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war, Prayaga, Uttarobahimi, and Gangas- two pillars or turrets, built with choonam gar; with this they make the Adishekam, and bricks, of the height of two cocoanutor aspersion of the god, the Vaidyanath trees. It is said that, about four centuries Lingam, and worship him with sandal and ago, there was a merchant named Manikya flowers, &c. Any person who brings the Chund, of the Jaina sect, who dwelt at water from each of these five places, and this city. He built four pillars of the same presents them for three years to the god size at this place, and laid a terrace upon Vaidyanath Swami, will undoubtedly ob- them, standing upon which every morning tain his desires. It is said that the pil- after he rose, he could see the hill of Sugrims bring every year one lack of carboys, medha Parvattam, and so visit the temples and present them. North of the temple of of that sacred place. Of the four pillars, Vaidyanath Swami is a temple called
two have disappeared entirely; the other Sitta Ramaswami, in which are placed two are still in good condition, in the front five images, called Bharata, Satrughna, of the feet of Vasupujya Tirthakara. At Rama, Lakhsmana, and Sita. On the the bottom of the pillar, on the left hand, north of this is the temple of the goddess is a bil, or hole, into which it seems a Chandi or Kali, where sheep and goats man can pass : the Jain pilgrims, after are offered in sacrifice. On the south side worshipping the sculptured feet of Vasu. of the temple of Vaidyanath Swami is pujya, proceed to the mouth of that hole, the temple of Bhairava Lala, in which is and cast into it, cocoa-nuts, cardamoms, an image. All the travellers, as they pass, nutmegs, sweetmeats, &c. It is said that exclaim, Bham Vaidyanath, or Bhaira
there are many Jain images in that cavalal-ji. This last resembles a Bauddha vity, and that all the ancient sages were image, sitting in the posture called pad- accustomed formerly to go into the cavern masanam : the statue is of the height of to visit those images. On the east and four cubits, and wears a yogapattal, or north of the temple of Vasupujya are two cloth bound across the breast. The people tanks, and between them is a mango say that this image is the Khazanchi, or
grove, where the pilgrims encamp. – treasurer of the god Vaidyanath Swami; Oriental Magazine. on the north of the village is a large tank.
Feb. 10. Arrived at Bhagalpur, having left Vaidyanath on the 7th.
text of the period of their erection. Some pains
bave been taken by Colonel Franklin to establish Bhagalpur is a large town, where the for these turrets an antiquity of 2,539 years (InCollector and Judge reside. In the city is quiry, &c. part i. 50) derived from the supposed a. Jain temple, in which is placed the
date of 2,559 apon the slab, and which he refers
to the period of Yudhishtbir, or, what is the same Padam, or the sculptured feet of the god thing, that of the Kali-Yug, of which 4,900 Vasupujya Tirthakara, who obtained years have elapsed. The whole of his translation, mocsham, or salvation, at this place. It
however, is very incorrect; and it contains one
phrase which overturns the pretensions of the inis said that this temple was established
scriplion to a remote origin : this is, “ Inhabiformerly, by the king Srenika Maha Rajah, tant of the fair city of Jayaponr," but the fair and in the front of that temple, * stood
city of Jaypur is not a century old, being built in the reign of Mohammed Shah. The word " City,''
however, does not occur; the term is Stihan * This temple, however, is now only a small (place), and the district must be intended, as the brick room, in a niche of which the black stone stone does contain a prior date, in two forms, inwith the sculptured feet of Vasupujya, is erected deed, one confirming the other, or Samval 1692 on particular occasions ; at other seasons it is in (A.D. 1636), and the other Saka 1559 (A.D. 1635) ; the charge of a Brabmin, who lives in the adjoin. the real date, therefore, of this very ancient reing village. There is no connexion apparently cord. The turrets of Bhagalpur are delinealed in berween this stone and the turrets, and its date Lord Valentia's Travels, and in the first part of docs noi, therefore, affect the account given in the Colonel Franklin's Palibothra.-T.
2. Bat. (1st, or Royal } Trichinopoly.
HIS MAJESTY'S FORCES IN INDIA. Bengal PRESIDENCY.-General Staff.
Light Dragoons. Commander-in-Chief of all the Forces 13th Regt. Stationed at Bangalore. in India, Gen. the Hon. Sir Edward
........ Fort St. George. Coinmanding the Presidency Division,
46th, (South Devonshire).. Bellary, Major Gen. R. A. Dalzell.
