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service; and that he had since taken his which he was about to refer, in proof of degree at one of the universities. Proba the beneficial effects of the system at Hertbly his name was well known to other ford. Herc, however, he would be brief. gentlemen present; and the work con It was not necessary to quote at length the tained internal evidence that the author decisive testimonies of Lord Vinto, Gewas fully competent to do justice to the neral Hewitt, Captain Roebuck, and the subject. He was not a prejudiced friend College Council of Fort William in 1812, to the college ; for, where censure seemed and Mr. Edmonstone in 1815. These had to him necessary, he had spoken freely. formerly been read to the Court,* and This gentleman, however, wrote as fol they might be found in the excellent work lows :

of Mr. Malthus on the subject of the “ As far as regards the progress of the college. Sufiice it to say, that the effect students, and their habits of application, it of these testimonies might be concentrated appears, as well by comparison with other in the words of Lord Minto, when he collegiate bodies as by the reports of the described the students translated from examinations, that there has been generaliy Hertford to Fort William as “honourably great reason to be satisfied. We must distinguished for regular attendance, for follow these youths to, India, however, if obedience to the statutes and discipline of the we would learn the full benefit of this college, for orderly and decorous demeanour, valuable institution. It is there a subject for moderation in expense, and consequently of universal remark, how much the writers in the amount of their debt; and, in a word, of the present day have the advantage of for those decencies of conuluct which denote their seniors in point of general education, men well born, and characters well trained." and how much better qualified they are to But, in order to appreciate the weight and enter upon the offices to which they are force of these testimonies, it was necessary destined. In religious feeling and mora to observe two things. First, the state of lity there is a decided amelioration; and the service subsequent to the establishment gambling, a vice for which the service in of Haileybury College must be compared India was formerly noted, is now very with its state previously to that period, little practised I might almost say en Now, read only the striking picture given tirely abandoned. The oriental languages in Lord Wellesley's minute of the position are now so universally known, that not a of the young civilians, “ abandoned (as single civilian enters upon his duties as a he says) at the age of sixteen or eighteen, public servant, who is not able to conduct with affluent incomes, to pursue their own business in one or two of the vernacular inclinations, without the superintendance dialects. In this respect there is a strike or controul of parent, guardian, or masing contrast between the elder branches of ter." Or read the forcible statements of the service and their juniors, and the Mr. Tytler, himself a civilian, in his numerous evils which formerly arose from “ Considerations on the present Political an imperfect intercourse (through the me, State of India;” remembering that the dium of corrupt interpreters) between the descriptions given by Mr. Tytler, though officers of government and the people, are penned about 1812, apply to his own ex. now entirely removed. It is true that perience of a residence in the college of these languages are studied in India as Fort William, which terminated in or bewell as in England; but it is here that fore 1808. Independently of individual the chief difficulties are overcome, more cases of young writers incurring expenses especially if the Sanscrit language be to a degree absolutely enormous, Mr. made the object of study, and the student Tytler states, “ that he is certain he conhas in India little else to perform than the fines himself within bounds, when he easy task of adding to his stock of words, gives the average sum of 10,000 rupees to and improving his pronunciation. On what clear off the tradesmen's bills contracted account, then, has the East-India Col during a residence in college.” And the lege disappointed public expectation ; and rest of his delineation is in exact keeping how happens it that an opinion is entera with this single feature. Contrasted with tained by many that it would be a bene- such descriptions, the admitted improveficial measure to abolish it altogether? ment among the junior servants would The reason appears to be, that the evils appear in its proper light. But, secondly, which have been felt only at home have it was particularly important to remember been proclaimed, perhaps exaggerated, by that all the testimonies, from Lord Minto interested individuals, till they have become and other authorities in India, in favour the subject of general animadversion, al- of Haileybury College, were casual and though, in point of fact, they have borne spontaneous testimonies; they had not no proportion to the existing benefits.” been applied for, or in any manner elicit

This excellent passage would close what ed; they were not answers to enquiries. he bad to offer on the more general from this country. Those eminent persons grounds he had hitherto taken, and would serve as an introduction to the more direct and particular testimonies from India, to

* Vide Asiatic Journal, vol. iji. pp. 353, 580,

&c.

