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cates, according to the letter and spirit of was the risk which he dreaded to run ? its statutes; and, with a view to the real The risk was, lest, from some puerile act, interests of the service and the good of some folly of a day, his son might be exIndia, there is the strongest reason to pre pelled, and in consequence ruined. Why, sume, from the testimonies of what the then, did they attach the consequence of college has already done, and the further ruin for life, to what might be only an ingood effects which might be confidently discretion ? While such a penalty remainexpected from the results just adverted to, ed, parents would naturally be afraid to that it would answer in no common de
send their sons to the institution ; parents gree the important purpose for which it must perceive that their sons, although was intended.” Unquestionably (con innocent, might get themselves into this tinued Mr. Kinnaird) the great misfor
A young man might, under tune which at present existed in that col the statutes, be called on by the College lege was, that the privilege which all other Council to answer such a question as this: institutions possessed was denied to the “ Do you know whether such an act was professors there. Suppose a young man done by such a fellow.student ?" The at Cambridge misconducted himself: his . young man thus interrogated, acting from tutor would immediately say,
the warm impulse of friendship, and, in retire : : your habits will not do here; bis (Mr. Kinnaird's) opinion, well-foundyou will ultimately be expelled, you will ed and honest feeling, (hear!) might say, certainly get into that unpleasant scrape, “I know nothing about it." What was so gu away." A young man thus ad the consequence? Why, for refusing to monished might, even if he quitted col speak out, for refusing to betray his friend, lege, come back at some future period, he was liable to expulsion, and ruin for and retrieve his character. But, if an in life. (Hear !) He did not deny that, dividual be sent away from Haileybury, where a young man, who perhaps might you give him no opportunity to return, have some knowledge of the affair, refused and he cannot proceed to India unless he to answer questions, it would be quite has completed four terms at your college; right for the College authorities to say, in short, all his prospects are blasted. “Sir, it is very possible that you may, or Mr. Malthus farther said: “ the next in you may not know any thing of this mat. herent difficulty which the college has to ter ; but still you must quit our college; contend with, is one which at first sight we will give you every certificate of good might be thought an advantage, namely, behaviour up to this point, but we will the great interest that each student has at not allow a denial of that authority which stake, and the consequent severity of the is vested in us.” This would be very punishment of expulsion. This great se proper conduct on their part, and, he would verity most naturally produces, both in add, on that of the young man : for he the governing body in the college, and should be sorry to see a young man the Court of Directors, an extreme un threatened out of that which he thought willingness to resort to it.” Why it was honourable and good. Perhaps a son perfectly natural that it should be so; and might thus be dismissed on account of a he would appeal to any man who thought high sense of principle ; and if it were so, on the subject, whether it was in human what father could blame him ? He (Mr. nature, if an institution were established, Kinnaird) would say, “repeal this unwhich offered the most extensive and com natural law; let the College authorities bined facilities for gentlemen who were have power to remove: but do not prevent called on to cultivate certain branches of a young man from coming back again, he knowledge (those facilities, too, being of baving retrieved the error under which he fered under the most pleasing circum
fell.” He begged the Court to recollect stances), could it, he demanded, be sup that, in all cases of this nature, punishment posed that any gentleman, any parent, was not infiicted to crush the individual, would refuse to avail himself of such an but to protect the institution. Scarcely opportunity ? Could he reject the kind did any scholastic authority ever say, favour of the Court of Directors? Could he “ tliis young man is quite incorrigible." refuse such a splendid boon? There were No : what he said was, “ I cannot give any but two circumstances under which a refu. time up to the correction of this individual; sal could even be imagined. The one was, because, while I am correcting him, he is where an individual, from peculiarity of corrupting all his companions ;” and, in situation, could command what he looked his (Mr. Kinnaird's) view of the case, the upon as greater facilities of education, and benefit to be derived from any institution which he adopted at his own risk and of this kind depended mainly on the cirperil; the other was, where he feared, that cumstance of there being no contagious if he accepted the proffer of the Direc characters about it. Where characters of tors, some misfortune was likely to attend that kind were found, it was futile to exhis son which might destroy all his future pect good; and, therefore, when those hopes. What, then, in this latter case, who were at the head of an establishment was the evil which be apprehended-what discovered a young man of loose habits, Asiatic Journ.-No. 99.
