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question, every part of which would be purposes would be answered by the subthrown open for debate. (Hear, hear !) stitute proposed ? With reference to the

He would not follow the speakers who first : if the institution had reasonably anbad preceded him through all the topics swered the purposes for which it was in. they had discussed ; indeed there were one tended, there arose a strong presumption or two of those topics, on the consideration against any change ; as to the second, if of which he would not venture to trust it could be shewn that the proposed subhimself; and others of which, speaking stitute was not at all likely to answer these with all deference, he must say that he purposes, then, in addition to the strong conceived them to be irrelevant. They presumption against any change, there had heard a great deal on the former day would be an irresistible presumption against of the absurdity, the injustice, the tyranný, the particular change recommended. and the self-destructiveness of the laws of Between the Hon. Mover and himself, this institution, and they had just heard the former of these questions was hardly one at least of those laws reprobated in open to debate, for that gentleman had the strongest terms by the venerable Direc- candidly admitted the merits of the college. tor who spoke last (Mr. Bebb). But But other speakers having argued that the the question did not comprehend so wide a institution had completely failed that infield of argument-it was simply, as pro- deed it contained within itself the seeds of pounded by the Hon. Mover, whether its own destruction, and one gentleman in certain classes of young men destined for particular, who said this, having professed their service in India ought, or ought not, to appeal to facts in support of his assertion, to be obliged, according to what was called it became necessary to examine the justice a compulsory clause of the last charter-act, of such charges. Similar charges had over to serve a certain number of terms at the and over again been made out of doors; College of Haileybury-the repeal of that and he himself (Mr. Grant) had been clause was the real and only question in taunted with certain predictions, which he debate ; and, unless gentlemen could shew was represented to have made seven years that the grievances of which they com. ago in that Court in favour of the college, plained necessarily emanated from that and asked, in a tone of triumph, what he compulsory clause, he must ask, what now had to say in support of anticipations possible application their complaints could which the event had disproved. have to the present question ? If their Now it was a very trite remark, that a objections were generally to the laws of great deal of controversy would be saved, the college, they might set on foot an in- if disputants would begin by defining their quiry having for its object a total alteration terms. In this, as well as in other argu. of these laws, and might recommend it to ments, it would perhaps be well if this rule the Court of Directors to have the neces were observed. He would then at once sary conference for such a purpose with ask, what was the criterion of the success of the Board of Controul. This was the such an institution as was now under connatural course in such a case; and not a sideration? The Court and the public measure which would send the whole of had been told in glowing terms of expulthe general question into the arena of par. sions and rejections, and the irremediable liamentary discussion. It was not his in- ruin which had covered the future prostention to enlarge upon the general laws pects of several young men in life, in conof this institution : but when he heard it sequence of the deprivation of their Indian asserted in that Court, that statutes which appointments. He trusted that he had, had been framed for the college discipline upon these private and domestic disapby high and most respectable authorities, pointments, as deep a sense of the conrecommended by a majority of the Court sideration due to the relatives of the sufof Directors, and approved by the Board ferers as any person present, as warm a of Controul – when he heard that these commiseration for the mortification they were only worthy of the temper of the must have suffered. He had always lived Spanish Inquisition, and that the mind in with those who felt a sympathy for others ; which they originated would, but for the he respected their feelings as deeply and humanity of the age, have been ready to as sincerely as any member of that Court. exact evidence by the torture-he must be (Hear, hear!) But it did not follow that, permitted so far to deviate from his original because such unhappy incidents had oc. intention, as to say something respecting curred, he must therefore admit his hopes the regulation thus severely condemned. respecting the college to have proved

He had, however, no wish to narrow abortive. When he was forinerly before the grounds upon which this question was the Court, he declared his belief that the to be argued, and would therefore venture institution had been eminently serviceable, shortly to inquire into two points. First, and had foretold confidently, because he had the present system in any fair or rea- expected firmly, its eventual success. sonable degree answered the purpose for Now was it meant to be said that his prewbich it was intended? Secondly, was diction had beon falsified, by the painful there any rational probability that the same events to which he had alluded ? In what Asiatic Journ.-No. 100.

