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June beyond 80 or 82, and has sometimes all times, they can always be brought to been known as low as 74. But a failure their bearings. of rain causes an immediate rise, and if Farther to the N. E, and E. lies Caten or twelve days elapse without any, the char, separated from us only by the Soor. thermometer will get up to 96. During mah river and a nullah; it is governed August and September the violence of by two or three brothers, who are eternally the rains in a great measure subsides; but fighting. The other day there was a grand the atmosphere continues loaded with va battle opposite Budderpore, one of our pours; and though the Fahrenheit is not little forts. Beyond them (towards Bur. above 83, yet the sense of heat and incon- mah) is Munnypoor, another hill state, venience is much greater than might be separated from Cachar by some lofty expected at that range. October, in which mountains. In 1817 the Burmahs bad month the rain ceases, is the hottest and possession of this state, which they still most unpleasant in the year.

retain ; and the Munnypoorees, driven The storms of hail and rain which rage from their native soil, have seized on Cawith violence in the spring, appear to be char: a desultory warfare has since been caused by the hills and mountains by carried on, and, if we do not interfere, which the district is covered ; they are Cachar must ere long fall a prey to the generally accompanied by severe thunder. Burmahs, when they will come in im. Fogs are common in the cold season, and mediate contact with us, at a point of the earthquakes not unfrequent.

frontiers ill defined, and totally unpro. Sylhet is beyond a doubt unhealthy; tected. Government might obviate this, during the months of August, September, by taking Cachar under its protection : a and October, the low intermittent prevails. measure at once politic and humane, as it The cholera bas also paid frequent visits is now torn to pieces by faction. The since 1817, generally at the rise and fall lofty range of mountains which separates of the year. Not less than 1016 of the po it froin Munnypoor would form an erpulation have, it is said, fallen victims to cellent boundary against the Burmahs, and it. This drain in the population is sup a very small force, occupying a few of the plied by the influx of settlers from Cachar, passes, would at all times prevent their enMunnypoor, and Assam, who are driven trance into our territory. As the peopleo! from their countries by the misrule of their Cachar have frequently applied to be taken governors. These settlers are industrious under our protection, we have only to sig.' and peaceable, and both in person and nify our intention of doing so to the Burhabits offer a remarkable contrast to the mahs, and they would have no plea whatBengallee. Now I must give you some ever for objecting to it. I do not think a insight into our politics.

soldier would be required on the occasion. The Cosseeahs have occasionally been The Kookies are savages, and said to be troublesome: we have now three posts cannibals: they not long ago cut off a along their frontier, five in the cold season. large party of our Ryots. They care not for the Thannadar's people, The Tipperah Rajah who claims the some of whose heads they have at times country was applied to; but he stated he made free with : but a red coat is so much had no controul over them: which may respected by them, that I almost doubt if possibly be the case, as the hills they inthe Lincoln green of the corps lately ar habit are said to be almost impenetrable. rived here ought not be changed for that There is now a small party of our troops colour. I am told, that by stopping the in a stockade, at a place called Chargosupplies which these poor people draw from lah, and I hope they will respect the red the plain, and which can be easily done at coats.—(John Bull.

SHERWAHRAY HILLS. The Sherwahray Hills, according to tra their proper name, but by one signifying dition, derive their name from a famous the “good hill," " holy hill," &c. They Sennassee, who flourished above 1,000 are situated six miles to the north of years ago ; the people seldom call them by Salem, and to their very basis the country

is in the highest state of cultivation. From desire to gain the good-will of strangers. the bottom to the encamping ground at the Their life is entirely of a pastoral descriptop is seven miles ; the ascent is in general tion, and crimes of a heinous nature are so easy, as to permit of a person being car seldom or never committed amongst them. ried up either in a ton-jon or on horseback. Their disputes are in general settled by

The height of these hills was very cor- the lead-man of each Naud; but when the rectly taken by Captain Cullon, during matter in dispute is of importance, the that gentleman's barometrical observations three chiefs meet together, and having in 1819, by which Salem was found to be heard both parties, pass their decision, 1,070 feet above the level of the sea, and which is always final, and received with half way up the hill. At a village where perfect submission and respect : they persons go up in general to breakfast, it have never yet applied to cur courts for was found to be 1,970 feet above Salem, justice. Their females seem to be much and the encamping ground at the top secluded, at least it is very rarely they are 3,530. Flagstaff Peak, near the encamp seen ; but, from the number of children ment, 3,783, and a hill with a pagoda, which appear, they must either be very about four miles and a half from the numerous or very prolific. By their own camp, was found to be 4,190; the height account they are a very healthy race, which therefore of the encampment above the is corroborated by their appearance; the sea is

4,600 only disease they dread is the small-pox, Flagstaff' Peak.......... 4,850 which some years ago nearly depopulated Hill with Pagoda........

