific elements which must be observed, are the capacity, the

conducibility proper or permeability, and the external conducibility or
penetrability. The coefficients which express them may be regarded at

first as constant numbers, independent of the temperatures
12. First statement of the problem of the terrestrial temperatures
13–15. Conditions necessary to applications of the theory. Object of the

experiments
16–21. The rays of heat which escape from the same point of a surface

19

20

21

.

have not the same intensity. The intensity of each ray is proportional

1 Each paragraph of the Table indicates the matter treated of in the articles
indicated at the left of that paragraph. The first of those articles begins at
the page marked on the right.

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