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so narrow as scarcely to admit two people mired by good taste, still there is much to abreast, and many of them without light. be seen at Ameer to recompense a traveller

Elephant fighting seems to be a popular for the fatigue of coming from Jypore. diversion at Jypore; we saw several ele- Just below the palace is the city, which phants at the palace, of a most enormous appears to have been handsome, though of size, and so savage as not to admit the course much deserted, and therefore falling mahouts to approach them. In the rear of to decay. The pucka buildings are numethe city are some very pretty gardens and rous, and give the place an air of magnisummer-houses, surrounded by groves of ficence; but there is none of that regulaorange trees, and cooled by fountains play- rity and uniformity which so materially ing around them; and a number of very improve Jypore; after seeing which, the elegant light marble temples give the whole appearance of Ameer would have afforded scene an appearance of such beauty, as as little amusement as pleasure, we did well nigh to make you doubt its reality. not therefore minutely examine, which Jypore is not celebrated for excellence in may account for the paucity of my reany description of manufacture; it has no marks on it. corn or other articles with which to carry Of Jypore I have little more to say; my on a trade; I am therefore at a loss to un stay there was too short to enable me miderstand whence arises its prosperity and nutely to inspect it, or several places in its wealth, for it certainly is, as it appears, a vicinity well worth seeing; of the city itrich and thriving city. Some very pretty self, what liule I have said will, I hope, toys, &c. &c. were formerly carved in serve to give you some idea of it. Cirmarble in a most superior style, but for cumstances obliged me to hurry through some time they have evidently fallen off, the palace, without allowing myself time and now very few, and those quite inferior, to examine many things highly deserving and at an advanced price, are procurable. of attention, and the same cause compelled

Ameer, the former capital of the pro me to leave the place without seeing the vince, is situated in a small valley, entirely Huwa Muhul observatory, and other surrounded by lofty hills, which are simi. great curiosities in the city and its vicinity, larly fortified to those round Jypore, from a description of which would, I am sure, which place it is distant about five miles, have interested you. I trust, though, that nearly north. The road to it lies over a some of your correspondents in that part very difficult pass in the rear of the city, of the country will oblige you with fur. which, for the convenience of communica- ther particulars regarding the city and its tion, has been paved, but nevertheless the neighbourhood, more entertaining than road is naturally so bad as to be scarcely it has been in my power to give you. Of passable.

the climate and soil of the province of The palace, which since the death of the Jypore I have hitherto said nothing; in late Raja has been uninhabited, is going hopes, however, of a short account of them fast to decay. It is situated half way up proving useful, I will as briefly as possible a particularly high hill, on the top of which, make known to you what has come to my just over the palace, is an apparently strong knowledge on the subject. The soil fort, but of course I had no opportunity of throughout the country is extremely and ascertaining that point precisely. Report unpleasantly sandy, and strongly impreghad spoken of the palace of Ameer, as far nated with salt, a great quantity of which superior to the new one in magnificence is collected and exported from thence. and elegance of appearance ; but from per- Judging from the appearance of the crops sonal inspection I can speak confidently to in the vicinity of villages, and wherever the inaccuracy of the report, and the whole there is a plentiful supply of water, I conparty coincided in opinion. And yet, to do clude that the soil is decidedly favourable it justice, the Dewan Khas is much hand to agriculture, where the earth is unincumsomer, and the whole of the marble is of a bered with rock and kunkur. I have selpurer nature, and even the workmanship in dom remarked a more luxuriant cultivation some particulars is undoubtedly superior; than I saw close to the walls of the city of yet the whole design of the building is far Jypore : but my observations were by no less grand and elegant. The decorations means confined to that spot, or even to its of the apartments are too gaudy to be ad- neighbourhood. Were the population at

all adequate to the cultivation of the such an extent of parched country, burning country, and the ryots protected from vio- sands and rocks, is particularly distressing, lence and oppression, I have little doubt the but the greatest annoyance is the high greater part of Rajpootana, miserable as it winds which prevail at the season. From now is, might be converted into as fine a the beginning of February to the begincorn country as any in India. Gram, ning of July, for a fortnight and three wheat, barley, and even oats, might be weeks together, it blows day and night, cultivated to great advantage, and, with without intermission, a complete gale of salt, saltpetre, and other trifling articles, wind, and the quantity of burning sand be exported, to balance the importation of which it raises, so as absolutely to obscure a number of comforts, and even necessa the sun, is most overpowering. Noexerries which are much required.