5,260 the hills. No case of the spasmodic choThese hills consist of three separate lera has ever occurred amongst them; a. Nauds : the Salem, the Mochoo, and the lame or deformed person has not been Mootoo Naud, the last of which is the only seen, and many appear to have attained an one now alluded to; it is the most lofty, extreme old age. and a perfect table-land, in breadth about The principal grains cultivated are three miles, and in length nearly seven wheat, barley, and millet; and the impleOn all sides of the mountain there is thick ments of husbandry are the same as those jungle to the summit, but the table-land is used on plains. The land appears to be experfectly clear, and a considerable portion tremely fertile, but after the seed is put of it is under cultivation. The soil appears into the ground it is left to itself; no attento consist of a brown vegetable mould, tion is paid to weeding, &c. producing very thick short grass. There The sides of the mountain in particular, do not seem to be any marks of swampy but also the table-land at the top, present ground, and the water, except in the the widest scope for botanical research. months of April and May, is considered Many of the common flowers of England by the natives themselves equally whole are indigenous to the hills, and many raro some with that on the plains; whether plants and flowers belonging to a more their objections to the water during these congenial climate. Amongst the former two months be well founded or otherwise, is the “ Jatamanse,” or Julian Spikenard; must be determined by experience. at all events a plant of that name is well

From all sides of the table-land the eye known to the mountaineers, and it answers is delighted with the most extensive and exactly the description given of it by Sir splendid scenery, and the clusters of Wm. Jones. But the most magnificent gigantic trees, combined with the rich trees to be seen on the hills are the cedar green of the fields of young millet, recall and the “ Michislia Champucca” of Linto memory the picturesque and beautiful næus, the flower of which is like gold, and appearance of our gardens and plantations of so strong an aromatic scent that bees at home.

will not light on it; of fruits, none lave The inhabitants consist exclusively of yet been seen except the raspberry, red and the caste called Vellalers, and by their ac white, and the “ Septospermum,” both of count emigrated about 600 years ago from which grow in the greatest abundance. Conjeveram. Their manners and mode The domestic animals are black cattle of life are extremely simple, and their dis- and buffaloes; the former are very pumepositions appear to be of the best kind, rous, and much superior to those on the civil and obliging, manifesting a strong plains; the wild animals are clk, hog, bear,

and bison ; tigers have lately found their Neelgherrys, and the facility with which way to the encampment, as also have supplies are procured from Salem, must hyenas and jackals; but none of these add greatly to the comfort of those going animals are said to breed on the table-land. to them. Jungle fowl, partridges, and quails of all The Sherwahrays have been known to kinds are numerous; the bison is by far the European residents at Salem for some the largest animal known in this part of years past, and parties have very frequently India, the elephant excepted, and when gone to them for a few days at a time: but hard pressed, shows a considerable degree it is only recently that they have attracted of bravery.

particular attention, or that they have been The climate of the Sherwahray bills is thought of as a place of abode. During certainly not near so cold as that of the the last two months they have been visited Neelgherrys, but perhaps it may be found by nearly twenty gentlemen and ladies, quite cold enough; it is not intended to who all enjoyed the best possible health ; compare the one with the other in any and amongst their followers, in number respect ; they may both have advantages pe- about 300, only five cases of fever occured, culiar to themselves; and the Sherwalray which appeared to have been brought on Hills may be found a delightful retreat by exposure to the cold night air, and during the hot months, for the European in- sleeping on the damp ground : but amongst habitants of Trichinopoly, Vellore, Arcot, those, three had for years been subject to Madras, and even Bangalore. All these fever, and probably they would have had places are considerably above 100 miles an attack of it below..[Madras Gaze nearer to the Sherwahrays than to the

