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fications it may not be improper 'to pleasure and satisfaction in his retireàdd, that his eloquence was frequently ment, was the remembrance of the animated by classical allusions, which great kindness, and the many instances displayed the rich and varied resources of firm and valuable friendship which of a cultivated mind.

he had enjoyed, not only in the exIn the year 1793, Mr. Twining was tensive circle of his acquaintance, elected a member of the Committee but in his public situations as Direcof By-Laws, and bore a prominent tor of the East-India Company, of the part in the revision of them, which Imperial Insurance Company, and of took place about that time.

the Equitable Assurance Office. In the year 1810, Mr. Twining had In concluding this humble attempt the high honour of being elected a to point out some of the leading cirDirector of the East-India Company; cumstances in the life of an excellent and in that capacity, laboured to man, the writer feels an earnest wish discharge the important duties which to represent him as he really was,--an attached to it, with unabated zeal for affectionate husband, a kind and juthe welfare of the Company.

dicious father, a zealous and sincere In 1816, he was afflicted with a pa- friend, and a good master. In his ralytic attack, from which he soon in principles he was uniformly loyal ; and a great measure recovered; but judging the equanimity of temper, as well as that, in all probability, he would be the patient resignation, which never unequal to the continuance of those forsook him during a long and trying exertions which the situation required, illness, were derived, it is hoped, he relinquished his seat in the Direc- from those pure sentiments of religion, tion at the commencement of 1817. which encouraged him to rely for sup

Among the subjects connected with port upon the mercy of God, and the a long, active, and honourable life, merits of his Redeemer. which seemed to afford him peculiar 12th May, 1824.


As this city has lately been a

two fine moles built by the municipality theatre of revolutionary conflict, the of the city; the constant rapid current of following topographical account of it the river forms a bar at its entrance, over

which are ten and eleven feet water at may not be thought uninteresting.

high spring tides. The city is well fortiMANILLA, the capital of the Philippine fied on the sea and land faces, but on that Islands, in latitude 14° 26' N., longitude towards the river very indifferently, the 121° 3' E. of Greenwich, is situated on curtain being narrow and confined, almost the eastern coast of an extensive bay on without bastions, and unfit for guns of large the west coast of the island of Luzon, or calibre, the buildings in the city overlookLuconia; it is a Captain-Generalship and ing and joining the wall in some places. Archbishopric, and the seat of the Au The opposite bank of the river is lined dincia, or Supreme Tribunal.

with stone houses, which afford some The city forms nearly a section of a cover for an approaching enemy, who circle, of which the centre is a point could breach in a few minutes, the dis. formed by the coast and the confluence of a tance not exceeding 150 yards. From small but rapid river, the Passig, which, the same place the whole of the north. flowing to the westward and passing to eastern side of the fortifications might be the north of the city, discharges the taken in reverse; its chief defence on this waters of an extensive lake, about thirty side, is in fact the river, the current of miles inland. This river is navigable for which is always strong. vessels of 250

tons for a small distance Over the river is a neat but narrow within its entrance, which is formed by stone bridge, of ten arches, which joins

the northern angle of the city to the the fortifications, where the outer diteh suburbs. On the city side is a square finishes, it being discontinued for want of tower of a diminutive size, forming a room on the sea side. “ tête-de-pont,” but on much too small a There are six gatés, two on each facescale for the rest of the fortifications, which those on the land and sea sides have neat are handsome and well constructed. At stone bridges over the ditches, with draw. the north-western angle of the city, which bridges; the ditches are wide and deep, joins the mole, is the citadel of Santiago, but much neglected, and on the sea-side : a clumsy, old fashioned fortification, sepa. frigate may approach within good gunrated from the rest of the city by a narrow

shot. ditch. Its only useful part is a semi

Within the walls of the city are the circular bastion which forms the point and public buildings and convents, the whole commands the river: it is now used as a of which are rather remarkable for size state prison and magazine.