54th, (West Norfolk).. Bangalore. Adjutant General H. M.'s Forces in India, 69th, (South Lincolnshire) Wallajahbad. Col. Sir T. MacMahon, Bart. 17th Foot.
89th,........... .Cannanore. Quarter Master General H. M.'s Forces 48th, (Northampton
New South Wales. in India, Col. Sir Samford F. Witting
shire) bam, Knt., K.F., C.B., Half-pay. Light Dragoons.
BOMBAY PRESIDENCY. 11th Regt. Stationed at Meerut.
Commander-in-Chief, Lieut. Gen. the 16th, (Lancers Queen's) ... Cawnpore.
Honble. Sir Chas. Colville, G.C. B., Infantry.
K.T.S., Half-pay, 94th Foot. 14th, (Buckinghamshire)...Meerut. Commanding Poonah Division of Army, 38th, (1st Staffordshire) .... Berhampore.
Major Gen. Sir Lionel Smith, K.C. B.,
65th Foot. 44th, (East Essex) .......... Fort William. 59th. (2d Nottinghamshire) Cawnpore.
Commanding Northern Division Guzerat 87th, (Prince of Wales'
and Inspector of Cavalry, Col. Jas. own Irish)
Chas. Holbiac, 4th Lt. Dragoons. 13th, (1st Somerset.......... In England. Commanding Poonah Brigade, Col. Wil
loughby Cotton, Aide-de-Camp to H. MADRAS PRESIDENCY.
M., and 47th Foot. Commander-in-Chief, Gen. Sir Alex.
Major of Brigade to King's Troops, Campbell, Bart. K.B.C., Col. of 8th Capt. G. Moore, 65th Foot. Foot,
Light Dragoons. Commanding Centre Division, Major Gen. 4th Regt. Stationed at Kaira.
Robert Sewell, 89th Foot, Arcot. (Queen's own) ........Guzerat.
67th,(Southamptonshire) Camp, Sholapore. Commanding Bangalore, Col. Thomas Hankle, 13th Lt. Dragoons.
ISLAND OF CEYLON. Commanding Wallajahbad, Col. Chas. Commanding the Forces, Major Gen. Sir Bruce, C. B., 69th Foot.
Jas. Campbell, K.C.B., Half-pay, Commanding Trichinopoly, Col. Neil 94th Foot, Lieutenant Governor. Mackeller, C.B., 1st. or Royal Regt.
Forces. Commanding Malabar and Canara, Lieut. Detachment of Royal Engineers.
Col. Edw. Miles, C.B., K.F, S., 89th Detachment of Royal Artillery, comRegt.
manded by Col. Watson, C. B. Deputy Adjutant General H. M.'s Forces
Infantry. in India, Lieut. Col. Robt. Torrens,
Lieut. Cols. commanding. 38th Foot.
19th Foot (Ist Lieut. Col. Alex. Milne. Deputy Quarter-Master Gen. H, M.'s
Yor k, N. R.)S Forces in India, Lieut. Col. Stanhope,
45th (Notts.) ... Lieut. Col. L. Greenwell. Half-pay, 56th Foot, Europe.
Lieut. Col. Chas. Cother.
TRANSMISSION OF INDIA LETTERS.
To the Editor of the Asiatic Journal. Sir: It would be well if the Post- middle of July, making a delay of office department at Calcutta would above seven weeks, in which time pay some attention to the selection of many ships left Bengal, and of course ships which convey their letters to brought letters of a much later date. Europe, for they are frequently sent I am aware that persons resident in on ships that touch at different ports, Calcutta may (if they are inclined to and consequently the receipt of them take the trouble), select their ships, is considerably delayed. Take, for though this arrangement is generally left instance, the Hastings (and it would be to the Post-office: those who live far easy to particularize many others), up the country have no such opportuwhich left Bengal on the 25th May, nity, and to them the evil is of great and, as avowed by the Calcutta papers, magnitude. to complete her lading at Madras ;”
I am, Sir, &c. &c. from whence she sailed about the Jan. 1824.
TRADE OF COCHIN-CHINA.