tion can keep it out of the house, it peThe climate is beyond a doubt healthy – netrates the best doors; it mixes with your the rains are delightful; whilst they last, food, which is generally in the proportion the weather is temperate, very frequently of one-fourth sand;- if you venture to sufficiently so to make a cloth coat essen open the door, you are nearly buried alive tial to comfort. At that season a westerly with sand; and if you close it, you are wind prevails: whereas in the Duwab, and half killed by the heat. But still with all I believe throughout the provinces, an these disadvantages it is a healthy season, as easterly wind constantly blows. The cold is the climate generally, and from what I weather is very pleasant, althought some have seen I still hope that the time may what foggy at times. The mornings and come, when a great improvement in the evenings are extremely cold; but during state of this extensive province may take the day the heat is considerable, from the place. A mild, generous, and wise governreflexion of the sun's rays by the rocks and ment will effect this by affording its prosand. The hot season, although perhaps tection and support to the ryots, and I may the healthiest, is certainly the most un yet have it in my power some years hence pleasant period, and the heat is generally to inform you, that my hopes and wishes intolerable. The hot wind blowing over relative to Rajpootana have been realized,



To the Editor of the Asiatic Journal. Sır: I lately perused a letter signed Veritas calculates the number of the Veritas, in your Journal for December, adventurers to be thirteen. Is it poscomplaining of the great allowances sible that the employment of these granted to some young men, whom he few young men, in a service distinct designates "Adventurers,” employed in from their own, can occasion a deep military situations under the orders of and lasting injury to the Company's Ofthe British Residents in the service of the ficers ? Having the honour to belong native Princes; this he states, as truly to the latter body, I know them to be disheartening, and a deep and lasting composed of more generous materials injury to the Company's Officers. than to concur in the principles upon Various other reasons are also adduc- which the arguments of Veritas are ed in support of his argument; but as founded. they more properly belong to the con Supposing each of these thirteen sideration of the State, whose in- individuals to receive 1000 rupees a terests he even goes so far as to pro month from the treasury of a native nounce in danger, I shall leave the de- Prince, in what manner can it affect cision upon such topics to its superior the Company's Officers? But Veritas wisdom, and by the simplest statement states it to be a deep and lasting inin my power endeavour to eradicate jury. Let him produce an instance all cause for alarm.

where people of a similar description

now retain their situations and salaries, inclination ceases, they have no penwho have been hitherto employed by sions, no rewards for past services, no any of the native Powers, and he honours from the crown, nothing but may have credit for the assertion. the wide world to range over, with He will not find them with Scindea, for Providence for their guide. And how they have long been discharged; nor frequently the troops of a native with Holkar, for he beheaded some, Prince are many months in arrear, and thus effectually deterred others and how often the Princes have confrom entering his service; nor with the sequently been kept in a state of Peishwa, as he is a state prisoner: dhurna, is shewn by all writers upon where, then, is the mighty cause of India affairs. alarm, or necessity for depriving thir I will here ask Veritas, how far it is teen individuals of a subsistence, not certain, that the Company's Officers perhaps, for themselves only, but for would be benefited by depriving the aged parents, and a distressed wife thirteen gentlemen in question of and family?

their situations ? Whilst they retain The number of officers in the Ma. them, there is still one door open for dras army may be estimated at 1500, a small number of our distressed, and each of whom, from the Lieut.Colonel I do not see why they should not be to the Lieutenant, receives from 704 respectable and worthy, countrymen; to 201 rupees a month, and a consider- perhaps even for some meritorious able portion of them have much more relative or connexion of Veritas himfrom staff appointments, the emolu- self, who may have sufficient interest ments of which they are permitted to

