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elsewhere, to take a view of the stolen are of opinion, under correction of a prey, and to carry it home; whilst the wiser judgment, that the orders already former quietly smokes his pipe, being enacted and above cited ought to be sure that his thieves will in every corner maintained with all possible vigour, and find out for him sufficient game without that the several interpreters ought, if any trouble to himself. The thief, the possible, to be kept strictly to their duty: seller, the interpreter, are all ready for that further, a constant attention should his service, because they are all paid by be paid to the good order and tranquillity bim. In some cases, the purchaser unites of our town, and to those people called himself with the seller for the purpose of bondsmen, or hirelin s, who by all possideceiving the interpreter ; whilst in other ble means ought to be prevented from cases the interpreter agrees with the thief dwelling within the houses and campongs and pretended seller to put the stolen of our inhabitants, and permitted only persou into the hands of the purchaser. to reside either in the Cainpong Baro, or There wants on the side of fair dealing elsewhere; and finally, that the purchaser the necessary precaution and the requisite of a stolen man or woman should, on their scrutiny, and on the opposite side the being claimed, be obliged immediately to profound secrecy of the prisons, and the deliver them up, without cost ană damage, strict care in shipping the slaves, corrus to the innocent person, the purchaser havpond with the licentiousness with which ing then no in lemnification to demand the transfers are fabricated.
but from the interpreter; and also that A distinction ought, however, to be made every one without exception should be between such illegal and criminal practices, obliged to carry his slaves for sale on and a more moderate trade in slaves ; board his vessel in broad daylight. All many of whom, it is true, are stolen, but these being punctually observed, would not in our vicinity, nor in the districts of have a most salutary effect; and for the the Company; the other part are such better establishment of the necessary meapersons as, according to the particular sures, it would not, in our opinion, be laws and customs of the natives of Celebes, inexpedient to suspend, if but for one have in some way or other forfeited their year, the exportation of slaves. liberty, either in war, or for some misde. The undersigned Committee Aatter meanors, or on account of debts. These themselves that, as far as possible, they slaves, indeed, are higher in price, and have given satisfaction in the performance the purchaser cannot make so great profits of their duty, and subscribe themselves upon them; but they may appear in broad with profound submission, daylight; an interpreter may with security (Siuncu) A. J. Van Schinne, Fiscal. answer for them ; such slaves can also be
S. Monsieur, License-Master. shipped very quietly in the day time; the horrid circumstance of murder abetting
Our next number will contain theft is not so much to be feared, and
the Appendix to this Report. There our town has to apprehend considerable less danger from that description of slaves
will be found in it a variety of details than from the one mentioned before.
shockingly interesting, as exhibiting In order to put this trade on a toleralıle the character and consequences of the footing, so that all abuses may be effectu- slave-trade and slavery of the Eastern ally remedied, the undersigned Committee Islands.
JOURNEY FROM ORENBURG TO BOKHARA, IN 1820. The commercial relations between 1820, the Emperor Alexander (espeRussia and Bokhara have been on the cially desirous of extending Russian increase for the last fifty years, and commerce towards the East), resolved so anxious was the government of the on sending in his turn an embassy latter country to preserve them, that to Bokhara.
The ambassador apit sent, from time to time, ambassa- pointed was the Counsellor of State dors to St. Petersburgh. In the year Negri, attended by a secretary, a na
turalist, three staff-officers, and three paradise. From Katagan to Buchara, interpreters. They left Orenburg on the country is covered with houses, the 20th of October 1820, accom fields, orchards, and gardens, with panied by an escort of 200 Cossacks, shady walks, often surrounded with as many of infantry, 25 Bashkirs, and walls, and intersected by a thousand two pieces of light artillery. The fertilizing canals, over which he has provisions, felt tents, &c. were con to pass before he reaches the metroveyed by 350 camels, hired from the polis Buchara-i-Sheriff, the residence Kirgees, through whose country the of Emir Haidar, or as he is now callexpedition had to pass.
ed, Khan Emir-al-Mumenin (leader of The weather was propitious through the faithful). out the whole journey, the thermo The distance from Orenburg to meter never falling below 55°, without Bokhara is about 1,100 miles. The either rain, or any of those tremen- steppe, through which the expedition dous snow storms, generally so fatal had to pass, is described as being conto the caravans travelling in those tinually crossed by chains of hills with parts.