Vol. XVII. 2 T
they ought to have the power to say to his the fullest discretionary authority. If the parent, “ Sir, you must take your son institution succeeded, the Professors of away and educate him elsewhere.” But course had the merit of it; and he might here the College was placed in that situa be permiited to say, that by introducing tion, that they could not prevent the dan. this compulsory clause, they had taken ger of contagion by an immediate removal from them one mode of insuring its sucof the obnoxious member : persons of every cess; they had prevented them from discridescription might come in ; they inight , minating and marking good and bad concome from any school, or from no school ; duct. No person could point to any if they had certificates of a certain degree result as a proof that this institution was a of proficiency, they were eligible ; but successful one : but if they took away the there was no scrutiny as to their conduct; compulsory clause, if they let others come of that the Professors were not allowed to to the test with those who were educated judge, and to say, if they disapproved of in the college, then they would have an their behaviour, “your habits are such as opportunity of judging whether it did or render you unfit for this place." No: by did not deserve a high character. If, on the present system they were bound to the one hand, persons not educated there remain until, perhaps, they had served shewed themselves, in several instances, three terms, then expulsion might take more skilful than those who were so eduplace, and ruin was inevitable. This was cated, it would prove that there was no the plain fact, for the collegiate authori- necessity for going to Haileyhury to acties were bound down by the strict letter of quire this species of learning; but if, on the law. It had been said, and he thought the oiher hand, the institution shewed itself with great truth, that there was a statute decidedly superior, what stronger inducein force in this college which was con ment could be held out to any parent to trary to the principle of English law, and send his son to a place so celebrated? opposed to every idea of justice : he al (Hear, hear !). At present the young men luded to “the.statute of selection." He were compelled to reside for four terms at conceived it to be most unfortunate that the college. Now, suppose a lad was such a statute should be placed amongst perfectly competent to go through the the statutes of England-for so it wasma whole course in two teris--did be not perfect statute, liable to be quoted in a waste his time, which might be much court of justice. He was ashamed to see better employed elsewhere, during the re. it on record. It would be perfectly in mainder of the stipulated period ? Such telligible, and perfectly fair, if persons were the results produced by the compulwere only asked to submit to it volunta sory clause. Some years ago a complaint rily; but here, unjust as it was, indivi was made that the youths in the royal navy duals were forced to sumbit to it. By that were very deficient in education, it was statute, if a row took place at Haileybury, stated, that the schoolmasters on board the authors of which were not known, ships either had not time, or were deficient the college authorities had a right to select in ability to educate them. The consesuch students as, from their previous quence was, that a naval college was character and conduct, were most likely to founded, and it was resolved that an ophave been concerned, and to punish them, tion should be given to those who entered, even with expulsion, if necessary.
