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has sprung up in the centre of a road in place, but of course very dear; neverthethe very middle of the station, and not a less, I fear those who built them must have particle of vegetation, except what is pro- suffered considerabiy, as half their origiduced at a very considerable expense in nal costs are not procurable. The best the gardens of a few who can afford the bungalow in the station cost 24,000 ruluxury of raising vegetablee, meet the pees, and none at all habitable have been eye, although it wanders over many miles built under 5,000 rupees; at present such of country. This tree, you will readily are to be had, according to circumstances, believe, is looked on as a great curiosity; from 1,600 to 2,500. A racket court, and so much so, that it is called “ Meer Khan's large station bungalow, including a theatree," by which name, indeed, it was tre, reading rooms, &c. &c. had been known when the spot was selected for a commenced on by subscription, and I supcantonment. Water is by no means so pose are by this time finished; indeed there abundant as it would be convenient to appeared a general determination to drown have it. Government has, at a most enor. melancholy and the blue devils by gaiety mous expense, most liberally blown up and pleasure. May they be successful in (the expression “dug” would be misap- their endeavours, they have my best wishes. plied here) a number of wells, and a The Sudder Bazar is very fortunately well tank; but the few wells which are not supplied, though of course at dear rates ; brackish are chiefly dry in the hot weather, and even a solitary merchant or two from and the tank affords but a slender supply Bombay resort to it with cloth and Euroof water for not less than 10,000 people, pean luxuries. Immediately in front of besides the horses of the cavalry and artil- the cantonment is the once royal city of lery. So great is the distress, that sen. Ajmere, situated at the foot of a range of tries are constantly posted to take care of hills, on the top of which at its N.E. the water in cantonments; and during the extremity is the Fort of Tarraghur, hot weather, that valuable liquid is brought given up to us, I believe, in 1818. On from a distance of one, and even two a very clear day, the Fort is distinguishcoss, from some parts of the station, for able from the flag-staff top over the foredrinking; for tatties you may get it as most ranges of hills; in a straight line it you can. To account for this great scar is not more than four or five miles distant, city, I must inform you, that about five but by the road, which runs through a pass feet from the surface is the solid rock, in the hills, it is upwards of fourteen, from sixty to seventy feet of which must The political agent has converted into a be blown up before water is discoverable, very comfortable residence an old native and even then the chances are very much building just without the city, which is against its being drinkable. The expense, surrounded by a wall and ditch, capable, consequently, is great

- on an average however, of affording little protection about a thousand rupees--so that but few against an experienced or powerful enemy, bungalows are supplied with them. The city of Ajmere may be ranked high

From the want of jungal and timber, among the first class of native towns; fuel is of course very expensive ; what most of the houses are pucka ; the streets little there is, is brought from the adjacent are wider than usual, and some of the hills, where a kind of brush-wood very buildings afford convincing proof of its scantily grows; but timber for building, or former opulence. During the troubles any other purposes, is transported from consequent on the appearance of the PinAgra and Muttra, upwards of 200 miles daries in that neighbourhood, and the distant.

petty wars and devastations which prevailI shall not dwell much longer on the ed, Ajmere suffered considerably; but beauties and comforts of Nusseerabad ; suf- under the mild and beneficent rule of vur fice it, therefore, to say, that as a canton Government, and the constant attention ment it is extremely well and regularly and exertions of the political agent, it is laid out : the public buildings are all recovering its pristine celebrity. The pucka, and on the most extensive scale ; fort of Tarragurh, which commands it, is we may therefore conjecture that the post naturally so strong as to be impregnable will be permanent. The few bungalows to open force ; only on one spot is it possi. there are, are extremely superior for such a ble to climb the rugged rocks by which is

is protected ; and there a path, the only the summit of which the fort is easily disone leading to it, and the only possible tinguishable at some distance. The Raja mode of entrance, is said to be nearly of Kishengurh is an independent prince, three coss in length. The small space of but of no great power or influence. He level country in front of the city forms an resides in a fort close to his capital, on amphitheatre, surrounded by low ranges the banks of a pretty lake, in which be of hills; the soil is every where sandy, obligingly permits gentlemen from Nusand quite incapable of cultivation. The seerabad to fish. The extreme beauty of Dowlut Bagh, in which the royal palace the spot and superior salubrity of the air, once stood, though small, is very pretty, induce parties of pleasure and invalids to and is situated on the banks of a pretty avail themselves of the permission, it be clear lake, not less than six miles in cir- ing situated at so convenient a distance. cumference. Some remains of old build. But I am spinning out my letter to too ings belonging to the palace which over- great a length, therefore adieu for the prehang the lake, have been converted into sent. quarters for the officer on duty, commissariat officer, assistant political agent, &c.