gentle declivities. A vast horizon surThe expedition, after having cross rounds the naked country, in which ed the Ural near Orenburg, turned to, the wearied eye searches in vain for a wards the Sarai Ishaganak, or Yellow tree to repose on; and the monotony Bay of the lake Aral; then passing is only occasionally interrupted by a over the icy covering of the Sir-Daria, small brook or rivulet. There are only they proeeeded for a distance of 64 two chains of rocky hills; the first geographical miles, when they reached has been already mentioned; the sea the Kuban-Daria, which river they cond is called Mongodshar, about 440 crossed about 40 miles above its miles from Orenburg, being a conmouth. Sixty-four miles beyond this tinuation of the chains of the Ural they crossed the wide bed of the Yan- and Guberlinsk. All the other ele Daria, the course of which could only vations in the Kirgees desert are formbe distinguished by a series of uncon- ed irregularly of loose sand, and are nected pools filled with stagnant water. particularly numerous in the KaraThe Kisil-Daria was entirely dried up; Kum, or black sand, and in the great and for five days during which they pro- and little Barsuki. The Sir, which is ceeded through the great desert Kisil- about 600 feet in breadth, was the Kom, or red sand (a distance of above only river of any magnitude which the 215 miles), not a drop of water could be embassy met with between Orenburg discovered. After this they passed and Bokhara; the width of the Kuban over a chain of barren rocks, the not being above 60 feet; and the Yan, highest of which rise to an elevation which falls into the Kuban, being dried of about 1,000 feet; and, after having up, although bearing evident marks crossed several other deserts and of its having formerly been of condreary plains, they reached Kagatan, siderable magnitude. This is the case the first Bokharian village, about 44 with the ancient river Kisil, which has miles distant from the capital. been dried up long since, and the
Immediately before reaching the bed of which it was supposed they village they had to cross a chain of had crossed 40 miles south of the sandy hills, and then the scene was Yan. suddenly changed. The desert abruptly The whole country between this terminates, and, as it were by en- river and Bokhara is uninhabited, chantment, the exhausted traveller being destitute of water and vegetafinds himself transplanted into one of tion; but the country between the the most fertile, and best cultivated Yan-Daria and the Ural has been countries in the world ; a terrestrial taken possession of by some wander
ing tribes of Kirgees, who, within the Usbeks, Turkomans, Karakalpaks, Callast 40 years, succeeded in driving mucs, Kirgees, Gipseys, and Bedouins. out the Karakalpaks, who formerly The irrigated part of the country is used to wander in these plains; but extremely fertile, and has a luxuriancy are now scattered through Khiwa * of vegetation and an excess of popuand Bokhara. The country, which lation, with which nothing of the kind in Europe is improperly called great in Europe can be compared. The Bokhara, extends from 41° to 37° north people of Bokhara are divided into latitude, and from 63° to 69° east two principal classes; that of the longitude from the meridian of Green conquerors, who are consequently wich. The distinction between great rulers, and that of the conquered aband little Bokhara is unknown to the origines. The first consists of Use natives of the country, who call the beks, the second of Tadjiks, or ancient whole Bukhara, or rather Bucharia, Sogdians. The number of Tadshiks pronouncing the ch with a deep aspi-' amounts to about half a million; that ration, The Usbecks,+ who are of a of the Usbeks, to about three times Turkish origin, usually call the whole that number; and the whole popula. of the territories which they inhabit tion of the state to above two milby the common appellation of Turkis- lions and a half of people. The Ustan; comprising under it, the Kha- beks are either nomades or half nonates of Kokan or Kukan, as far as mades; that is, they either lead a Tashkent and the Allatan mountains, completely wandering life, or they are Bokhara, Khiwa, Shersabes, Kissar, settled during some part of the year Karernihan, Kulab, Badackshan, Gu. for purposes of agriculture: the lum, Balk, Ankoa, Meimona, and Os- trades-people and agriculturists, howrushnah, towns and countries ruled ever, are almost exclusively found by Usbeck Khans, for the most part, among the Tadjiks, who never lead a independent of each other. Chinese nomade life. Turkistan would be a more appro
