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should do so, than that he should leading article of congo, two thirds of attempt to give to the public, at the whole, the argument is a mere second-hand, that branch of their vin fallacy. I have shewn that the article dication which he is aware many other sold at New York under the name of persons are much better qualified than congo was in fact an inferior sort of himself to afford.
bahea, and I have proved this by the Upon this principle I have certainly fact of its having, according to their passed over sub silentio the charge of own statements, sold for less than
trampling upon Acts of Paliament.” bohea in the same New York market I can only say that, if the Court of (not London market, as the newspaper, Directors shall be found guilty of this by a strange misrepresentation of the offence, I shall be the last man to argument has chosen to insinuate). In support them in it. I am certainly a corroboration of the fact of this tea decided advocate for the China mono. being bohea instead of congo, I hate poly, as by law established; but abuses stated that the Americans are obliged of the monopoly against law, or vio- to pay twice as much for real genuine lations of the conditions on which it congo at Canton as this pretended is granted, should any such exist, congo was sold for in America; and which, however, I neither admit nor this statement remains uncontradictbelieve, I shall by no means attempt
ed. It is perfectly evident, therefore, to defend. I advocate the monopoly, that all inferences drawn from such not as an approver of monopolies comparisons as these, are perfectly generally, nor even for the sake of the nugatory. Tea may, after all
, be East-India Company (whatever claims dearer in England than in America; it may have to the gratitude of the but the fact, if it be one, still remains country for the vast and splendid addi- to be proved. tion to our empire which has been The next point in my letter which acquired and consolidated under its has been contested, is my estimate of auspices), but solely because I con- the duties and emoluments of the scientiously believe that, under the supracargoes, On this subject the special circumstances of the case, the materials of vindication are ample ; preservation of this monopoly in their and I will now enter upon them sortehands is essential to the real interests what more at large than I before of the country at large.
thought necessary; but let it be reBut although it is true that I have membered, that unless the former only undertaken to discuss two points assertion, namely, the extravagantly of the argument, they are cardinal high price in England of tea, can be points: they are the points upon satisfactorily made out, this latter which the whole question hinges. For question does not signify one farthing if I have proved that the argument to the country at large. If the na founded on a comparison between tion is well supplied with tea at fait the price of tea at New York and in prices, it is not likely to trouble itself London is untenable, what becomes very much about the mode in which of the conclusion drawn from it, that this is accomplished. the nation is annually plundered of First, with respect to the emolomore than two millions sterling through ments ; my assertion that the supik the operation of this monopoly! This cargoes have no fixed salaries, has not is the great imputed grievance: the been contradicted; but the false estiother allegations are merely subordi- mate of the amount of their commis nate, and chiefly arise out of attempts sion has been re-asserted. I find, to explain or account for it.
upon further inquiry, that I have Now I have proved from their own rather over-stated the amount, instead statements, that with respect to the of under-stating it; but it is waste of
time to argue the matter further now, experience is matured, it is by these as I find that these accounts have occasional visits to England that the been moved for, and are upon the spirit and feelings of Englishmen are point of being laid before Parliament. renewed and invigorated. It is only by official documents thus Secondly; with respect to the insiofficially produced that calumnies like nuation that one of the individuals on these can be put down effectually. the establishment is not in a state of · I understand that these accounts health to be able to perform the duties will
prove thatt he whole expenses of of his station-whether this be so or our China establishment, including not, I certainly shall not undertake charges of every description, do not to examine; but if it be so, it is a exceed three pounds per cent. on the visitation of Providence, for which it trade, a charge which every one must is surely rather hard to make the admit to be surprizingly small; below, monopoly responsible: and as to his I believe, that of any private agency enjoying his emoluments under such whatever of a similar nature, and circumstances, it may be a hardship amounting to such a complete dis- on his colleagues, who receive so proof of the alleged extravagance of much less out of the common fund in the establishment, as to render an consequence, but it can be no act of examination into minor details of extravagance on the part of the Com- . comparatively little consequence. pany, as not one shilling more is there
That I may not, however, appear by taken out of the public purse. to evade the discussion, I will add a Thirdly; as to the public table. few remarks upon each of the alleged This is really too contemptible a subinstances of mismanagement. ject to argue upon. No person of
First, as to the supracargoes being common sense will deny the propriety permitted to enjoy full allowances and necessity of a public table being whilst absent from their station on kept up by the Company in China : leave. If the supracargoes were paid and as to luxury, I re-assert that this by fixed salaries, there might have table is in no essential respect superior been something in the argument, but to the private tables of the Captains as their emoluments consist wholly of of the Indiainen: there may, indeed, a certain per-centage on the trade, it be display, as in this town, at a tavern matters little either to the country or dinner; but luxury is seldom any where the Company (so that the business is enjoyed at what is called a public properly done) in what proportions table. that per-centage is divided; nor is it Lastly; it is asserted that some one in fact of much consequence even to individual in the factory now draws the supracargoes themselves, as the a salary of £10,000 per annum. I advantage, whatever it is, is enjoyed must premise that I believe this to by each of them in succession. be a very considerable exaggeration :