LxTTER II. &c. The lake is well stocked with fish, In continuation of my letter of the 12th I should imagine; nevertheless that very instant, descriptive of Jypore and the adagreeable addition to a good breakfast is jacent country, I must claim your attenbut very seldom to be met with either in tion for one moment to a few remarks on cantonments or at Ajmere. Alligators, the general state of the country, and on thanks to the prejudices of the natives, the personal appearance and character of who take care to keep a good supply, the Rajpoots in the province of Jypore, abound, and they may perhaps make free which I trust you will not consider foreign with the rooee mutchees. On the oppo to the subject. The country has suffered site side of the lake a lofty range of hills, so much from having been for a number without a break in them, with the excep- of years, previous to the overthrow and tion of a scarcely passable pass leading extermination of the Pindarries, overrun to Pohur, a celebrated place of religious and laid waste by those formidable ban. resort, famed too for a large cattle fair in ditti, together with the internal dissen. November, effectually shuts out the view, sions and hostilities which prevailed, and and by no means, you will guess from thereby hastened its ruin, as by no means what I have generally remarked of the to have recovered its former state of popuhills in Rajpootana, adds to the beauty of lation; in fact, the inhabitants having been the scene. I am proceeding in my des- compelled for their personal safety to cription at a very slow rate towards Jy- quit their villages and fly their country, pore, and as I have trifled away so much have not yet returned. A great propor. paper without coming to the point, I tion of the few villages scattered over the think it adviseable to fill up my sheet with country are entirely uninhabited and fallen further descriptions of the country on the into ruins, and those which are still in road to that place, forbearing to speak preservation have so scanty a population as particularly of it till my next letter. After to be quite inadequate to the cultivation passing the first day's halting-place, my of the country, not a hundredth part of route lay in a N. E. direction, parallel to which bears the least appearance of ever a range of hills, which I kept at no great having been touched by the plough. The distance on my left for several days, and appearance of the plains, then, with which which, I have little doubt, is the very Jypore abounds, is desolate in the ex. same of which I shall hereafter speak in treme; hour after hour, day after day, my mention of Jypore. The third halting and, I had nearly added, week after week, place, about two or three and thirty miles does the monotonous unvarying from Nusseerabad, is the commencement scene of desolation meet the eye of the of the Jypore territory, the intermediate traveller; except in the immediate vicione being in the country of the Raja of nity of villages, where only just suffiKishengurh, the capital of which, of the cicnt corn is grown for their own consame name, lies about seven miles north sumption; not a particle of vegetation is of Deedwana, at the foot of the hills, on to be found; the plains are covered with

same

dry grass, and with here and there a small the country seems peculiarly adapted for stunted bush, or dwarf tree, affording that description of troops. The immense nesther fruit nor shade.

plaius enable cavalry to act with peculiar The villages and towns are confined to efficacy, and render it irresistible, when the high roads, and even there very unso opposed only to the unconnected and unciably situated, at ten, twelve, and even disciplined infantry of a native army. twenty miles apart; in the interior desola The Rajpoots are of a high cast, and tion and barrenness are predominant, and evince a reluctance to intermix with the the country is, in the literal sense of the natives of other parts of India, whom word, a desart. The few places I have they look down on with contempt. They seen deserving of the name of a town are extremely fond of a red turban, which are surrounded by rather formidable mud appears to be a national distinction equal. walls and ditches, with generally an inte ly gratifying to them all, old men and rior fort or citadel of pucka work, and boys, and even their women, inclining to some have even to boast of one or two this colour. The people are by no means ruined pucka-houses ; the residences of the remarkable for hospitality ; but, I believe, Kiledar, and other great personages, with if not offended, they will not generally a few neem trees flourishing about them. interfere with, or insult a European ; the To such places the present small popula- natives of other parts, however, do not tion of the country betake themselves; think it safe to travel alone through Raj.

thither they flock for self-preservation: a pootana ; and where some of those have ' sure proof of the little dependence they done so, they have almost invariably been

have on protection from plunder and ra. murdered. But to return to the subject pine under native government.

