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Gerbitsi* river to the left of the gether, were to be separated, in order Amur, separates the waters which to prevent the mixing of the border flow towards the north-east, from tribes. The Ouriangkhai * were to those which flow towards the south- remain subject to that one of the two east. The old boundary, which was powers to whom they had hitherto fixed upon in 1689, passing from the paid an annual tribute of five sable Amur and Argun to the lake Dalai, skins: this stipulation particularly rewas not altered. From lake Dalai, ferred to the Sogetes, who inhabit the the line was carried on through the highlands of the Upper Jenisei, and plain till beyond the Onon. Thence about the lake Kossogol. They had, over Mount Kentei Khan (Kentei han before this, paid five sables a head to alin in d’Anville's maps), and the the Mongols subject to China. By springs of the Tchikoi towards the an ancient custom, they sent at the south, till they reached the rivulet of same time a sable a head, under the Kiakhta or Kiaktoo. From this point title of a voluntary gift, to the Rusit ran through the forests and across

sian chanceries of Krasnoiarsk and the Selengga, on the back of Mount Oudinsk. By this treaty they became Uhdensong, which separates, as far as

entirely subjected to China. The fate the springs of the Dzida, the rivers of the other Ouriangkai, who had paid running to the north from those run- only one sable to each empire, was ning to the south. From the springs decided by the course of the line of of Dzida, it runs over Mount T'saston demarcation. The Sogetes near the oriendour ; and the back of Todching springs of the Dzida and Ouri were chila, which extends as far as the divided, a part of them only reJenisei, separates all the waters flow. maining with Russia, and under the ing towards the north-east from those jurisdiction of the Tounkinskoi-ostrog, which take an opposite direction. It situated on the Irkout.

These people was subsequently that the line was

have so much decreased, that there continued from the banks of the

are but few families now remaining in Jenisei towards the east, till it reach the Russian territories. ed the Bonktarma, to the right of the

By the same preliminary convention, Irtish, where, on the rivulet Harym, it was agreed, that the details respectthe last Mongol Chinese watch-house ing the course of the border line, was established opposite the last Rus- should be extended in the definitive

treaty which was to be drawn up. By another article it was agreed, This treaty having been concluded and that on the point where the border ratified at Pekin on the 18th of May, touched upon the Kiakhta, a com

commissioners for the two empires mercial dépôt for the merchants of

were despatched, in order to survey both empires should be established.

the proposed line, with directions for For the purpose of preventing farther fixing signals and border-pillars, and disorders, it was also settled that the separating the subjects on both sides. inhabitants of the borders should only There were two different commissions: be allowed to trade in this place. It

one from the streams Kiakhta, towas likewise settled that each of the wards the west, to the frontiers of the contracting parties should take back

Euleuts Dzoun-gars, and the other such of their subjects as might have towards the east, from the Kiakhta to crossed the border whilst the limits

the source of the Argoun. Each of were being settled.

The subjects of * This is the name which the Mongols give to both empires, which were found to

the Sogetes of the Samojed race, who inhabit the high lands of the Altai, and which in 1755 were subjected to the Dzoun-gars. This people amounts to about 10,000 families, and forms eleven barners, or military divisions.

sian post.

The Chinese have since extended their fron. tier to the great Gerbitsi.


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these commissions drew up a report from the former, near the lake Tchai-
of their labours, in which every river, dam, situated beyond the borders.
torrent, stream, lake, mountain, valley, 3. On mount Koûrlik, near a salt
and plain, near which a border co- lake, situated beyond the borders,
lumn was to be raised, was most twelve wersts from the former.
minutely described. The last-named 4. On a hill opposite the pasture
commission had, on the borders of Diretou, on this side the borders,
the Tchikos, two Russian winter-huts eight wersts from the former,
pulled down, which, by the settlement 5. On the lower side of the pas-
of the boundary, lay on Chinese ter ture Charbaga, on the left bank of the
ritory. They had likewise removed Tchikoï, called Tchoukou by the Mon-
the Bouriates, who had been tribu- gols and Mandchoux, nine wersts from
taries of Russia, from the south side the former. From this spot, the bor-
of the Tchikoï, to the north of this der line follows the Tchikoï upwards.
stream. On the other hand, some