The public are hereby informed, that the hong, Wai-Chao, Su-heng, To-Kein, ChiGovernment of Cochin China has officially Kong (Tehe-Kian), and the ships of communicated to the Agent of the Gover. European nations, pay as follow: nor General, lately deputed to that Vessels measuring from fourteen to country, its consent to the admission of all twenty-five cubits, pay one hundred and British vessels into the ports of Sai-gun, forty kwans per cubit; from eleven to Han or Turan, Faifc, and Hut, on the thirteen cubits ninety kwans; from nine terms specified in the annexed translation to ten cubits seventy kwans, and from of an official copy of the Cochin-Chinese seven to eight cubits thirty-five kwans a Tariff and Regulations of Trade deliver cubit. ed to the Governor General's Agent.
For the Port of Han.
Vessels of Canton, Chu-Chao, NamTranslation of the Cochin-Chinese Tariff. hong, Wai Chao, Su-heng, To-Kein, Chi
These are the Regulations of Com- Kong, (Tehe-Kian) and the ships of merce for all nations trading to the king- European nations pay as follow : dom of Cochin-China.
Vessels measuring from fourteen to For Hue.
twenty-five cubits in the beam pay one Vessels of Canton, Chu-chao, * Nam. hundred and twelve kwans a cubit; from hong,* Wai-Chao,* Suheng, * To-Kein, eleven to thirteen cubits, seventy-two Chi-Kang, and the ships of the Eu kwans; from nine to ten cubits, fifty-six ropean nations pay as follow :
kwans, and from seven to eight cubits, Vessels measuring from fourteen to twenty-eight kwans. twenty-five cubits in the beam, pay eighty
Erport Duties. four kwans per cubit. Vessels measuring
Cardamums, pepper, cinnamon, ivory, from eleven to thirteen cubits, fifty-four rhinoceros' horns, esculent bird's nests, kwans; from nine to ten cubits, forty- Sapan Wood, Ebony and Rose Wood, pay two kwans, and from seven to eight
a duty on every 100 kwans of five cubits twenty kwans a cubii.
Wood for coffins or ship-building, pay + Provinces of Canton,
a duty of ten per cent.
In passing the duties, Spanish dollars and the character of the people of which is are received at the rate of one kwan five eo high above that of any other people of mas, and the silver currency of Cochin, Eastern Asia, as regards punctuality China at the rate of two kwans and eight principle, and honour in their commercial mas for cach ingot. Payment of the dealings. From the subjoined account, duties may be made in silver, or in the it will be found that a most extensive trade zinc currency of the country, or partly in may be carried on, extending itself to the each, at the option of the merchant. least known provinces of the Chinese
empire in the first place, and eventually to Contraband Articles.
Japan, without at all interfering with the The exportation of the wood called
trade at present carried on with Canton. Tet-lan (a fancy wood), and the wood
Besides this, the internal traffic by the way Nam (a perfumed wood, used by the rich of Yu-nan, through Kai-chao, the capital, in making coffins) is prohibited.
of Tonquin, and which is conducted with The exportation of the gold and silver Lao, and many other countries of the iningots of the country is also prohibited, terior, including, no doubt, part of Chinese as also of the seed called suk, rice, salt, Tartary, would be very considerable. It copper, zinc coin, agila wood. The carry
is much to be regretted that no adventure ing off men and women from the country
was made during the time that the gentleis also prohibited.
man who was at the head of the mission Ships or vessels paying the duties at one
to that country was here, as he was partiof the ports enumerated, are exempted cularly well qualified to give information during that voyage from the payment of
on this subject, wbich he did in numerous duties at any other, with the exception instances, and which he was at all times of export duties.
This applies if they very willing to do. should stay a year on the coast of Cochin
The places which I find named in the China ; provided that, during that time, Government Gazette are the following, they should not visit any other foreign and some of them rank among the most country.
extensive ports of commerce in the Chinese (The seal of the First Minister.) empire: Canton, Chu-chao, Nam-hong, A true copy of a translation through the Kiang-nan, Wai-chao, Su-heng, Fo-kein, Malay.
and Chi-kiang. (Signed) J. CRAWFURD. The trade with Canton is so well underN.B. A Cochin-Chinese cubit, used in
stood by the generality of people trading
from this port, that it would be more than measuring the ships and vessels for the i tonnage duty, is equal to sixteen inches superfluous for me to say any thing of it; English.
but this I inay remark, that no one has By command of the Governor General
had better opportunities than myself of in Council.
obtaining all the information that could be Geo SWINTON, Sec. to Govt.
obtained upon the subject. I shall there(Cul. Govt. Gax.
fore proceed to give you some account of the two principal places with which trade
may be conducted: these are Fo-kien Leller to the Editor of the Bengal and Kiang-nan. Hur karu.