were not called on to say any thing re lay the students whom the present exaspecting Haileybury, either favourable or mination pronounces unqualified for the otherwise ; they had been led to volunteer service." their praise, merely froin the strong im With respect to Bengal, these citations pressions produced by what they saw and would surely be held conclusive. As to experienced. It was this circumstance the other presidencies, if direct written which stamped on their attestations a pe- testimonies were not produced, yet the culiar value. While, however, he would most satisfactory evidence would be furforbear from fatiguing the Court by nished, on referring to competent and unreiterating testimonies formerly cited, he prejudiced civilians recently returned from felt it to be important to adduce some those presidencies; and opportunities of which had had no existence at the period such reference must be within the reach of of the former discussions respecting the every member of the Court. With regard college. And here let Lord Hastings to Madras, in particular, he would beg be referred to. In his public discourse to again to refer to the very valuable authe college of Fort William, in the 30th thority of his Hon. Friend beside bim June 1817, the Noble Visitor expressed (Mr. Hodgson), wlio had allowed him to himself as follows:

say, that having originally felt great The interest felt in the concerns of doubts as to the probable utility of the your institution is not confined to the college at Haileyhury, he had become a public of this country; it is an object of warm advocate for it from having witnessattention to a large portion of the publiced its beneficial effects in India. The of England and of Europe. In tracing same gentleman had informed him that, in the causes of the singular success with which consequence of the modifications introthis great and distant empire is governed duced into the system of Indian adminiswith so much apparent ease, and preserved tration by Sir Thos. Munro, modifications in such tranquillity; the attention of every tending to an union of the judicial and observer must be arrested by those institu- financial departments, important judicial tions which are destined to form the future duties had, in many instances, been legislators and statesmen of India, and thrown on the junior civilians employed which have already contributed so largely to as sub-collectors of revenue; and that, the general improvement in the administra- for the discharge of these duties, tion of affairs. The institutions of Hert- they had, in a surprising degree, been ford and of Fort William will neces found prepared by the excellent general sarily become objects of the deepest in education which they had received at terest. The institution at Hertford has but home. In corroboration of these statevery lately been subjected to the minutest ments, he might also refer to Mr. Edward serutiny of the public at home, and it Greenway, a civilian on the Madras es. kus passed the ordeal with an increase of tablishment, who had lately returned to honour and reputation, which, to those who this country with a high reputation, and from its effects in this country see its value, who was a disinterested witness, never cannot but be a source of high gratification.” having been connected with the college at

Was this, however, the only testimony Haileybury, and a peculiarly competent from Lord Hastings? In a subsequent witness, having long been an active memdiscourse, delivered on the 15th August ber of the Superintending Board of the 1818, he thus spoke :

college at Fort St. George. This gentle“ It probably has never happened to any man, however, had kindly permitted him to other nation, that individuals belonging use his name, in confirmation both of the to it should be placed in situations of fact of a general improvement in the active pre-eminence and extensive super- junior division of the civil service at intendence, at so early an age as is the Madras, and of the opinion that the system case with the British gentlemen sent out of education at Haileybury constituted for the Hon. Company's services. From one very efficient cause of that improvemy own personal opportunities of obser ment. With regard to the good effects of vation, I can say that, almost without an the Haileybury system, in grounding the exception, the persons invested with those students in the oriental languages, he was high trusts, at what appears so premature very unwilling to occupy the time of the & period of life, prove that wisdom Court. Mr. Malthus, in his admirable standeth not in the length of years.' Their work, had stated some very striking facts probity and mildness in the administration on this topic. One of his authorities, Lord of justice, their patient and impartial in. Minto, had distinctly asserted the proved vestigation of complicated disputes, and utility of the elementary institution in their kindly honourable feelings towards the oriental languages at Haileybury, as the natives, reflect the greatest credit on tending to abridge the time allotted to the that general system of education at home, study of those languages in India ; and which prepares youth to discharge such the reports and other public documents of important functions so competently. This the colleges of Fort William and Fort groundwork is, without doubt, possessed St. George, during a series of past years