What to have two years of service allowed them, was this but compelling a young man in if they remained a certain time at college. the first place to go to the college, and It was not conducted with any success for then subjecting him to a most grievous a considerable period. The result was, penalty on mere surmise. But taking the that the captains of the navy declared it other case, suppose this clause were re would be better if the boys were sent to pealed, and that a young man were de- the ship at once, instead of going to the sired to leave the College, and obeyed the college. What followed ? Why those mandate : in that case he w.s not ruined, who were at the head of the college athe might get his education elsewhere, and tended more strictly to their charge, and still profit by his Indian connexion. Here, in the course of a year or two the instituhowever, a boon was given in the first tion flourished. Applications were to this instance: but, for a trivial offence--per. day made for adıission to that college haps for no offence—it was changed into a (which had before been looked down upon curse. It was quite necessary that those with contempt), beyond all former precewho were at the head of the College should dent. This never could have been the have full power and authority to preserve casc had the boys been compelled to go. order : but it should not be such a power In this case, also, an option should be as, if once exerted, forbade all future offered; a boon of that kind would be hope. He was quite certain that the Pro most acceptable; this would put an end to fessors themselves must feel how ridicu- all farther bickering on the subject; and, lous it was, to suppose that they could he contended, the Professors were greatly exercise any efficient controul over the interested in not having this question conyoung men, unless they were clothed with tinually discussed.; not in that Court,
where the subject might be legitimately they would be no longer so, if the debated; but, in fact, it was discussed in restrictive clause were removed. That every newspaper whenever any exposition clause rendered the college distasteful, took place. He was aware that it was which otherwise would have been bailed generally said, “oh ! if you do not force as a boon. He would put it fairly to any the young men to go there, they will not man present, whether, with the greatest go at all.” He was not prepared to say confidence in the good qualities, the assi. that, at the time the innoration was first duity, and steadliness of his son, he would introduced, the desire of establishing an like the idea of sending him to this insti. improved system of education was looked tution, where, he must be aware, he was on with an evil eye by any party; it was likely to connect himself with lads of wild merely viewed as a sort of controul of habits? There he must remain for two patronage, by those who were then on the years—at the very critical age, as Mr. point of sending their sons out to India. Malthus had described it, of between "Ol!" said they, “ our sons are now to sixteen and nineteen years. Could any be subjected to a test for four terms, and father reflect on this, without feeling some an unnecessary delay is thus interposed sensations at the risk which he ran by to their progress.” The individuals who placing his son at this college ? Must frained the institution found themselves they not acquit every parent who did feel assailed by interruptions on all sides; but thus, from the charge of any ungenerous they drew a wrong conclusion when they or sordid motive? He had stated the supposed that those by whom they were evils which procceded from this clause; he interrupted were hostile to education, be- had shewn the advantage that would be cause they were displeased with the boon gained by its repeal, and he should like to which was then offered. That was not know what good was derived from its the fact : they were not opposed to an existence? After all, the clauke was in. improved system of education ; it was the serted to correct a possible contingent evil. two years' compulsory residence which they You were afraid that individuals would did not like. If they had promulgated not long avail themselves of this proffered the plan without the compulsory clause, boon. To be sure, with the compulsory no person would have refused, no person clause, it became a very severe ordeal, would have objected. Why should they? rather than a boon. But there was no They must have sent their sons from home necessity for such a measure : individuals for some of the necessary acquirements, would have gladly accepted your kindness and they might as well have gone to the if you had merely stated, “ here is this college as elsewhere. But the misfortune institution-it affords great facilities for of the matter was, they saw that they were education : avail yourselves of it if you obliged to send them there. father please—but if you do not like it, leave it, would " when I place my son at the and seek better education elsewhere." I.et College I cannot remove him, and per. the merits of the college be tried by a haps in the course of three or four terms, public test. If the system out of doors he being a wild and idle boy, may be ex were the better, of course it would supersede pelled." The answer was, “oh! his that now in existence; if it were worse, errors must be punished.”