The Bokharians are entirely a compriate naine than little Bokhara. The mercial nation; the trade, however, eastern part of Bokhara is moun- had been originally confined to the tainous, and formed by the western Tadjiks; but the love of lucre has branches of the Musart mountains; now also seized the Usbeks, and there whilst the western part is completely is not an officer of state who does not flat, with a clayey soil, watered by few keep his regular counting-house, doing rivers, and only capable of cultivation the business of a merchant. immediately along their banks, or Avarice, deception, and faithlessness, where irrigation has been introduced are given the characteristics of the by means of canals. The remainder Bokharians, but more as it would seem of the country is a desert, inhabited among the aborigines, than among the by various nomade tribes, such Usbeks, who, being still soldiers by
profession, have preserved some part * Khiwa or Chiwa, an in mense steppe, about 1,200 square miles in extent, between the Kirgees of the pride so peculiar to the Turkish steppe and Dshagatai (independent Tartasy, in race, and which, although frequently habited by various nomade Tarrar tribes. It is very fruitful; and its Khan is said by some to be
degenerating into arrogance, contains independent, and by others, to be tributary to the nevertheless a character of generosity. ruler of Dshagalai. † The Usbeks or Usbecks, are a Tartar race,
The form of government in Bokhara inhabiting Dshagatai, and several other countries is essentially despotic; but the inof central Asia. The principal tribes of this fluence, both of religion and the nopeople are the Sartes and Tadjiks. The Karakalpaks, Turkomans (Tiruchmen), Arals, &c., also
made life, in some measure neutralize belong to them. The different tribes are governed its effects. All power centres in the by their Klans, who all depend on the great Khan: he is absolute lord of the Khan. The territory in Dshagatai, is called
whole territory of the state, as much
Usbekistan or Mawarelna.
as of the lives and property of his the produce of the tolls, making the subjects; but as a good Mussulman, whole of the revenue of the state amount he respects the wisdom of the Mollahs, to rather less than half a million sterchooses his counsellors from among ling. This sum serves to defray the salathem, and frequently submits to their ries of a few public functionaries, the decisions. The facility with which expense for the maintenance of about nomade nations may change their 25,000 horsemen (the standing army of rulers, obliges the latter to treat them the country), and of a great number with great equity, and even at times of public schools at Bokhara and Sato flatter them; which circumstance markhand, in which, however, noexplains the remarkable fact percepti- thing but the dogmas of the Koran ble among such nations, despotism, are taught. The police of every town coupled with unlimited freedom. is managed by a Reis, the justice by a
The administration of Bokhara, such Kadi, who, in order to give more as it is, offers, nevertheless, nothing weight to his decisions, has them gebut a picture of cruelty and iniquity. nerally confirmed by a Mufti, or the The first functionaries of state, ac Sheikh-islam (prince of the faith) as knowledge themselves, unhesitatingly, these high dignitaries of the faith are as the humble slaves of the Khan; and supposed to be best acquainted with by that degrading tenure, they enjoy, the laws of the Koran. The trade of for a time, the confidence of the mo Bokhara with Russia, amounts to narch, and consequently a certain de- twenty millions of roubles. Being of gree of authority.
All offices ema. the Sunnite sect, the Bokharians are nate from the Grand Vizier, who dis- always in friendly relation with the tributes them among his own slaves Sultan of Constantinople, whilst they and creatures, the blind tools of his hate the Persians as Sheïtes, and from passions, and strangers to any feeling their habit of playing the masters of patriotism. The principle of go- among the neighbouring small Khavernment is, to consider the country nates, their policy has assumed rather as the property of the Khan, and thus an arrogant bearing. to make its revenue as available to the The journey from Orenburg to benefit of his treasury, as is con Bokhara, was performed in 72 days; sistent with the laws of their religion. and the expedition having arrived on There are forty-four fiscal districts, the 20th Dec., stayed in the country the revenue of which is let out to the till the 22d of March following, rehakims, or governors, who pay their turned to Russia in 55 days, without rent to the Khan, and remunerate having lost, in both journies, a single themselves as well as they are able. horse, and, out of a suite of 470 indi. Besides this income, the Khan receives viduals, more than six men.-Y. Z.
