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severe; and in her court she was careful to uphold the royal dignity. In private life she was civil, amiable, and magnificent. The propension to gallantry, which the example of her husband had promoted, was repressed by her decency and moderation. The excesses of that amorous monarch seem even to have induced her to adopt a more than common reserve and circumspection. Though a widow at an age when the soft passions have their full power, no suspicion was ever entertained of her chastity; and her maids of honour recommended themselves to her by modesty, piety, and virtue. Her various endowments, and the many excellent qualities which gave her distinction, excite a regret that she should have been disgraced so completely by a frail obsequiousness to French counsels. Yet for this fatal error it is some compensation that her repentance was severe and painful. A few days before her death, she invited to her the Duke of Chatelherault, the Lord James Stuart, and the Earls of Argyle, Glencairn, and Marishal, to bid them a last adieu. She expressed to them her sorrow for the troubles of Scotland, and made it her earnest suit that they would consult their constitutional liberties, by dismissing the French and English from their country; and that they would preserve a dutiful obedience to the queen their sovereign. She professed an unlimited forgiveness of the injuries which had been done to her; and entreated their pardon for the offences she had committed against them. In token of her kindness and charity, she then embraced them by turns; and while the tear started in her eye, presented to them a cheerful and pleasing aspect. Her soul, melting with tenderness, and divesting itself of its prejudices, weaknesses, and hatreds, seemed to anticipate the purity of a better world. After this interview, the short portion of life which remained to her was dedicated to religion; and that she might allure the congregation to be compassionate to her popish subjects, and her French adherents, she flattered them, by calling John Willocks, one of the most popular of their preachers, to assist and comfort her by his exhortations and prayers. He made long discourses to her about the abominations of the mass; but she appears to have died in the communion of the Romish church; and her body being transported to France, was deposited in the monastery of St. Peter, at Rheims, in Champagne, where her sister Renee was an abbess.



Thus perished, in the twenty-first year of his age, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, a prince of high lineage. A fate so sudden, and so immature, excited a sympathy and sorrow which must have been lost in the consciousness of his imperfections, if he had fallen by the ravages of disease, or the stroke of time. The symmetry of his form recommended him to the most beautiful princess of Christendom; and her generosity and love placed him upon the throne of an ancient kingdom. But he neither knew how to enjoy

his prosperity nor to ensure it. His vices did not permit him to maintain the place he had won in her affection: and he was not entitled by his ability to hold the reins of government. He was seen to the greatest advantage in those games and sports which require activity and address. He rode with skill the warhorse, and was dexterous in hawking and the chase; but possessing no discernment of men, and no profoundness of policy, he was altogether unequal to direct an agitated monarchy, and to support the glory of his queen. Instead of acting to her protection and advantage, he encouraged her misfortunes and calamities. His imbecility laid him open to her enemies and his own. The excessive facility of his nature made him the dupe of the shallowest artifice; and while he was weakly credulous, he could not keep in concealment those secrets which most nearly concerned him. Driven into difficult situations by passion and imprudence, he was unable to extricate himself. Under the guidance of no regular principles, he was inconstant and capricious. His natural levity was prompted by his proneness to intemperance; and he was as much a stranger to decorum as to virtue. While he was not qualified for the cares of royalty, he was even unfit for the trappings of state, and those guarded and fastidious ceremonials which are so necessary to impose on the quickness of human reason, and to cover the infirmity and the nakedness of high station. His preposterous vanity and aspiring pride roused the resentment and the scorn of the nobles. His follies and want of dignity made him little with the people. To the queen, his infidelity and frequent amours were most insulting and ungrateful. The admiration of the sex, which in cultivated and superior men is an elegant passion and an amiable weakness, was in him a gross attachment and an unsentimental propensity, growing out of the strength of his constitution, and the cravings of an animal appetite. But while our graver historians are assiduous to reproach him with wantonness in the chamber of Venus, it ought to be remembered that the murder of Rizzio, and his attempt to dispossess the queen of her government, are far more indelible stains upon his memory, and imply a profligacy and guilt which could only be exceeded by the enormity of that wickedness which schemed and executed his destruction.



This illustrious man was the natural son of James V. by Margaret, the daughter of John Lord Erskine. He had been appointed, at an early age, to the priory of St. Andrews; but he possessed not that pacific mind, which, uninterested in the present world, delights to look to the future, and to busy itself in the indolent formalities of devotion. The activity of his nature compelled him to seek agitation and employment; the perturbed period in which he lived supplied him with scenes of action; and the eminence of his abilities displayed itself. He discovered a passion

for liberty and a zeal for religion; and he distinguished himself by an openness and sincerity of carriage. These popular qualities pleased the Congregation, and procured to him their confidence. The love of liberty, however, was not in him the effect of patriotism, but of pride: his zeal for religion was a political virtue; and under the appearance of openness and sincerity he could conceal more securely his purposes. Power was the idol which he worshiped; and he was ready to acquire it by methods the most criminal. He was bold, firm, and penetrating. His various mind fitted him alike for intrigue and for war. He was destined to flourish in the midst of difficulties. His sagacity enabled him to foresee dangers, his prudence to prepare for them, and his fortitude to surmount them. To his talents, his genius, and his resources, Scotland is indebted for the Reformation. But by this memorable achievement he meant nothing more than to advance himself in the road to greatness. To this point all his actions were directed. It gave the limits to his generosity, which has been extolled as unbounded. His praise, his caresses, and his services, his dissimulation, his perfidiousness, and his enmities, were all sacrifices to ambition. And miscarriage, which has ravished so many laurels from great men, did not tarnish his glory. His success was so conspicuous that he seemed to have the command of fortune.


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This celebrated character had in his person, as well as in his mind, much of the admirable qualities of James V. his father. Had not the

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