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SITUATED TO THE N.N.E. OF MASULIPATAM, AND EAST or ELLORE. The Colair is a fresh-water lake of great the S.E. by fifteen small detached emmagnitude, and of the highest in portance bankments, extending in a line over to agriculture. It is situated at the N. E. space of five miles. The breadth of the projecting corner of the Condapilly Circar, lake varies from seven to twelve miles, and is somewhat of the shape of an oval, while its extreme length may be reckoned occupying a natural bollow space of coun at twenty-two, and it measures in cir. try in the interior, where several streams cumference no less than sixty miles, hasten to discharge themselves into it. covering an area of nearly 200 square These streams would run off into the miles. Within its bosom are no less than Ooputair,* if they were not held in on fifteen islands of various sizes, with forty

four hamlets on them, which were origi* The Oopulair, whiclı divides the Circar of nally inhabited by Pariahs, or men of the Condapilly from that of Ellore and Rajahmundry, is a ealt-water river, which contributes very largely

lowest caste among the Hindus; but at to the revenue of the Collectorate. It is visited present they are more than half deserted, by the flood tides as far up as the Colair ; and is with the exception of the small elevated navigated by small boats, which carry grain, fuel, &c. This river produces plenty of fish, and for

spots where the habitations are fixed. The nishes einployinent for a number of poor indi.

whole of these islands are immersed when gent families who reside near its banks, and are wholly devoted to fishing. It carries away any easterly. A river from linnadoor of the same surplus water from the lake. From Darmapooram, description unites with it here, and widens its a hamlet in the neighbourhood of the lake, the channel to 120 yards ; which, however, is rapidly Ooputair, which is deep and muddy, and about and greatly augmented in its progress to join the filty yards in breadt), flows winding in a souther sca between Saaldaug and Gollapollam, after ly direction, vill it arrives at a ferry much fre performing many considerable windings and quented, lying between Culdendy and Yaloor flowings over a flat swampy country, orergrown in paud, whence it shapes ils progress eastward, till its immediate neighbourhood with a species of it is joined by another little salt-water river from low wood peculiar to marshy grounds, Caulyputo , the other district, which river is likewise visited num, Pautipaud, and Lasara, in succession, stand by the flood tides. Thence the Ooputair goes contiguous to its north bank, a few miles before it southerly with several windings, passing by Mula throws itself into the sea; which part of its lagoonia and Peddalunka, where it again runs course is delightfully diversified with wood and cast a small distance before it shapes itself south other objects of interest.

the lake is full, which happens about a famine, since it reduces to great straits month previous to the breaking up of the thousands of the peasantry belonging to rains in a very good season : but as this is the surrounding districts, who are supof short duration, the more elevated parts ported, in a great measure, by the fruit of soon begin to appear above water, and are their labours in the culture of rice on the immediately and very successfully culti. islands and banks of the lake. The numvated with paddy, which in a very little ber of fishermen also, who reside there and time spreads throughout the whole extent find a handsome livelihood by fishing, sufof each of the islands, presenting one fer much upon such failures, and are in great and uninterrupted expanse of ver consequence constrained to resort to other dure. One of the easternmost of the is places, till such time a3 circumstances lands was anciently a place of strong de- favour a return. Not to mention the finny fence, which the remains of a circular forti- inhabitants of this lake, which in a good fication, called Colaity-cotta, serve to shew. season report states it to abound with, in It is the only place of the forty-four vil- great variety of sorts and sizes ; it like. lages on the lake that is inhabited by wise produces a few species of shell-fish, Bramins and the higher orders of Soodras. which furnish the inhabitants with food On a failure of the annual supplies, owing and line. The islands and borders of the either to a dry season or to other causes, lake produce two species of grass, one the lake soon dries throughout, and the called Jumboo, and the other Corak, used greatest scarcity of drinkable water pre- for various purposes, and among others rails; so much so, as not even to serve the for thatching houses. It also produces inhabitants of the islands, who are, upon abundance of certain species of roots, such occasions, compelled to desert their eaten by the lower class of people ; and places of abode, or to supply themselves which is sometimes made a substitute for from the villages situated in the vicinity of bread by bruising them into powder, and the lake. When this happens, and it was preparing the powder in the same manner the case during the years 1816 and 1817, as they are accustomed to do meal or flour it is considered as an evil, equivalent to a produced from grain.—[Cal. Jour.