VOL. XVII. 3 F

sense had he predicted the success of the destined for the civil service of the Comcollege? He had told them that he be- pany, the test of its efficiency was to be lieved it would succeed, as a place of pro- sought in the actual fitness of those whom bation for the young men destined for their it had educated. The opinion of Merservice in India, as affording a fit and quess Wellesley had been quoted as to the conspicuous standard of qualification; as deficiencies of the great body of their civil furnishing a discriminating test of merit. servants in India, antecedently to the But a place of probation, in which there existence of their collegiate establishments would be no failures a standard of quali- in England and India ; and it had been fication which all indiscriminately would contended that the delineation given by the reach-a test which would neither try nor Noble Lord in his celebrated minute discriminate any-a measure which would was somewhat overcharged. Possibly that fit every body without exception--he was noble person might involuntarily have adso far from predicting, that the existence mitted a shade too much into the graphic and of such a chimera had never entered his masterly portraiture, which, in the warm wildest imagination. He knew then, as prosecution of a favourite subject, he had he knew now, that if they chose to institute furnished of the defective state of the civil a system of education which in its nature service in India; but the truth was, that should be not only directory, but proba Lord Wellesley had qualified his delines tionary; if they established tests and trials, tion by admissions which it was important and, collecting promiscuously a detined to remember, and which had been to number of individuals, proclaimed that all much overlooked. No impartial observer who could not endure those tests and trials could examine coolly the history of their should be rejected ; and, that if after this oriental possessions, without admitting the they were fond enough to persuade them- acknowledged merits of an integral por selves that there would be no rejections, tion of the civil servants in India at a much that every body without exception would earlier period than the administration of be found to stand the test, and to endure Lord Wellesley; and especially since the the trial—then, indeed, would they soon memorable reforms introduced by Lord discover that they had indulged hopes and Cornwallis. No fair judge could venture expectations, which were utterly incon- to say, that the civilians of those earlier sistent with the immutable laws of proba times exhibited a mass of defectiveness: bility, and that they had only themselves perhaps the truth lay in the mean peint. to thank for their disappointment. (Hear, Many servants of merit, and some of great hear!)

eminence, had, in the times referred to, The true criterion of success which he existed in the civil establishments of Ismeant was a very simple one, and it was dia; but these were not sufficiently supsuggested by the very nature of the case. ported, and had to struggle against the What were the purposes for which the in- serious disadvantages of a considerable stitution bad been established, and had quantity of incompetency, or at least is. those purposes been in a fair degree ap- perfect qualification, anong their bretinen, swered ? In arguing this question, it was and especially among the juniors. Ther his wish, and would be his endeavour, in merits--and these were not few nor isconformity with the judicious remark of considerable-were their own; their de an Hon. Proprietor (Mr. Twining) on a fects were those of their situation and cir. former day, to avoid that exaggerated cumstances. With respect, however, to praise, which only tended to injure its ob- the improved qualifications of the general ject. He had never predicated of this in- body of the civil service at the present stitution - he knew no institution of which moment, there could not be two opinions it could be predicated, that it possessed the All, he was convinced, would agree, that quality of perfection. In the course of the in point of integrity, ability, public spirit, debate, indeed, it had been said by one disinterestedness, and general efficiency gentleman, that the advocates of the cul- for the discharge of the important duties lege upheld it as unimpeachably perfect- confided to them, the service never before as an absolule paragon. He knew not stood at a pitch of excellence so bigh. who were the eulogists alluded to; but he (Hear!) They were not merely improved, wished that the Hon. Proprietor who had but were in a state of progressive improvereferred to them, would particularize the ment; and even already constituted such a documents in which these alleged high- set of public functionaries, as it would flown descriptions were contained ; that he probably be dificult to rival throughout the would point out the men who had indulged world. If this be so, he did not mean to in them, and the arguments which they say that it was owing exclusively to the had employed. (Hear, hear!) For him- college, for he knew that it was attributable self, he had never committed himself in to a conspiration of causes; to the energy speculations so extravagant, and therefore of the administration both at home and it was unnecessary for him to defend them. abroad; to the increasing overflow of