Kiang-nan is considered as the second Sir :– Having observed a notification in province of the Chinese empire, yielding the Government Gazette, which stated the to none in fertility, commerce and riches. amount of the duties payable on the Nankin, which is the capital of it, is well Cochin-Chinese vessels visiting certain known as having once been the capital of ports of China little known to Europeans, the empire, until the court was removed to I have the pleasure of forwarding to you
Pekin, This province contains ninety the following account of some of them, as cities of the second and third classes, and desirable to convince the merchants of fourteen of the first, which are very poputhis city of the great advantages which lous, and are almost all of them famed for might accrue to them from properly prose some branch of trade or other. The river cuting the trade from hence to that in- Yang-tse-kiang runs through the province, teresting country, the Government of and connects itself by means of canals which is so fast rising into respectability, with almost the whole of these. In one
town alone, the name of which I do not ment notification is Chi-kiang, which is remember, there are upwards of 300,000 situated between Fo-kien and Kiang-nan, weavers of cotton cloths, in which branch and in the province of which is produced of trade the women are the principal a greater quantity of raw silk than any labourers. Every article manufactured in where else in China. This they manufacthis province bears a much higher value ture into beautiful brocades, embroidered than that which is the produce of others. with gold and silver, of which a great The principal trade of this place consists
quantity is sent to the Philippine Islands, of silk-stuffs, lacker-ware, ink and paper, to Japan, and even to Europe. Under and the last of these, with medicines, forms this province is the port called by Eurothe principal part of the exports to Cochin peans Liampo, but by the Chinese, NingChina. Salt is found on the sea-coasts, Po. A short distance from this place is and the marble which is sometimes sent to an island called Cheo-chou, on which the the Malayan countries, is almost all the English first landed when they came to produce of this province. The natives of it China. Trade is conducted with Japan, too, are remarkably quick, and acquire the where silks are exchanged for copper, gold, sciences with much facility, which oc and silver, to obtain which the merchants casions so many of them to be raised to from Batavia used to come every year to places of rank and dignity. Sou-tcheou is the second city of the province, and Du Having referred to the province of YuHalde states, that the largest barks may nan, and the trade with the interior consail from it to the sea, through canals and ducted through it, perhaps the following branches of rivers, in two days. This is short account of it may not be uninterestreckoned the most delightful city in China, ing. This is bounded on the west by Ava and has given rise to a Chinese proverb, and Pegu, on the south by Lao and Ton. that “above is the celestial paradise, but the quin, on the east by Kwang-sai, and on paradise of this world is Sou-tcheou." the north by Se-tchuen. The province This place is famed for its brocades and itself is reckoned one of the most fertile in embroideries.
the empire, and its inhabitants are brave, The province of Fo-kein is distinguish robust, affable, and fond of the sciences; ed for the spirit and enterprizing industry its rivers are broad and navigable, and the of its inhabitants. This is sufficiently principal part of the tutenague of comevinced by the number of them who emi merce is produced in it. “Its commerce," grate to our settlements to the eastward,
says an old author, “is immense, and its where their numbers far exceed those of riches are said to be inexhaustible.” the natives of any other Chinese province, The facilities for opening a trade with and where they are always classed amongst countries such as these are now in our the most valuable portion of the Chinese
power. The junks come from them all to population. In Singapore their number Cochin China, and after having disposed is very considerable, as it is also at Penang
of cargoes, are generally obliged to take and Malacca. The province of Fo-kein home with them the silver coin of the is not very extensive, but it is thought to
country, for want of other returns. Our be one of the most prosperous in the ships could provide them with articles for empire. It produces musk, black tea, iron,
return cargoes, and they would furnish us tin, quicksilver, and precious stones; and in return with all the rich produce of its manufactures consist of a quantity of China, at rates considerably less than those black tea, the produce of the province. at which they could be procured in China, Dependent upon Fo-kein is E-mui, an because they would be free from all the anchoring place sufficiently extensive to duties imposed upon our vessels in the contain 1000 ships. It was frequented by ports of that country. European ships at the beginning of the eighteenth century; but at present it is
I am, Sir, your obedient servant, closed against them, and Canton is the
A TRAVELLER. only port open for their trade.
Calcutta, Aug. 6, 1823. Another place mentioned in the Govern