EXPLANATION OF FIVE MEDALS OF THE ANCIENT
MUSULMAN KINGS OF BENGAL.
(Translated from the French of M. Reinard.)
dent donc toujours à la science de véritables services."- Millan, Mag. Encyclop. Jan. 1813. These coins are of silver, and have on Paris. They were accompanied with a them Arabic inscriptions ; they were found transcription of their legends in European under the ruins of a fort on the banks of characters. Mr. Princep is the author of the River Barhampouter, in Bengal, by this transcription, and it is easy to perM. Duvaucel, a French naturalist, who ceive that he has accurately read the names presented them to the Société Asiatique of and the titles of the two princes, whose
names are inscribed on them ; but Mr. No. 3.-Coin of Sekander Schah, son of Princep has abstained from any deve Elias Schah, King of Bengal, in the lopment, and has even left in blank the
year 760 or the Hejra, or A.C. 1359. name of the town where they were struck.
المجاهد في سبيل الرحمن شاہ These are the first coins of the king of سکندر ابن الياس شاه السلطان
خليفة الاء ناصر امیر المومنین
.upon this kind of Muhammedan autiqui يمين
Bengal which have reached Europe in a good state of preservation ; those which have been hitherto published, and which “ The Zealot (or the potent) in the serare in the cabinet of the Academy of Goë- vice of God, Schah Sekander, son of tingen, appear to be badly preserved, and Elias Schah, Sultan.” their explanations are defective. We will,
Reverse. therefore, endeavour to throw some light
. ties; first, by laying before the intelligent reader the inscriptions on these coins “ Right hand of the Khalifat (or vicar) in Oriental characters, with an English of God, Protector of the Commander of translation, and will then offer the re the Faithful.” flections which the discovery of these
Legend. . medals bave produced. No. 1. - Coin of Shems-addine Elias
Schah, King of Bengal, in the year of the Hejra 154, or A.C. 1353.
“ This coin was struck at the brilliant
ضرب هذ التكة بحضرة جلال سنارکانو No.
ستین و سبعماية
No. 4.-Coin of the same Prince.
residence of Sonargonou
الدين أبو المظفر الیاس شاه السلطان الواثق بتایید الرحمن أبو المجاهد سكندر الثاني سکندر شاه ابن الياس شاه السلطان The Juste Sultan
, Sun of the World "
“ The Just Sultan, Sun of the World and of the Law, Father of Victory, Elias Schah, Sultan. Sekander (i.e. Alexander) the Second.”
،، The strong by the power of God, the zealous Sekander Schah, son of Elias Schah, Sultan."
الخلافة ناصر امیر المومنین خليفة الله ناصر امیر المومنین یمین
خلد -Pro المسلمین
“ Rightt hand of the Khalifat ; tector of the Commander of the Faithful.”
عون الاسلام و
.nader of Islaimism and of Musel , ضرب هذ التكة بحضرة جلال
سنارکانو سنة أربع وخمسین و سبعماية و
Legend on the other side of this coin.
،، The right hand of the Khalif of God, , Protector of the Commander of the Faithful, Defendler of Islaimisin and of Musel.
May his Khalifat be perpetual." This coin is singular in having a legend
on both sides. We read on the side op“ This coin was struck at the brilliant posed to the reverse, the titles of the residence (the town) of Sonarganou, in khalif who reigned under the king Sekanthe year 754.”
der, with the naines of the four first No. 2.- The same coin with the preced. .
khalifs placed within parentheses, thus : ing one : but not so well preserved. .
الامام ( ابوبكر) الاعظم (عمر) والخليفة عثمان المعظم (علي)
4 Vide he Commentationes Societatis Gottin. gensis, vol. xiv. p. 164.
† In the original translation it is right arm ; but I think this term is not used : the Arabs say id sili tuoile, the hand of the Sultan is powerful ; alia l'imin, (I swear) by my right hand.
Id. est. . “ The magnanimous Imams and magnificent Khalifs Abubekr, Omar,
, Othman, and Ali.”