The of my letter, from which I have too villages, many of which are miserable in widely wandered : I have not, however, the extreme, composed frequently of not from the shortness of my remarks, said more than a dozen huts of the most infe. one-half of what I could have wished to rior description, are also for the most part have written, either on the state of the fortified with the remains of a mound or country or character of its inhabitants; wall, and protected by a mud fort either you must, therefore, attribute the imper. in the interior or immediate vicinity. fection of the description to my being at Such precautions, in such a country, how. a loss for room, rather than to any other ever apparently trivial and insignificant,

On approaching the city of Jywere by no means useless; roving bands pore, the country becomes unusually of horsemen traversed the country in sandy, and assumes, if possible, a more search of plunder, and even the weakest desolate appearance than ever ; it is wall and ditch were sufficient to stop the covered with high grass, or rather reeds, progress of such troops, and save the and without any appearance of vegetation lives and some part of the property of till within half a mile of the walls, when those who fled to their protection. The a most luxuriant cultivation bursts upon Rajpoots are in person tall and robust, the view, which, with the splendid appearand are generally esteemed brave; their ance of some of the fine buildings which occupations are those of the soldier and overtop the walls, presents a highly gratiagriculturist, the former of which, how. fying contrast to the general barrenness of éver, they seem to prefer. The troops the country. The much esteemed and which they bring into the field are chiefly hospitable Resident has fitted up a native horse ; indeed, they appear to entertain house in a garden, about a coss in front rather a slight opinion of a foot soldier. of the city. To the exertions of this exThey are extremely fond of horses, which cellent gentleman are travellers in that they take a pleasure in breeding, and their part of the country indebted for every mode of training and maneuvring them

comfort they derive; by his representawhen mounted is super-excellent. their tions regulations have been made, and feats are only to be equalled at Astley's; orders have been issued which prevent in and were they disciplined, they would be most cases the possibility of just cominferior to no cavalry in the world. In. plaint. The police, as far as it regards dependent of these reasons for the dispro- Europeans, deserves the highest credit, portioned excess of horse, the nature of and I am happy in bearing testimony to Asiatic Journ.-No. 99.

VOL. XVII. 2 H

cause,

the civility and attention to our comforts ble for its being paved, of which I believe which his exertions have procured us, and there is not another instance in India. which I experienced in the most gratifying The whole of the buildings in Jypore, degree. Shortly after my arrival, I pro- whether public or private, whether of the ceeded with a party to visit the city and poor or rich, are pucka, and the architecpalace, the Resident having kindly se ture, although Asiatic, is extremely handcured for us permission to inspect the lat some and elegant; indeed, I am disposed ter. It will almost be unnecessary to ob to think that, in point of neatness and serve that the city of Jypore, which was beauty, the grand chouk would scarcely be built about seventy years ago by an Ita- surpassed by more than half a dozen lian, during the reign of Jy Sing, from streets in England. The uniformity and whom I conclude the city was named, is regularity which have been observed in the capital of the province of the same planning and building so large a place, name, and one of the three principal Raj- are truly remarkable; the whole city must, poot states, the two others being Oudepore I should conclude, have been built by the and Joudpore. It is an extensive city, Government, or I cannot account how situated E. N.E. of the cantonment of such uniformity could have been preNusseerabad, at a distance of 82 miles, in served, had individuals been allowed to a valley of a crescent shape formed by the build for themselves. On visiting the pasurrounding hills, which are strongly for- lace, we were requested to leave our eletified both by nature and art, and afford phants, horses, &c. &c. as well as our an ample protection to three sides, the chattas, at the outer gate, as they could fourth having no defence but the city wall, not be admitted within it; our servants which is of stone, with a pucka facing, were also denied admission, it being conwithout either ditch or rampart. This city trary to the etiquette of the court to allow presents a remarkable contrast to the gene- menials to enter. We, however, had every rality of native towns, and is generally attention paid us by the officers of the esteemed the most beautiful in India. Its palace, who were deputed to attend on, and streets are most conveniently broad, and point out to us the curiosities of the place. run parallel, and at right angles, with the So great was the variety of splendid and greatest regularity and correctness; un elegant apartments into which we were fortunately, however, the Buneeas have ushered, that I am at a loss where to combeen allowed to erect booths in the centre mence in my description; my paper will and on the sides of some, which greatly not admit of my mentioning a twentieth disfigure them. On entering the town, part of them: I must, therefore, content the first street bears evident traces of for myself with noticing such as more partimer grandeur, and it is still (although cularly attracted my attention at the time. sadly neglected, and in some places, from The Dewan Khas (hall of audience) was, the sloth and selfish prejudices of the na I believe, the first place we were shewn, tives, going fast to decay) very pretty. It and I must confess that I felt much is not less than 100 feet in breadth; and in disappointment in it. I had been led to cleanliness, notwithstanding its dilapida- expect, in the hall of audience, one of the tion, might vie with the best in any second most magnificent and adorned apartments rate town in England. At the top of it in the palace ; to my great astonishment, four streets meet, and one of them, the however, it was a large, stately, massive grand chouk, is the principal street in the building, open on all sides, and supported city; its breadth is froin forty to fifty by marble pillars, but without any of the yards, and beneath the centre of it is an rich ornaments I had been induced to ex. aqueduct, which affords, by means of wells pect; on the contrary, it was remarkable placed at every ten or twelve paces, a plenti. for its simplicity, and in this respect totally ful supply of water when it is not blocked different from the interior of the palace. up, which unfortunately is the case at From the hall of audience we were led to present. In the centre of this street is the a spot, for the purpose, as the Darogah principal entrance to the palace of the chamberlain) confidentially informed us, royal family, of which I shall speak here- of being viewed by the Ranee (the moafter ; and another leading from it, in which ther of the present Rajah, who is an inthe Huwa Muhul is situated, is remarka- fant of three years, and consequently still