—“Aye,” re those who had been beguiled by it would joins the father, “but give me the oppor. be brought into the college. The college, tunity of correcting his evil propensities unless it were an useful and advantageous myself-give me the two years ; I will institution, could be no source of pride to remove him from his old associates, and the Company. Some persons said, “ You place him with a set of much cleverer boys, wish to get rid of the college altogether though perhaps equally wild. He is my-and if you remove this clause you will property, and I have a right to do with it do so." He, however, did not wish for what I like.” These were the feelings to its destruction; and, though he was not which this part of the plan had given rise. fond of squandering his own money, or He would appeal to the Court of Direc the money of other people, he would not tors, on their own original view and object, grudge the expense of keeping up the in. in support of the proposition he was main- stitution, if only thirty boys were educated taining. That object was, to secure for there, provided those who pleased were the young men a good education, and allowed to send their sons elsewhere. If surely the greater the number of roads this were allowed, new modes of education they opened to that point, the better would would be found out, improvements would it be for their project. Instead of doing be introduced, and the College would $0, they said, “ if you will not travel become more valuable than ever. Were this particular road, you shall be ruined they aware of the moment at which they for life” This was a hardship on the were keeping up this clause? The preDirectors themselves, which they could sent period was an epoch in the history of easily get rid of. It was not difficult to education. Greater improvements bad point out why parents were unwilling been effected in education within the last to send their sons to this institution : twenty years than for five centuries before,
The grammar which Henry VIII. com sess many other acquirements besides those manded to be used in schools had not enumerated in the test, but not one could been superseded till within a few years. proceed to India who could not manage The people were daily enlightened by that at least.(Hear, hear!) The Direcfresh improvements. The examinations tors did not trust to a supposed profiin mathematics at Oxford were formerly ciency which the young men might attain so bad, that they became a reproach to that under the Professors during a residence of university, and the students flocked to four terms. No: they wrote down a test, Cambridge: the consequence was, that which the students must be acquainted more pains were taken in the study of that with before they were suffered to depart branch of education, and the examinations for India. He said, let that test be writat Oxford now presented as good a result ten down and let all, whether educated as those of Cambridge. He was not con in or out of the college, submit to it. An tending here for any system of education; objection had been started on the subject he only said, “ Give us the advantage of of a public examination, namely, that it every honest improvement.” He believed would be extremely difficult to find proit was admitted by all parties that some fessors of the college who would act as evils existed in the college ; and he pro- impartial examiners, and therefore that posed, by the repeal of this clause, to re it would be necessary to have one set to move every one of those evils. The dread- teach and one to examine. The course ful severity of the punishment being done which was taken elsewbere, under similar away, all the ill effects of keeping a youth circumstances, might be adopted here. in the college whom, but for that extreme The students of Queen's College, Cam. severity, the professors felt a strong desire bridge, when they were about to leave it, to remove, would at once cease and deter were not examined for degrees by their mine : there would be no longer a neces own tutors, Dr. Russell, of the Chartersity to wait until he had violated one of house School, had made a very great imthe statutes; all clamour and cavil as to the provement with respect to examinations. exercise of authority would be removed. That school, potwithstanding all the disDifficulties had been started as to the ap- advantages of its local situation, stood at plication of a test, for the purpose of ascer the head of all the public schools of Engtaining the proficiency of the young men. land. All the boys educated at the CharNow the Directors themselves had deter- ter-house were examined before the Secremined that, after a residence of four terms, taries or Chaplains of the Archbishop of a test should be applied, not to the general Canterbury—the whole public were sufmerits, but to the specific qualifications offered to be present--and any persons comthe young men.
petent to the task unight question them; (The clerk here read a list of the Orien any person was at liberty to puzzle them tal languages, in which the young men, as much as he pleased. He could not, proceeding to Bengal, Madras, and Bom- however, see any interest which a professor bay, are required to answer, after a resi- could have in unjustly exalting one studence of four terms at Haileybury, toge- dent, and as unjustly depreciating anoaber with the regulations as to the profi- ther. Having taken up so much of their ciency necessary to be acquired in each of time, he would simply ask the Directors, them.]
whether their object was not education ? Those (continued Mr. Kinnaird) who Assuredly it was. The means they prohad attended to the regulations just read, posed to attain that end were the college. would see clearly that they formed a eom But they did not mean, surely, to say-he plete answer to what was said as to the could not suppose them to have been acdifficulty of forming a test. Here the tuated by so preposterous a notion—that Directors themselves had distinctly writ. “We, the wise men of this part of the ten down the test to which the young men town, wish to circumscribe education to must submit before they received permis. our own system and our own walls." It sion to proceed to India. It was a test, inight be very true that, twenty years ago, the very words of which he was willing to there were no facilities for Oriental eduadopt for a public exanıination before cation : but were they, therefore, by this the college professors or elsewhere, be compulsory clause, to take from the stucause it was a test of qualification. Now, dents all those facilities which now aboundif this test could be acquired out of the ed throughout the country? Five huncollege, or if it could be acquired in two dred years ago, there were only three or terms, where was the necessity of insisting four places where education could be odon a residence in college for four terms, tained : those who wished to acquire and compelling a young man to encounter knowledge had to journey far for it; but the ordeal of the compulsory clause? It that was no longer the case. Instead of was a very low test: it was the test to travelling to education, education now trawhich alone they were required to be com velled home to every one.