The object of the establishment being public opinion from Europe to the East to qualify the great body of the individuals Indies; to the improved regulations whieb

had been introduced in India : and here effects produced on the habits of the stuhe might particularize that important re dents at Fort William by the previous gulation which enjoined that no civilian education at Haileybury, there could have should employ in his office any of his cre- been only a few of the Haileybury studitors—a provision which had the effeet of dents in India. In that opinion surely the diminishing, if not doing away, that un Hon. Director was mistaken ; for the first limited credit, that had previously consti- division of students left Haileybury about tuted the great pest of the civil service, December 1807, and therefore in SepHe was sensible, alse, that there were a tember 1810, when Lord Minto declared great many improvements which must have his sense of the value of the college at their operation in the general scale, al. Haileybury, the students of the first two, though it was difficult to assign to each its if not the first three years, of Haileybury, specific share : for the great merit of a good had already arrived in India. But this systein of government was, that it was in was not the single testimony. General its nature a self-ameliorating system; im- Hewitt, in August 1811, and Lord Minto, provements springing up here and there in September 1812, bore witness to the spontaneously, like those delicate plants accelerated progress of the students at which were formed to grow wild in a fine Calcutta in the Oriental languages, in climate, without the possibility of discover. consequence of their antecedent acquireing the particular causes of their produe ments in Europe. In November 1812, tion. (Hear, hear!)

Captain Roebuck, addressing the College He would, however, state the grounds Council at Fort William, observed it to be on which he claimed for the present system “ generally admitted as a fact, that the of education at Haileybury a certain sbare students then in college (at Fort William), in the credit of having produced the ad compared with former years, were much mitted improvement in the civil service. steadier in every respect, which was perIn the first place, it would on calculation haps owing to their previous education at appear that of the whole body of civilians Haileybury.” On the 29th of December, now employed in India, about five-sevenths in the same year, a still stronger attestahad received their education at the college. tion to the “ very great and general imDid he then advance an extravagant posi- provementof the students at Fort Wiltion, when he contended that some portion liam was given by the College Council of of the amelioration of the whole must in that institution, and that improvement was all probability be derived from the source traced to the same cause. In 1815, Mr. which had supplied so large a part? Was Edmonstone, then officiating as visitor of it too much, that the increased richness of the college at Fort William, spoke of the the stream was in a degree to be ascribed prudence and propriety of the general to this its principal feeder? He would system of conduct then observable among say further, that there was this remarkable the students at Fort William, and observed distinction between the present and past

that “this gratifying improvement might times : that in the former period of their perhaps be traced to sources beyond that history the improvement descended from establishment.Now granting that, in all their higher to their lower servants, whilst these instances, the individuals cited were now it was rather the reverse, the improve mistaken in their conjectures as to the ment extending from the juniors upwards. causes of the improved habits they com( Hear, hear ! ] He would not quote do- mended, with respect to the fuct at least cuments at any length, to establish the their evidence was unimpeachable. To fact of the improvement in the junior crown these testimonies, he (Mr. Grant) division of the service ; he did not conceive would close with a passage from the last that it would be disputed, for he had all address of Lord Hastings, as visitor of the the highest authorities with him; and college at Fort William, delivered on the almost every person present must have the 23d August 1822, in which that noble means of verifying the fact for himself, person commended the junior civil serfrom the most authentic living testimonies. vants of Bengal; and it would be observed He might appeal not only to the authority that he quoted the passage simply as atof Lord Minto and Lord Hastings, but of testing the fact of the merits of the junior several others, who had immediate oppor

division of that service. Lord Hastings, tunities of ascertaining the real state of referring to the instruction in the Oriental the case. Even suppose those authorities languages attained at the college of Fort were mistaken as to the cause, it was quite William, remarked, " I will rest the arguimpossible for them to have mis-stated the ment upon the rapid succession of young effect; they might err in looking to the men, who, after rigid and impartial exainstitution at home as an efficient source of mination, have been declared competent the improvement they witnessed, but they to the service of the state, by their acquirecould not possibly err as to the facts under ments in the necessary languages-not to their own eye. "An Hon. Director (Mr. dry oflicial tasks alone ; we bave a proud Bebb) had said, that when Lord Minto consciousness that our functionaries have delivered bis testimony asserting the good the capacity, not micrely of discharging