confined to the women's apartments); we

very pretty trees and shrubs, and amongst tried hard to get a peep at her Highness: them the cypress and others, evidently but although we were shewn the window exotic. Within the exterior wall of the from which she was surveying us, we

palace is an observatory, built at the same could not get a single glimpse. The time with the city; we unfortunately, from Ranee's state apartments are extremely the lateness of the hour, did not see it, but beautiful, immediately above the palace I learnt that it was handsome and well gardens, which are laid out in the most built. It is lamentable to reflect on the tasty and elegant manner. The rooms

impolicy and cruelty of the custom which were spacious, and decorated with pictures prevents the liberation of the unfortunate and mosaic work of a superior kind; the women immured in the zenanu of an ceilings were most exquisitely adorned, eastern Prince after his decease. All the and the floors were covered with the finest females on the establishment of the late white cloth stuffed with cotton. The Raja of Jypore are still confined in the windows are strongly fastened, and so palace, never to be released, except by well covered with gauze, &c. &c. as utterly death. How praiseworthy would it be to to prevent the possibility of her being dis break through such a dreadfully tyrannical covered from the gardens, although she custom ! and how much is it to be regret. can with the greatest ease observe every ted that some generous, noble.minded man thing that is going on below. Across the of rank does not set the example, and verandah leading to this suite was a shew himself superior to so unnatural a scarlet cloth purda, in which were brass custom. plates, with small holes drilled in them, The present Raja will not be released through which the Ranee addressed her from the female apartments until he is ministers or others with whom she was five years old, when he is to be crowned ; obliged to converse.

and at the same time fetch home his wife,

for he is already espoused. LETTER III.

As yet no man has seen the future The apartments of the palace throughout sovereign, except the prime minister, who are extremely superb, and far exceeded

was permitted, as the greatest favour, in my most sanguine expectations. One suite, consideration of his high rank, and relahowever, more particularly attracted my tionship to the Ranee, to see him; such admiration; in it the most beautiful parts an honour being altogether contrary to of the mosaic work in the Taj have been etiquette. successfully imitated, and the ceilings are During the minority of the Raja his decorated with the greatest splendour and mother is Regent, and with the assistance taste, and at an expense which must have of a ministry, composed of the principal been enormous, from the profusion of pre- Thakoors, exercises despotic sway. The cious stones which have been laid out on extent of the palace is immense, and the them. Attached to several of the apart- quantity of marble which must have been ments are beautiful marble baths, over expended in building it would be scarcely shadowed by orange and other odoriferous credible, were it not known that that stone shrubs, which spread the most enchanting abounds in the hills in the vicinity of Jyperfumes throughout the place; in fact, pore, from whence the greater part, if not no luxury, no elegance, of which we read all, of what was used in erecting the Taj accounts in eastern tales and the Arabian was procured. Night's Entertainments, seem wanting All the temples and monuments comthere to charm the senses and inflame the memorative of suttees are of marble ; and passions. The gardens, which are laid out many of the houses, if not entirely comin the European manner, are surrounded posed, have some parts formed of it. by lofty walls, and terminated by a large There is but one objection which I could artificial lake, in which are a multitude discover in this truly elegant palace, and of turtles, so tame as to assemble to be fed it is one which must immediately strike an on a certain signal, which they well under- European—the want of more capacious stand. The gardens are of considerable corridors and passages ; it is remarkable extent, and are watered by fountains in that the passages leading to the principal every part; there is a great variety of and most splendid parts of the palace are

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