documents accessible to all-presented a Canarese nations. The acquisition of the mass of evidence decisively establishing latter, therefore, it is evident, must be the same fact ; evidence which it was greatly facilitated by a knowledge of the impossible to exhibit to the Court in all former, and it has accordingly been found, its fulness, and equally impossible to that the progress made by the students of abstract or condense without injustice: the college of Fort St. George in the altainhe should be satisfied, therefore, with a ment of them, has been incomparably more general reference to these authorities, ex- rapid and satisfactory since they have studied cept as to one point. He understood that the Sanscrit in England." a story had appeared in one of the public The report proceeded to name fire stupapers, stating that a young man, in- dents, Messrs. Thomas Munro, Wheatstructed in all the oriental learning which ly, Robertson, Hooper, and Elliott, as Haileybury could furnish, bad found his distinguished for the rapidity with which acquisitions utterly useless on his arrival at they had gone through the course of inMadras; and this, it seems, was urged as struction at the Madras College ; in one a conclusive argument against all the and all of whom he (Mr. Grant) was oriental instruction of Haileybury. Ob- gratified to find students of high eminence serve, that this statement was made in for proficiency at Haileybury. Were he Feb. 1824. Now how stood facts? Dur now to enter into a narrative of particular ing the few past years of the college, no facts, illustrative of the advantages which systematic instruction was afforded in the the young civilians in India had reaped

Sanscrit tongue. That language, however, from the lessons inculcated at Haileybury, if not the parent of the three languages his address would never reach its end: a vernacular within the range of the Ma- single specimen or two must suffice. Mr. dras Presidency, was at least so intimately Stokes, most honourably distinguished a connected with those languages, as to Hertford, was employed as an assistant afford the best preparative for an acquisi- collector under the Madras Government, tion of them. Prizes, indeed, were long and, in the absence of his superior, was since given for proficiency in Sanscrit; but unexpectedly called on to make a report 10 the adoption of this, as a part of the sys- the Government on a highly interesting tem of the college, did not, as he be subject of administrative economy-he be lieved, take place till 1814; when, on lieved, on the regulations proper to be the recommendation of the Examining adopted in expectation of a famine; and Board of the College of Fort St. George, this gentleman, then at a very early period the study of Sanscrit was established at of life, had acquitted himself on the sub. Haileybury, and though not made actually ject so ably, that he was immediately obligatory, was enforced on all the Madras summoned to Madras and promoted, Mr. students as a matter of trial, and was also Stephen Babington, one of the early ornaencouraged generally. The effect could ments of Haileybury, and the very first not be better stated than in the words of student from that institution who had the Examiners of Madras, writing offi- ever set foot in Bombay, had owed his cially, of date the 20th December 1817, rise in like manner to a masterly report that is more than six years ago; and their made on some topic of general polity; testimony he would cheerfully confront but he (Mr, Grant) had selected this iue with the anonymous accusation to which stance from many others, in order to menhe had referred.

tion the sequel of this gentleman's brief “ In consequence of our recommenda. but honourable career. In a humane attion, the study of the Sanscrit is pursued tempt to extinguish a fire, the fall of a at Haileybury by those intended for the beam bad cost him his life: but, such was civil service of this Presidency; and we the impression which his merits had made cannot conclude this report without no on the minds of the settlement in general

, ticing particularly the great advantage which that a large subscription had been entered it has afforded to many of the junior civil into, for the erection of a statue in comservants who have latterly joined the institu. memoration of his talents and virtues. tion, in the acquirement of the colloquial (Hear, hear !) Here, then, he would languages of the coast.

terminate his view of the benefits of this « This language, which influences every institution in India ; merely pressing it on tongue from the confines of China to the the reason and justice of the Court to say, western limits of Persia, and is radically whether all these good effects, which had connected with many of the dialects taken place since the establishment of the spoken in Europe, may be considered as college, had been produced, not by means the principal key to those of India; for of this institution, but in spie of it? If though the dialects of the south are not so, he could only srish that the same radically connected with it, its terms are anomaly might continue; that the college liberally intermixed with the vernacular might still go on, doing good by the rule speech of the Tamil,* Teloogoo, and of contraries; that it might still and long

exhibit the phenomenon of a system, de* " Including the Malayalam." monstrably perniciones in all its presumable

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, and unspeakably beneficial in educate the Indian statesman, ought to ling latter , therín, i sin all its actual results