to obtain for him that appointment, receive in addition to that of their though not able to procure it in the regimental rank. This is their state Company's regular service; but should whilst in India. At the expiration of the door be once shut by the influence twenty-two years' actual service, each of the India Government, it will then officer has the option of retiring on a form a part of their settled system, pension for life, according to the pay and be shut for ever. of his rank (he being by that time a What was the situation of the ComLieut. Colonel), 3651. a-year; if he pany's Officers whilst the Peishwa was survives the effects of a hot, unhealthy at the head of his government ? A climate, and other contingencies inci- large subsidiary force, with consideradent to a military life, and continues ble staff upon handsome allowances, until he obtains a regiment, he is per was maintained by the Prince, and almitted to pass the remainder of his so a considerable body of additional days in his native country, upon the troops and irregulars, officered by full pay of Colonel, and the off-reckon. Europeans of the Company's military ings of his regiment, which united are service, upon still greater allowances; never less than 12001. per annum. the former of these are now reduced All this is well secured to the Com to their simple pay and batta, and the pany's Officers, from a service esta- latter are altogether abolished. There blished on a most permanent founda- is a large body of troops subsidized tion, in addition to which, they parti- by the Guicawar, who, for some cipate in common with his Majesty's reason or other, have never received officers, in cases of conspicuous con any thing beyond garrison allowances duct in the honours emanating from at the head-quarters of his Governthe crown.

How different the situa- ment, though it is understood field altion of the thirteen envied adven- lowances were particularized when a turers! They each receive, or are pro- portion of territory, now said to yield mised, from 600 to 1000 rupees a double the original amount, was made month, so long as the Prince thinks over for the payment of it. Rigid proper to employ them ; but when that economy, in every sense of the worit, is

therefore the present leading principle interest I may sincerely hope it will of the India Government; and, though long remain so; but even self-interest the salaries granted to these thirteen shall be no obstacle to the exertion of gentlemen do not immediately issue my humble talents, where I think them from the Company's treasury, it ulti- likely to benefit my countrymen in dismately may; and Veritas's letter may tress. In times like these, where so probably raise a suspicion, that it will do many King's Officers on half-pay and so, and on that event, he may find that with large families have scarcely the he has made a bed of thorns for him- means of living, in lieu of more cadets self to lie upon, when all he will have to fill up vacancies in the Company's secured, will be the wish of the thir- Corps, I would suggest, with defeteen gentlemen that he may long en rence, that a regulation might be joy his repose.

adopted in favour of the requisite numI now hope that Veritas will be ber of half-pay officers from His Maconvinced, if what he complains of is jesty's service. The interests of the an evil, that it cannot be removed two services would thus become more without injuring those who are more united, and all, or at least one mateproperly objects for his kindness, and rial cause of that jealousy which ocas it is not likely to benefit the service, casionally breaks forth, would be erathat the remedy will prove worse than dicated. the disease. On the other hand, whilst Divide et impera, was the favourite the Company holds the monopoly of motto of a gallant King's Officer, in such a vast extent of territory in the which I fully agree; and in equal justice East-Indies, is it wise to agitate mat- to the Company's, see no reason why ters of this nature? Will not others find each establishment should invariably much greater reason for complaint ? have a King's, and never a Company's The Company's service is, in my opi- Officer appointed Commander-in-Chief. nion, the best in the world; from self




Estract from a Plan lately submitted to

quence, produced similar unsuccessful reGovernment for the formation of an easy

sults. and permanent communication by water,

In Europe, and particularly in Great between the Upper and Eastern Provinces

Britain, canal navigation of late has been of India and Calcutta, during the dry brought rapidly to a degree of perfection,

which, a century back, could scarcely have

been anticipated by even the most sanguine. Tre want of a free navigation between Much has consequently been written and the Eastern and Upper Provinces and said on the subject, and certain rules and Calcutta, during the months of January, axioms, derived from extensive experience, February, March, April, and May, when established; but, however suitable they most of the rivers which branch off from may be to the countries in which they were the Ganges become too shallow for large formed, they must fail in others where boats, has long been felt, and considerable they cannot be applied under similar cir. expense has been incurred to remedy the evil, but hitherto without effect, every suc In Europe, the greatest difficulty opceeding year bringing with it additional posed to the establishment of canals, lies complaints of the obstructed state of the in carrying a sufficent body of water over rivers, and the increased delay in the navi- great inequalities of ground, by means of gation. Various plans have been contem locks : but when once formed, they will replated, and resorted to : but they all appear main unaltered for ages. In the plains of to have been founded on one and the same Bengal, on the contrary, the very reverse Erroneous theory; and have, in conse takes place. There is no difficulty or ob


ing up.