It seems most probable that the but admitting it to be true that consevere and peculiar privations attend- siderable allowances are enjoyed by ing a long residence in China, and the the suprácargoes towards the close of advantage which has been found to their residence in China, this is more arise from an occasional personal com- than counterbalanced by the fact, munication with their servants there, which I know to be true, of their have led the Directors to adopt this serving there, in many instances, during arrangement, for facilitating their re- the first ten or twelve years, for little turn to Europe, in a greater degree or nothing. than in the case of their servants in The fact is, that the supracargoes India. Thus while by their residence do not finally return to England until in China, their local knowledge and after a period of from twenty to
twenty-five years' service, and then there of persons of inferior responsibarely realizė a sufficient fortune to bility and trustworthiness can by no maintain themselves in the same rank means be permitted. This drudgery of society with the retired servants of must all be accordingly performed by the Company, of the same standing, persons destined for higher things; by from India. If, therefore, the sere persons who either are, or are soon vants of the Company in China are to be, entrusted with the administraoverpaid, so must be also their ser- tion of millions of capitał ; with the vants in India in a far higher degree; supreme control over thousands of for they do not submit to the same British subjects who, as merchants, sacrifice-they do enjoy, in the midst officers, and sailors, frequent the port of their labours, some of the luxuries of Canton from Europe and India; of civilized society: their banishment and with the direction of the most is not without some comforts and difficult and delicate negociations, in alleviations to compensate for it. cases of the highest emergency, with I next come to the duties of the a most sagacious and singular people
, supracargoes. It is amusing to see and with the most jealous, arbitrary, the manner in which the newspaper and despotic government on the face writer deals with this part of the sub- of the globe. ject. My account of their duties If it were not trespassing too largely was abridged from a published work upon your limits, I could easily sken on the China trade. It is, he says, a you how every privilege which, by flaming statement, which cannot be connivance or express concession, the abridged ; yet he does abridge it; that trade, whether English or America, is, he leaves out all those branches of at present enjoys, is directly attribu• their duty which are peculiar to their table to the exertions of our suprasituation as a factory in China. Their cargoes ; I will, however, venture to ordinary and strictly commercial duties, quote one instance of great impor. which he does enumerate, he says are tance. no more than what are perforined by the In 1814 the Chinese Provincial Goclerks of an English counting-house. vernment, instigated by some inte. This is far from correct in various rested individuals among the Hong respects, yet there is certainly some merchants, proposed, and even obanalogy between the cases ; and if we tained the Emperor's sanction to some add together the labours of the part- changes in the Chinese system of ners, confidential and inferior clerks, trade at Canton, of the most imporof some ten or twelve counting- tant nature. Among other innovahouses in London, the sum total will tions, the number of privileged Hong certainly give us some idea of what merchants was to have been reduced the supracargoes may have to do in to three, and these three so closely this branch of their duty. Even this associated together as to render any will shew that they have no sinecure; division amongst them, with a view to but if this were all, I do admit competition, or any other object in that such duties as these might pos- which the interests of foreigners were sibly be performed by a somewhat concerned, utterly hopeless. lower class of public functionaries : This scheme, which, upon a mode but the misfortune is, that there nei- rate calculation, would have raised ther are, nor can be, in China, any the prices of Chinese produce, and de“ inferior agents or understrappers,” presised those of European manufacas is pretended, to perform all this tures, some thirty or forty per cent., drudgery. The very peculiar and besides subjecting the trade to many precarious tenure of our connexion intolerable shackles in other respects
, with China is such, that the residence the supracargoes, by a series of deli
berate and well-chosen measures, fic of the supracargoes have conceded to nally succeeded in subverting, a few them, that of " having been successmonths previous to the arrival of ful in their exertions for the protectLord Amherst's embassy.
ing of British subjects from falling If this great public service had been victims to the unprincipled and undisperformed by the instrumentality of tinguishing severity of the Chinese his Lordship, the whole country would laws.” have rung with applause; but because This is gratifying; and considering it was accomplished silently, and with- that it has been accomplished by peront any éclat, by functionaries bearing sons whom this writer has denomithe humble designation of supra- nated “ twelve idiots," it is somewhat cargoes, few in England have even surprizing: especially as the more heard of it beside those whose duty fortunate Americans, who have“ one led them to peruse the details upon man of sense as á consul,” had neverthe records of the East-India Com- theless been obliged just before to pany. It is no disparagement to his submit to the infamy of surrendering Lordship to say, that this is a service an innocent seaman of one of their which it was wholly out of his compe- ships to the tender mercies of the tence to perform: still less could a Chinese bow-string ! British Consul at Canton have per But there is at least one offence of formed it. Such an officer would be which all the supracargoes are supabsolutely a cypher, a mere object of posed to be undeniably guilty, that of derision.