than beauty: the interior of the cathedral The length of the city within the walls is, however, very handsomely decorated. is 1,300 yards (Spanish) from N.W. to The houses are large, and very solidly S.E., its width 744, and circumference built, particularly the ground floors; this 4,166, The side towards the river, it is on account of the earthquakes. They has already been remarked, is in a very have all galleries in the front, which are defective state : the sea and land faces full of sliding windows made of motherare exactly the reverse.

o’-pearl shell, which gives them a dull The land face has a double wet ditch, appearance to the eye of a stranger. and an esplanade of 5 or 600 yards in The suburbs are extensive, and contain breadth, which towards the river is many hạndsome stone houses: they are marshy and swampy. Towards the sea, the principal residence of the merchants and extending for some miles along the and foreigners. coast, is a breast-work thrown up to pre There are some pleasant drives round vent the landing of an enemy. On this the city, and into the country, which is esplanade formerly stood the church, from rich and highly cultivated, and gives a the tower of which Sir W. Draper fired high, though far from adequate opinion of into the city ; it is now razed. At about the rich fertility of these beautiful islands. 350 yards from the ramparts is a small The population of Manilla and its suexercising battery, and another outwork burbs is about 175,000 souls, including of stone stands at the westerı) angle of persons of all denominations.


To the Editor of the Asiatic Journal, Sie: I enclose to you the following and bravest of the inhabitants of Sumatra, short account of the British Settlement and are colonists from Achin and Menauof Natal, or Natar, in the island of kabow, and frequent quarrels occur between Sumatra, which has lately fallen the chiefs, which are often decided by the under my notice. The existence of sword. The English have had a settlesuch a colony is probably known to

ment here since 1772. Gold dust, which very few of our countrymen.

is of a very fine quality, is the principal Per

article of export trade, which is very frebaps some of your correspondents quently adulterated, and tests are therefore will inform me whether it is intended necessary to prove it. Camphor is another to include it in the projected cession of its exports; and opium, piece goods, of territory to the Dutch.

guns, china-ware, ammunition and coarse I am, &c. &c.

cutlery, are the principal imports. Rice

B. is another article wbich may answer as an Natal is situated on the S. W. side of import, as the principal part now conthe Island of Sumatra, in lat. 0° 18' N. sumed at the settlement is brought from and long. 99" 5' E. The people of it are the Island of Neas, some of which is also reckoned amongst the boldest, wealthiest, re-exported to Bencoolen.


THE TRANSBAIKAL TUNGOUSIANS IN PARTICULAR. No 'nation has spread so far into other Tungousians by their religion, Siberia as that of the Tungousians. which is the Shigemoniac idolatry. These people inhabit the vast, moun The Transbaikal Tungousians.-Actainous, marshy, and woody desarts cording to a tradition current among extending from the Jenissei to the this part of the Tungousian nation, Eastern Ocean, and from the Amur their ancestors were in possession of nearly to the Arctic Sea. The advan- all the country from the Baikal, easttages or disadvantages of their res ward, as well as that along the Amur, pective settlements have occasioned Shilka, Arguna, and their tributary much variety in the life and occupa- streams; the Daures (a tribe descend-. tion of this people, nevertheless their ed from them) wandering along the language, manners, and general cha- Sselenga, and about the source of the racter present every where such a Amur; and the Dutshares between the striking similarity, as strongly tends to Shilka and Arguna. There they lived prove that the various Tungousian in peace and abundance till the Bur. tribes possess a common origin, and jates, penetrating from Western Monwere but recently dispersed.