adequately their engagements to their em young writers there being in debt. That ployers, but that they possess also the letter bad been kindly placed in his hands means of rendering incalculable services to by the person to whom it was addressed; the native inhabitants, by readily commu. and notwithstanding it mentioned that many nicating explanation, instruction, or advice of the commencing writers were in some The ability, however, to do this would be degree in debt, a circumstance which the of little value, were the disposition want- writer represented to be unavoidable, it ing. It has not been wanting : with exult- on the whole afforded such a picture of the ation I have learned from all quarters, the remarkably good and moral conduct of kind, the humane, the fostering spirit, the young men upon the Bombay estamanifested towards the natives, by the blishment, as it was impossible to contemyoung men whom the college lias sent plate without lively pleasure. If then, such forth to public trusts. What a triumph it be the general representations, and coming would be to my heart, could I venture to from various quarters, on this subject, he suppose that my inculcations had any share might, he thought, now confidently assert in exciting this generous tone!” He the fact of a general improvement in the (Mr. Grant) most willingly confessed that state of the junior part of the service, to the inculcations of the Noble Marquis had whatever cause that improvement might be their full share in producing these excel- attributed. That besides this, he had been at lent effects; but, at the same time, he could some pains to ascertain the situations filled not forget that most, if not all the gentlemen in India by students who had received their referred to in this eulogy, had completed education at Haileybury, and he was surtheir European education at Haileybury; prised to find the remarkably elevated at that college where it was now said the stations which they occupied for their young men learned only idleness, extrava standing in India. He found, farther, that, gance and dissipation. Such were the generally speaking-let it be observed he fruits produced by the decried institution did not say universally, but generally—the to which he alluded ! (Cries of hear!) Did most important posts seemed to be filled these publicly recorded opinions of re by those who had been the most distinsponsible personages on the spot prove guished for proficiency at Haileybury. To nothing? Were they to be countervailed prove this in detail would be a task of by individual instances of folly or extrava. length, and one to which he confessed he gance among a number of very young was not competent, as it required great men congregated in the heart of a great knowledge of the relative importance of and luxurious capital, and subjected to no different stations in the service : but forcontroul? These, it might however be tunately there was a short proof of it said, referred only to the Presidency of which might satisfy any mind. It was, Bengal. With regard to Madras, he might in the first place, a fact which the slightest refer to the whole series of the official reports comparison of the records of the College of the College Council at Fort St. George, at Haileybury with those of the College from 1814 downwards, documents too long at Fort William would establish, that the to quote, but which spoke clearly and most distinguished students at the former, strongly in favour of the junior civil ser- generally speaking, were also the most vants of that Presidency. He might also distinguished students of the latter. Now, refer to the authority of the gentleman the Marquess of Hastings had, in his diswho sat beside him, and who had for course of August 1818, expressly said, resmany years been a distinguished mem- pecting the college at Fort William, " look ber of the Revenue Board at Madras all around at the distinguished (individu(Mr. Hodgson). That gentleman, who als) of the civil service in the present day: had not been educated at Hertford, and is there one of those--I mean where the who could bave no prejudice in favour of career commenced after the institution of that establishment, kindly allowed him to the college (Fort William), whose characrefer to his authority for the fact, that a ter was not, in the first instance, brought gradual improvement had of late years to light by distinction acquired bere?" taken place in the civil service ; that the The glory Lord Hastings thus claims debts of the junior civilians were little or for the college of Fort William, must nothing; that their habits of order and re- evidently be participated with the sisgularity were most praiseworthy. Indeed, ter institution at home ; and what apthe palpable fact of a great improvement, peared to be true under the Presidency of was confirmed by the general opinion of Calcutta, was also generally true under all who were competent to pronounce one. the other presidencies. There were excepWith regard to Bombay, he had at home a tions, doubtless, in all. Some who were letter from a civilian at that Presidency not pre-eminent at the college in England, who had been educated at Haileybury, rose to distinction in India ; but it did not and whom, from the description, he follow that they did not owe much to doubted not to be the same as had been their education bere. Trace, for instance, alluded to by an Hon. Gentleman (Mr. the honours and degrees conferred at Bebb) as having stated the fact of the the University of Cambridge, all which