If a parent petent, but it must be known, by all. A sent his son to a seminary, and found that young man, when going out, might pos he did not improve so rapidly as he ought
to do, what was his remedy? He would servants, and that it was clearly ascersay, “ If he does not come on better in tained they did possess such qualithe course of twelve months, I'll put ano fications. Now these they could acquire ther horse to the wheel, and bring him up out of the college as well as in it. to the mark in some manner or other." But it was stated that, by remaining Doubtless parents were grateful to the four terms at the college, they proved that Court of Directors for this institution—but they were moral characters. Now he they must lament that they had clogged must say, that no set of men could take the boon with a condition which might upon themselves to be answerable for the end in the ruin of their sons. Under these moral feelings of others; and he did hope circumstances, let not the Directors be sur. that it was not at all necessary to give to prised if men declined sending their sons their Indian servants this species of moral to the college ; let them not be alarmed guarantee before they entered into life, if twenty or thirty young men were, in He was most anxious on the part of every consequence of the repeal of this clause, individual concerned, most anxious on the educated elsewhere. Would the result be part of the Directors, of the Professors, hurtful to the college ? No: the college and of their Indian servants, that the would, in consequence, improve itself; system should be revised. More channels for the Professors would be stimulated to than one should be opened for the educause their most powerful exertions; no pa- tion of the young men, and the Directors tronage would then prevent the exercise of were responsible if they were all closed a sound discretion. If they altered the against them. If the Directors took the system, it would unfetter the Professors, course he pointed out, if they left the who, like the Directors, ought to stand as Professors to act for themselves—to punish much as possible in the capacity of guar- where they saw neglect, to take advandians to those young men, and should have tage of all the improvements in education as absolute a power over them as their which were daily presented to their view, parents. He had no private or sinister and to make a correct application of their feeling in bringing this subject forward: power-they would then have a guarantee be disclaimed all other feeling except the that the exertions of the ablest men would feeling of improvement. Give the young be secured for their service. He felt most men all assistance, but do not throw on sensibly with respect to parents, who, by them that weight of penalty which could the operation of this clause, were often not be borne-which must produce de placed in a most heart-breaking situation. spair. It might be said that the professors By removing that clause, they would re. would see, with great vexation, any at move every objection. But now they tempt to extend education of this kind compelled every boy to go to this colelsewhere. He did not think so; and he lege, and yet he was called on to take an declared to God, if he were a professor, oath, or make a declaration, that he came he would go on his knees and implore the of his own free-will. Having made this Directors to let education be extended. compulsory law, should the youth transHe would say, on the part of the Profes- gress and be expelled, you turn round on sors, that, by repealing this clause, he ren him and say, “ you came here of your own dered them a service he would say, on free-will-you have disobeyed the statutes the part of the Directors themselves, that, -you are ruined in consequence-but by abrogating it, he was removing from you have no right to complain." He them a responsibility which they were not hoped he had proved that he did not wish competent to answer; for, as the system to destroy the college; he should think now stood, it was impossible that the col- it sacrilege to destroy any establishment lege could go on without expulsions. Was for education, if it were at all useful. A it not very hard to expect of any parent to set of most respectable men were consend his son to a place where, at the op- nected with the institution, and he could tion of any set of men, his prospects might wish to see it so elevated, that it could trifor ever be destroyed ? It might be said umphantly stand the test of comparison to a young man, “ You are sent away with any other establishment whatever. because your example is contagious.” They all knew that the moment a public Very good: doubtless such a character institution of this sort arose, as soon as should be sent away. But was it not the system was established, a great numharsh, was it not anjust, that he should be ber of seminaries were formed, for the ruined for life because he misconducted purpose of preparing boys for Haileybury himself? What advantage did they pro College. Some of them were, of course, pose to themselves from this clause? He superior to others; but the establishment had in vain looked for any good that could of Mr. Kearney, of Putney, like that of be derived from it. The only real good Dr. Russell, stood pre-eminently forward. he had ever heard stated, was one which No person who had ever been under his no man ever seriously thought of. It was care, had been refused admission to Hai. sufficient if those young men bad certain leybury College ; whilst others, who were qualifications before they became public instructed elsewhere, had been plucked at