golia, conquered the Tungousians and The Steppe-Tungousians generally all their related tribes; which, togebreed horses, camels, horned cattle, ther with the account of the approach goats, and sheep. Those wandering of the Russians in the beginning of near the mountains and marshes of the 17th century, induced many of northern Siberia chiefly keep rein- them to retire into the eastern parts deer, whence they are denominated of the Chinese possessions. Rein- deer-Tungousians. Those re The Tungousians established about siding near the coasts and in the the mouth of the Lina received the forests occupy themselves in winter Russians, who, in the year 1640, came with hunting, and in summer with for the first time amongst them to fishing; and from the circumstance of demand the yassak (tribute), very rudetheir sledges being drawn by dogs, ly pulling out their beards, and shootare called by some Dog-Tungousians. ing at them with blunted arrows: but

The Tungousians call themselves the death of these men was severely Yewoienes and Kamneganes (probably revenged, and the victories of the after some one of their ancestors), Russians, but still more the justice but more frequently Buie, or Boio, and mildness which their government men, whilst the Mandshur and Mon- displayed towards these savages, have gols call them Solones (hunters), and at last converted them into faithful Orontskones (rein-deer-keepers). The subjects of Russia ; so that they now Russians and Tartars alone call them willingly obey the government orders, Tungousians, a name said to be de- and uniformly reject the inducements rived from the Tartar word tunguss, a held out to them by their foreign hog, and given to them on account of neighbours. There is but one revolt their filthy and rude babits.

of the Tungousians on record : since We shall confine ourselves for the they first submitted ; and this ocpresent to the description of those curred in 1680, when two or three of Tungousians who live in the country their tribes, after having killed a few beyond the Baikal, in which they have soldiers and cossacks, emigrated with been settled for many ages, and who their cattle ; but they were overtaken are peculiarly distinguished from the by the Boyar's son Lanshakow, with Asiatic Journ - No. 102.

VOL. XVII. 4 H :

fifty cossacks, who, having routed to the Russian nobility, and obtained them, forced them to return and give a grant of land near Nertshinsk, togehim hostages.

ther with an aliment of bread and The security and prosperity enjoyed money. by the Siberian tribes under the Rus. A new attempt was made by the sian sceptre, induced some Tungou. Chinese to recover the Gantimur sian tribes of China to emigrate to family at the conference with the Bothat country. Prince Gantimur, yar Golowin, when the ambassadors Prime Minister of the Bogdo Khan, pretended to make it one of the first whose annual income amounted to conditions of a treaty, that they 4,200 lanes silver, and four small should be sent back to China; but baskets full of gold, and who was at this was refused by Russia, and they the same time reigning lord of a con remain there still. siderable number near the city of The Transbaikal Tungousians are Noun, in Mongolia, was despatched usually divided into forest and meain 1667 against the Komarinskian Os- dow, or rein-deer and horse Tungoutrog. This fort was situated on the sians. Both of them lead a nomade right bank of the Amur, 400 miles life, such as has always been their from its source, or from the junction practice. Traces of agriculture, which of the Shilka and Arguna. But the are found in the vicinity of the anprince, instead of making the attack cient town of Bargusen, are attributed according to his orders, presented by some to these people; but it is himself, together with his children, more probable that they originated relations, and adherents of the tribe with the first Russians who came into, Duligat, above 500 men in number, the country. It is probably with more at Nertshinsk, and tendered his sub- justice that the old mines and furnaces, mission to Russia. He was employed which exist in those parts, are consiin making the Dutshares and Tungou. dered as their work, although their sians tributary; and on his invitation, knowledge of mineralogy must have his relative, Saissan Bokai, who had been exceedingly limited. The mines remained near the river Noun, joined of Nertshinsk were opened in conhim with two or three other tribes, sequence of informations obtained who settled about the fortress of Ar- through the Tungousians; and it is guna, the vicinity of which is still also a remarkable fact that the rirupossessed by their descendants. lets near which the different mineral