stacle in forming a canal, the country be In another place, speaking of the ing one uniform flat, and the soil easy of changes which happen in the beds of the excavation. The grand point required, Ganges, he says, “ The experience of these therefore, is to preserve the canal in a na changes should operate against attempting vigable state, after it is once formed. Be- canals of any length in the higher parts of fore proceeding to the plan proposed, it the country; and I much doubt if any in will be shewn, that the difficulty of keep- the lower parts would long continue navi. ing a canal open in the higher parts of gable."'. Bengal is so great, as to oppose an in Colonel Colebrooke also observes on the surmountable obstacle to success; the beds cuts made in the Baugretty to straighten of the Ganges and its dependent streams its course :-“ There is, however, no other having, in that part of the country, a natural advantage in making such cuts, than rentendency to be constantly changing or fill- dering the passage somewhat shorter by

water ; and it is a question worth considerBoth Major Rennell and Colonel Cole- ing, whether, by shortening the course of brooke, who, of all others, have paid the any river, we may not render it less navimost attention to the subject, are decidedly gable: for the more a river winds, the of this opinion. The former observes, “I slower will be its current, and consequently can easily suppose, that if the Ganges was its waters will not be drained off so soon. turned into a straight canal, cut through Another effect of the shortening its course the ground it now traverses in the most might be, that, owing to the greater rapidity winding parts of its course, its straight- of the current acting against the sides in a ness would be of short duration. Some loose soil, it might too much enlarge the yielding part of the bank, or that which capacity of its bed, the effect of which happened to be the most strongly acted on, would be, to produce a proportional dewould first be corroded or dissolved : gree of shallowness in the middle of the thus a bay or cavity would be formed on stream.”+ the side of the bank. This begets an in The fact of the Baugretty, the Jellingflexion of the current, which, falling ob- hie, and the Matabanga rivers having been liquely on the side of the bay, corrodes it unnavigable for many late seasons, notincessantly. When the current has passed withstanding the expense and labour which the innermost part of the bay, it receives a have at different times been bestowed to new direction, and is thrown obliquely to keep their channels open, is of itself a wards the opposite side of the canal, de most convincing proof of the inutility of positing in its way the matter excavated attempting to form any permanent comfrom the bay, and which begins to form a munication between the Ganges and the shallow or bank contiguous to the border Baugretty,or Hoogly, by their means; and of the canal. Here then is the origin of the fate of all cuts of communication be such windings as owe their existence to tween their occasionally-obstructed heads the nature of the soil. The bay, so cor and the great river, may be conjectured roded, in time becomes large enough to

from that which was made near the Sooty, give a new direction to the body of the to join the Ganges and Baugretty. When canal ; and the matter excavated from the first opened it was only a few yards wide ; bay is so disposer, as to assist in throwing but the stream was no sooner admitted, the current against the opposite bank; than it quickly expanded to as many hunwhere a process, similar to that I have been dred, and two years after its completion describing, will be begun. The action of not a trace of its existence remained; the the current on the bank will also have the middle of one of the principal streans of effect of deepening the border of the chan- the Ganges is now pointed out as the spot nel near it; and this again increases the where the excavation had been made. velocity of the current in that part. Thus It often happens that, in the pursuit of a would the canal gradually take a new form, till it became what the river now is. * Major Rennell in this place alludes partiesEven when the windings have lessened the farly to the track of country

at the head of the descent one-half, we still find the current

Jellinghie, and Matabanga Rivers, on the right

bank of the Ganges; and generally to ench parts too powerful for the banks to withstand it.”. of Bengal where similar changes io what he de.

scribes are observed in the beds of the river. * Vide Rennell's Memoir, p. 214.

† Asiatic Rescaches, vol. vii, p. 26.

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