. (Loud cries of hear!) give him that which he might elsewhere was greatly faciszen Having now taken a survey of the effects acquire for the peculiar duties of his sta all forder , and a la sentent of this institution abroad, he would turn tion, and to superadd whatever was pe

his attention to its operations at home; culiar to the qualifications requisite for a i the college first

still looking at the system rather in a prac statesman in India. He did not know of | mart of 122, du 為划拉娜

tical

, than a theoretical point of view. He the existence of any seminary which conpapud and satusan

would not enter into details, but confine centrated, in any measure equal to Herte The SUARTI IN [yeah

himself to this general proposition—that ford College, the advantages that were
every person who sent his child to a semi- requisite for the purposes stated. Law,
nary had intended him to derive from it history, political economy, were not taught

one or more of these three advantages : the systematically any where but here. The Kinguished for det naz* communication of instruction, the acqui- oriental languages were not elsewhere to

had pure bomen 23 sition of friendships, and the formation of be had with any certainty; and, in short, w them at the Mes like habits. It was with a view to some of both his own observation, and the testiall of wheat is bet these objects

, he would take it for granted, mony of persons who were by no means ed to find soldes its that a parent would make the selection of interested in giving false representations,

a particular seminary. Let the system of led to the establishment of the impression education pursued at Hertford College on his mind, that the system was superior be briefly viewed in reference to these to all others for its purposes. He would points ; and especially let it be considered refer to the contents of a letter, which on in contrast with the proposed plan of a a former occasion had, with a laudable public examination, and the establishment candour, been produced by the Hon. Memof a test of qualification.

ber for Aberdeen, and which was to be With regard to the first point, he would found in the fourth volume of the Asiatic

not contend that a perfect system of lite- Journal, page 72. It was written by a Les rary instruction was to be found at the gentleman who had a son educated at

college : but, as far as his information had Haileybury, and who thus expressed him.
extended, he was not acquainted with any self :
establishment in which so much was ef. “ The young man went to Hertford, he
fected, in proportion to the means adopted, studied his four terms, and I have not any
the number of students, and the length of reason to regret the advice which I re-
stay allowed to each. The course of edu ceived. On the contrary, I am perfectly
cation was indeed appropriate ; and here satisfied, that not only in political economy
he could not help noticing the question and Oriental science, but in Greek and
of an Hon. Proprietor, who asked whe- Latin, in polite literature of all kinds, in
ther more learning and preparation were general taste, in the use of the English
required in statesmen and diplomatists in language, and I may add in manners, he
India, than were necessary to public received a higher measure of cultivation
functionaries holding parallel situations in than he could have received under any
this country? He could not answer this other institution that I ever heard of.
question better than in the words of the “ As to his morals, I got him back just
Marquess Wellesley. That eminent per- as I parted with him, honest and modest,
son had observed, respecting the civil strong in sound feeling and self-command;
ervants of the Company, “ they are re and I know that inine is not a singular
uired to discharge the functions of magis Another young man from this place
tes, judges, ambassadors, and governors ran the same course, and with at least
provinces, in all the complicated and equal success-I believe much greater,
ensive relations of those sacred trusts I heard of many names more distinguish:

exalted stations; and under peculiar ed than either, and I have no doubt their
anstances, which greatly enhance the conduct was still more creditable."
pity of every public obligation, and Now, he referred to this testimony, not
ifficulty of every public charge. only because it was in every view unex-
duties are those of statesmen in ceptionable, but because the commenda-
other part of the world; with no tion which it gave of the education at
aracteristic differences, than the Haileybury, accurately corresponded with

offered by an unfavourable cli- that which he had heard from numerous
foreign language, the peculiar individuals, fully competent to speak on
d laws of India, and the man the subject. In fact, he did not rely on
inhabitants." Therefore, he had any single opinion : he had taken means
ity of Lord Wellesley for assert to collect information from a variety of
it was a still more arduous work independent and trustworthy sources.

In a statesman or diplomatist for particular, he had consulted two gentle. an, other things being equal, men, one of Cambridge, the other of orthy discharge of those duties, Oxford; who, themselves enconnected ry occasions, might be deemed with the India College, had had the opfor this country.

And it stood portunity of accurately observing and be, that a seminary intended to coming acquainted with its system. One Journ. -No. 100.