In 1700 the Governor of Noun, veins are found, are called by them accompanied by some troops, was dis- Altatsha (gold-stream), Mungutsha patched by the Bogdo Khan to Nert- (silver-stream), and Tersjatsha (tinshinsk, for the purpose of inducing stream). Prince Gantimur to return to China. Christian Tongousians.-A few ChrisThe most dazzling promises were held tian families are found in every Tunout to him ; but Gantimur rejected "gousian tribe of the Transbaikal them, and remained faithful to the country. There are even whole vil. country of his adoption. The Chi- lages of Christian Tungousians, of nese then attacked him with their which Prince's village (so called after army ; but he still remained firm: he Prince Gantimur), and Ssuchanow's encouraged the few Russians at Nert Sslobode, inhabited by baptized Tun. shinsk to a stout resistance, in which gousians of various tribes, are the he assisted them with his whole force. principal. The establishment of this latThe Chinese were forced to retreat ; ter village is attributed to an individual and Gantimur adopted the Greek re of the name of Ssuchanow, who, aniligion, being baptized by the name of mated by a holy zeal for the converPeter. His grandchildren were raised sion of these poor people, left the

mercantile station to which he be- forehead of the first, and transformed longed, and having taken orders, set- it into iron. By this Buninka felt so tled in 1772 iņ this village, where in much pain, that he prayed to Buga 1776 he erected a wooden church, that he would relieve him from it. which was subsequently converted by The latter took mercy on him, and Government into a stone one. His freed him from the pain, and let him successor, who had likewise been a go upon earth, at the same time strictmerchant, was a native of the same ly forbidding him to injure man,

whom place as Ssuchanow, the town of Ya- he was about to create. For the purrensk. The deacon and sexton were pose of doing so, he collected iron then Tungousians: in the present day from the east, fire from the south, the parish priest is likewise of that water from the west, and earth from nation.

the north, from wbich he made two Previously to the introduction of creatures, a man and a woman; mak. Christianity among the Transbaikaling the flesh and bones of earth, the Tungousians, they had followed Sha. heart of iron, the blood of water, and manism: now there are but few who the vital heat of fire. When mankind follow this religion; the greater part had increased in numbers, Buninka having adopted a mixture of super- claimed half of them as his own; stitions from various systems of idola- Buga, however, refused to give him try, of which the following may be the living, but promised that after considered as an outline:

their death he would take the virtuous Singular Opinion respecting the Cren- unto himself, and leave the vicious to tion of the World.-According to their be punished by him in hell, which is notions, all the space now occupied by situated in the centre of the earth. the earth was filled with water. Buga The latter consists of twelve caves, (the divinity) sent out the fire against for different species of punishment, this water, which, after a long struggle, such as fire, boiling pitch, voracious consumed part of it; thus land was dogs, &c. separated from water.

After this,

Shigemonian Faith. TransmigraBuga created the light, and separated tion of Souls. - Rewards and Punishit from darkness: but on his descend- ment after Death. – Some Tungouing upon the earth he met Buninka sians, however, believe that God has (the devil), who pretended to create created all things visible and invisible, the world, upon which a dispute en. and that he lives in a place of exsued between them. Buga destroyed treme brilliancy, as is taught by the Buninka, but not completely; where- Mongol book, Mani Gambo. Revering fore the latter endeavoured to injure the Creator's omnipotence, they conthe former's creation, and spoiled the sider Chomtchim-bodi-ssadu as his fa. twelve-stringed lying harp which he vourite, and pray for his intercession had made. Then Buga spake in his with the divinity. wrath to Buninka: “If thou canst " They admit the transmigration of make a fir-tree to grow from the midst souls; but in an indeterminate manner, of the sea I will acknowledge thy referring the whole to the supreme power ; but if not, and I can do it, will of the Creator. thou shalt admit my omnipotence.” They admit of a retribution after Buga then commanded a fir-tree to death, believing that every one will be spring up from the sea, and it grew a then weighed against a white and a stately tree; but Buninka's tree could black stone. If the white stone is not stand upright, and remained shak- not found to preponderate, the soul ing to and fro: then he recognized is admitted into Heaven ; but if the Buga's power, and did him homage; black stone is lighter, it is committed and the latter laid his hand upon the to Hell; the punishments of which con

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