are recorded, and then trace the subse- however, that was in his power he had quent career of the individuals who had done, by applying to as many of those received them. Many names would be now at home as he had access to, and to found of conspicuous merit, both at col. the friends and relations of others. He lege and in after life; but, on the other should not trouble the Court with the hand, not a few who had taken compara names of those, whose sentiments respecttively low degrees, subsequently became ing the utility of the college in these eminent: but was it thence to be inferred several instances he had inquired, though that they had derived no benefit from their he held a list of them in his hand, which previous education ? Not so ; he entirely he would readily shew to any person preconcurred in the opinion of Lord Gren- sent; but he would state as the result, that ville, as to the benefit derivable, even having ascertained the opinions of no from breathing the atmosphere of a well fewer than twenty-six gentlemen who had constituted seminary. Lessons were there gone out to India from Haileybury, and written on the mind, as it were invisibly, most of whom had been highly distinwhich were subsequently brought out and guished at the college, he found that all made conspicuous by the heat of active distinctly concurred in avowing their great life. (Hear!) Still it was a strong obligations to that institution; and, when fact that eminence at Haileybury bad it was considered that the individuals to usually been the forerunner of eminence whom he had referred had not been sein the civil service. He had been sur lected, but were all to whom he had acprised to hear it urged in disparage- cess, he conceived their testimony to be of ment of the college, that in the course of great weight. He wished, indeed, the only sixteen or seventeen years since the Court to consider the real weight and time of its first students landing in India, effect of such testimony. It had formerly it had not yet afforded a governor to one of been said, that the distinguished students the presidencies! This was a singular sent out from Haileybury were exceptions ; charge enough: but it suggested to him to it seemed to be thought that they had exmention, that the institution had already celled, not in consequence of their confurnished eminent individuals to the de- nexion with the institution, but in spite of partment of the secretaries to government, that connexion. Could this be said, when a department of the very highest impor- he produced, under their own hands, their tance and responsibility. Of five or six own authority, as a decisive proof that civil secretaries at Calcutta, three (Messrs. they owed their subsequent elevation to Mackenzie, Prinsep, and Sterling), were their collegiate education at home? Why, distinguished prize-men and proficients at on this subject, their evidence was not Haileybury; of four secretaries at Ma- only admissible, it was clearly the best dras, and four at Bombay, two in each place evidence. Every man of common facul(Messrs. Clive and Macpherson Macleod ties knew whether he had profited by his at the former, and Messrs. Norris and education at a particular seminary or Simson at the latter,) were of the same not : it was common to hear it said, “ at

and a third (Mr. Farish) had just such a school or college, I got great good; been promoted from the same situation at such another, we did nothing; at such at Bombay. If then, on the whole, it another, I improved much, but it was appeared that the average improvement of by private study, and not owing to the the junior portion of the civil service had instructions of the place.” In favour of the corresponded with the average influx from Hertford system, some strong and interestthe college at Haileybury, and if it also ing acknowledgments of the nature referred appeared that the brightest ornaments of to he had cited on a former occasion; he the junior civil service had also been the now held in his hand many more. It would brightest ornaments of the college at have gratified him to communicate to the Haileybury, then, it seemed to him to Court the cordial and fervent language in be established with almost mathematical which several of the writers expressed their certainty, that the previous education at obligations to the seminary in question, Haileybury had been productive of signal and their opinion of its value; but, by benefit to the civil service. But to these way of sparing the time of the Court, he considerations he would add what he be- would be content with a single quotation: lieved, on the best evidence within his it was not from a private letter, but from reach, to be an undeniable fact: that the a pamphlet published in 1893, and enindividuals, who having gone out from the titled " A Letter to the Chairman, Decollege, had distinguished themselves in puty Chairman, and Court of Directors India, very generally admitted their oblic of the East-India Company, on the subgations to the course of education at that ject of their College at Haileybury; by a establishment. Had it been possible, in Civilian." As the publication was anonydeed, to put the question to those gentle- mous, he would not name the author, men universally, he should not have fear- though he had kindly disclosed his name ed to stake the fate of the institution on to him : but he understood that ill health the general effect of the answers. All, had compelled him to quit India and the

class;

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