THE PORTS OF TAGANROG AND KERTCH, IN THE

SEA OF AZOV. WITHOUT wishing to arrogate to

United States, for instance, they reourselves the character of a prophet, quire nothing but a governmeut prowe may venture to predict that the mising as much freedom and security south of Russia will, at no distant to the seller as they do. For even period, form one of the most power- under a government constituted as ful empires in the world; and most that of Russia is, and in spite of the probably, too, under a government frequent wars which this power has distinct from that which may then carried on against the Turks and Perrule at St. Petersburgh or Moscow. sians, which have necessarily operated The countries bordering on the Dnie as a great drawback upon the prosper, the Don, the Black Sea, and the perity of the provinces bordering so Sea of Azov, the Chersonese, Kri- closely upon the seat of them, they mea, the country of the Don Cossacs, bave, ever since Catherine and Alexand Taurida, are, with little excep- ander dispossessed the Turks and tion, so rich in soil, so congenial in Tartars of a portion of them, and seclimate, so happily situated for inter- cured the others against the incurnal as well as foreign communication, sions of these barbarians, increased possessed of such a variety of natural so rapidly in population, wealth, and productions, and so capable of in- importance, that they may now be creasing them, that to rise as rapidly, considered as the most promising proand to become as powerful as the vinces of the empire, and as the graAsiatic Journ.-No. 100.

Vol. XVII. 3 B

no

nary of Europe. The towns of Odessa, «repaired and extended. A bankingTheodosia, Kertch and Taganrog, which house and a quarantine-office were forty years ago formed but so many established under his auspices; a gocollections of hovels, tenanted by poor vernor was appointed; and trade soon Russian fishermen, or lazy Tartars, began to flourish. Foreign merchants now contain numerous industrious shortly began to establish themselves and wealthy inhabitants, generally re at this port, and the governments of siding in well-built brick or stone the countries from which they respechouses; and abound likewise in splen- tively came, sent or appointed consuls did edifices dedicated to the comforts, to watch over the interests of their the industry, and the religious wor- subjects. As trade increased, the ship of the public. The country town was enlarged and beautified; and around them consisted formerly of the number of warehouses about the immense grass-covered plains, called exchange already amounts to 170, the steppes, which, in the possession of building of which alone cost no less the Tartars, were turned to little or

than 2,000,000 of roubles. account; it is now, however,

According to the best accounts broken up by the plough, and pro- the imports at Taganrog, during the duces rich crops of wheat, which are ten years ending 1818, amounted in exported to all parts of the world. the aggregate to 47,549,785 roubles, But although wheat may at present and the exports to 67,433,828 roubles. be considered as the staple commodity The trade, moreover, has been graduof the country, there are also large ally on the increase, for, in 1809, the exportations of various other kinds of imports were 808,775 roubles, and the grain, iron, copper, tallow, flax, lea- exports 1,418,251 ; whilst in 1818 the ther, skins, furs, and, in short, of former amounted to 8,516,775 rouevery production of Russia, however bles, and the latter to 13,856,680. remote. It may likewise be added, There are various causes which that there are few productions, either have contributed to the rapid rise of of the north or south, which might this port. Its situation near the Wolnot be introduced with success into ga and at the mouth of the Don renthese regions; in the Krimea, and ders it preferable to any harbour in some parts of Taurida, for instance, the Black Sea, since by means of the vine and the olive might be grown these two rivers it is enabled to rewith advantage, since capers, the ceive a much greater quantity of profruit of a very tender plant, are pro- duce from the interior at a cheaper duced in great quantities, without rate; possesses likewise greater faciliculture, on the shores of the sea of ties for conveying foreign producAzov.

tions and manufactures into the very Taganrog was built by Peter the heart of the empire, even to Siberia. Great in 1696, for the purpose of re The wheat grown in the vicinity of newing the ancient trade of Russia Taganrog is also the most esteemed, with the eastern world. The peace and setches the highest prices in the on the Pruth, however, (in 1711) oc ports of Europe. But, above all, procasioned a temporary interruption to visions are so plentiful and cheap, that the extensive plans of this extraordi- vessels find it more convenient to renary monarch. They were revived victual here than in any other port. under Catherine II., and will, in all All these advantages will, however, probability, be accomplished during be greatly increased, if the Governthe reign of the present emperor. On ment should succeed in uniting the this monarch’s accession to the throne, Don with the Wolga. At present, the he found the port of Taganrog in a barges coming down the latter river neglected state, and ordered it to be are unloaded at Dubowra (Dubovs

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