VOL. XVII. 3 G

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of these had for several months watched objections might be stated to comprize two the progress, through the college of Hai. heads : first, it was complained that the Jeybury, of a very near and dear relation, examination was not a public one; and who had previously distinguished himself secondly, that it was conducted exclusively at the public schools in a very remarkable by the professors of the college. manner; yet it was the surprise and ad As to the first objection, he had always miration of the friend to whom he had just felt, and had long since taken opportuni. referred, to witness the extraordinary im ties of expressing a sufficiently strong opiprovement of his young relation under nion on the inexpediency of viva voce the course of education at Haileyhury. examinations, properly so called. In the As he had no written opinion to produce Senate-house of Cambridge (where, perfrom the gentleman, he would take the haps, was exemplified the bese actual sysliberty of naming him : it was the Rev. tem of examination in existence), there Mr. Venu. Indeed, he (Mr. Grant) was prevailed a mixed process; the trial being bound to declare his impression to be, that partly in writing, and partly by viva voce, so far from being deficient and inadequate But any one would have an improper idea to the communication of necessary instruc of the latter mode, who supposed that it tion, the system, if open to any doubt at was conducted in the usual manner of all, and he requested to be understood viva voce examinations. In the former case, merely as stating an unformed doubt, the examination was conducted wholly in might, perhaps, be questioned as straining writing: in the other, the examiner proto too great a pitch the faculties of the pounded his questions viva voce ; but they student, as applying too potent a stimulus were put to the whole of a class at once, to the youthful mind. The other gentle and the answers were all given in writing, man to whom he referred had resided at and read by the the examiners afterwards. the college six months, and had afterwards In his opinion, an examination conducted gone to Oxford, where he also distinguish- in writing, was unquestionably the best ; ed himself at a very distinguished college. he considered it as the only method by He held in his hand a letter from this which you could fairly bring to one com. gentleman, fully and ably entering into mon measure, the talents and acquirethe whole of the present subject; and to ments of a variety of young men. Sup. any inquirer, he would willingly both com pose, for instance, a classical examinamunicate the whole letter, and reveal the tion: if an examiner presented a book to name of the writer. At present, he would a number of young men, in order to de read only that part which concerned the termine their comparative merits, how was system of instruction at Haileybury. it possible for him to select passages for “ The system of education there pur

each student which should present an sued, is an instance of the practice of the exact equality of difficulty to each, and, most difficult theory ever proposed to learn therefore, furnish an accurate test of comed men—a general education. The col parison amongst the several members of lege is literally an university; and not one the body? It was perfectly impossible to where the students may choose their branch An examination in writing was of learning, one man studying mathema the only criterion, which would in the most tics, another classics, another oriental li. effectual manner compass these objects. terature, another law, and another history; This was his first reason for preferring but where any student that distinguishes such a mode of examination. His second himself creditably, is bound to attend to was, that it was impossible for any exa. each distinct branch. In all my stay at

miner, whatever might be his faculties, to Oxford, I never saw more intense compe carry in his mind, the merits of each stutition for honours, than I witnessed at the dent out of a long line of persons, so as East-India College ; whether I consider accurately to classify them by the force of the number of hours required for pre. his memory alone. . Nor could any use of paring to attend the various lectures, or notes hastily made, as he listened to each the great variety of subjects to which the probationer, enable him to measure toattention is directed without intermission, gether the relative proficiencies of all. The without a single day of relaxation, for more only satisfactory method was to have the than four months together in each term. I

answers in writing: for then he was posmust confess, I am not so much astonished sessed of preservable documents, which he at the great proficiency which the studious might mutually compare at leisure, and attain in every department, as at the cir

with deliberation. His third reason was, cumstance of so few turning restive, and that in many subjects of examination, refusing to be driven at a rate, to which not only was writing expedient, but noone should judge the minds of such young thing could be done without it. In conmen to be unequal.”

struing a book in a foreign language which He would now advert to the objections presented easy passages, or in the elemen: urged against the system of examination pur tary parts of mathematics, or geometry, it fixed at Haileybury, and the proposed sub. would mostly be in the power of the stu. stitution of a public examination. These dent to give his answers riva roce with

do so.

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