being the sons or near relatives of the Force, in China, is of course out Directors. Let us then take up the of the question. It is by influence list of the establishment, and see how only, that injustice or oppression even this part of the charge is made of any kind can be effectually resisted. out. I do not mean the influence of bri At the head is Sir James Urmston, bery: it is a very common, but a the gentleman whose distinguished very gross error, to suppose that that services in China, in adjusting the is the species of influence which the unfortunate dispute with the Chinese Company's servants have generally government relative to his Majesty's recourse to with the Chinese. How- ship Topaze, have been recently reever efficient it may prove between warded by his Majesty, with the honour Chinese and Chinese, it is an engine of knighthood, conferred by patent, of power which foreigners can very which honour so conferred, is a mark rarely meddle with in safety. I mean of royal favour that has not been the legitimate influence arising from granted more than four or five times the possession of the supreme con in the course of the last half-century. trol over commercial transactions of Is this gentleman the son or near re. such immense magnitude. By the ju- lation of a Director ? dicious distribution, and (in extreme The gentleman whom the Court of cases) the occasional suspension of this Directors have appointed to succeed commerce, the most important conces Sir James in the chiefship, is Sir Wm. sions have been extorted, and the most Fraser, Bart. Is he the son or near threatening dangers averted. It is an relation of a Director? It is really influence which the supracargoes pos- tiresome to follow out these misrepresess, and they alone. A mere con sentations in all their details. No sul, having neither goods to deliver doubt several of the members of the nor receive, would be thought less of factory are sons or near relatives of in China than the agent of a private the Directors. It is certainly a new
doctrine that this relationship should . One inerit, however, the opponents be a disqualification for serving the
Company. If education and early been examining, has further asserted habits are accounted any thing, it that the monopoly of tea injures our ought to be rather a presumption in woollen manufactures, and that the their favour: but when blind favou. abolition of the supračargoes would ritism, if not absolute corrupt par- reduce the price of tea. As this is tiality, is insinuated, it is of some mere assertion, it may be sufficient to importance to be able to shew, as I meet it with an unqualified denial: have done, that the manner in which but I may possibly resume the subject those posts in the factory are filled, at some future opportunity. which have never been left to se
I am, Sir, niority, but always have been the Your most obedient Servant, object of selection, is, of itself, a
AMICUS. direct evidence of the contrary.
THE LATE RICHARD TWINING, ESQ.
(From a Correspondent.) RICHARD TWINING, Esq., whose tion of time which he could spare, death, on the 23d of April, we re- however short, to the attainment of corded in our last number, was the useful information; and it bas fre son of Mr. Daniel Twining, and quently attracted the observation of grandson of Mr. Thomas Twining, those who had opportunies of noticing who, about the year 1712, established his habits, how much he gained by the tea-dealing business, which still this, his favourite system. continues in the family.
In 1770, Mr. Twining married the Mr. Twining was born in the year daughter of John Aldred, Esq., a 1719, and was educated at Eton; most
most respectable manufacturer of from whence he was taken at an early Norwich. age, to conduct the business on the In the year 1784, he took a very death of his father. He had, how- active part in the important measure ever, remained at school long enough of the Commutation Act; upon which to acquire a taste for literature, which subject, he published several pamhe persevered in improving, in a re- phlets, which, for clearness of ar: markable degree, notwithstanding the rangement, force of argument, and exertions which were demanded from accuracy of information, procured him him, by the charge of a gradually in- considerable reputation as an author. creasing business, in the
management For many years, Mr. Twining conof which he displayed great judgment, stantly attended the Court of Eastindefatigable industry, and a correct- India Proprietors; and it is, probable, ness of principle, which soon gained in the recollection of many persons who him the entire confidence of those were in the habit of attending the de with whom he had any intercourse. bates at that period, that whatever sub
Mr. Twining possessed a great ad. ject he undertook to argue, he always vantage in having his love of reading came well prepared for the discussion. encouraged, and his course of study His language was invariably correct, directed to the best authors by his his choice of words singularly happy, elder brother, the Rev. Thomas Twin- his articulation distinct and sonorous, ing, the distinguished translator of his manner collected, impressive, and Aristotle's Treatise on Poetry. It conciliatory, and his mode of con. appears to have been an early resolu. ducting his argument, uniformly calltion with him to employ every por- did and unassuming. To these quali