6. On the mountain situated very
Tungousians, who had till then lived near and above the mouth of the
near the Kieria, which falls from the stream Tchiktaï, on the left bank of
north into the Onon, were removed by the Tchikos, five wersts from the for-
the Chinese to the south of this river.
The border columns are made of 7. Near and above the mouth of the
stone, eighteen feet high, and about stream Khabtsagai or Khadza, on the
as many in breadth at the base. They same bank of the Tchikos, nine wersts
were raised on each side of the boun from the former.
dary, opposite one another. From a 8. On the same side, a little below
particular precaution, and for the pur the mouth of the Arou Kidoure, also
pose of preventing these landmarks called Ara Kuduru, fourteen wersts
from being disturbed, an inscription in from the former.
the Russian and Mongol languages, 9. On the same side, very close be-
bearing a number, and the name of low the mouth of the stream Ouyalga,
the spot where it was to be, was twenty wersts from the former.
buried in the ground near every co-

10. On the same bank of the Tchilumn. The first and most important kos, very close below the mouth of of these signs was placed close by the the Arou Khadang sou, a large river, road which leads from Siberia to Mon which is also called Arou Khadaïn golia and China, on a little eminence oussou or Ara Khatangtsa, nineteen to the right of the Kiakhta, and six wersts from the former.-Thence the wersts from Boro, which is the same boundary follows up the river Arou spot where subsequently the dépôt of Khadang sou. commerce was established. The first 11. At the mouth of a stream called Russian column supports a cross, and Oúlolei or Oulilei, which comes from bears an inscription in the Russian the east, and falls into the above river, language. On going from this first sixty wersts from the former.- Thence sign towards the west, the Mayaks, the border follows up the Ouloleż to or signals in the Mongol and Mand its source, crosses the Mensia which choux languages obo), are found in falls into the Tchikoï, and runs tothe following places :

wards the Upper Onon and its tri1. On Mount Bourgouteï, twenty butaries. wersts from Kiakhta; between this 12. Near the spot where the stream Mayak and the next, the Kiran flows Oüber Khadang sou, or Ouber Khadaïn to the north, and falls into the Tchi Oussou, commonly called Oubɔur Khakoï, having its spring beyond the tangtsa, throws itself on the east side borders.

into the Mensia, eighty-three wersts 2. On a mountain twelve wersts from the former. Asiatic Journ.-No, 102.

Vol. XVII. 4 L


13. On mount Koumour, or Koumour. 23. On the high mountain of Khabar oun oola, near the source of a stream or Khalo, near the Boukoukoum or By of the same name, and which falls kykykon, which falls into the Kirklan, into the east side of the Mensia, sixteen wersts from the former. seventy wersts from the former.

24. On Mount Bain dcourge, a 14. On a mountain near the source Baïn dzurko, near the Ghilbere, which of the stream Kouge, fifty-one wersts falls into the Agatsi, or Agoutsa, or Alsa, from the former. This stream comes seventeen wersts from the former, from the north ; it is the first of those 25. On Mount Bouyouklou, bear which, crossing the frontier line, throw the river of the same name, which themselves into the Onon, which flows falls into the Agatsi. here from west to east, at some distance 26. Near the river Khormaktsi, or from the frontier.

Khormoktchi, at a short distance from 15. To the north of the stream its junction with the Agatsi, fourteen Gounggourteï or Kounggourteï, which, wersts from the former. coming from the northeast, falls into 27. On the right bank of the Gods the Onon. It is here where Mount zolotai, near its confluence with the Koumour, also called Khingan Kou- Onon, nineteen wersts from the formour, terminates, fifteen wersts from the former.

28. On Mount Adarga or Adorei, 16. On a mountain, and at a short to the left of the Kerou or Xiene, bear distance from the Asinga or Ashangaž, its confluence with the Onon, twentywhich comes from the north, and falls six wersts from the former, into the Onon, eighteen wersts from 29. On Mount Khongoro, near the the former.

left bank of the river Onon, twelve 17. On Mount Khariagoutai, or wersts from the former. Khara Koutul, on the left bank of the 30. On the spot called Oulkhoud, on Onon, ten wérsts from the former. the left bank of the Onor, a little be

18. On a mountain near the stream low the mouth of the Torin, which Khasoulak, a tributary of the Onon, joins this river on the north-west, ten twelve wersts from the former. wersts from the former.--Hence the

19. On Mount Moungge-sili, or frontier crosses the Onor, and runs Mongkó, watered by the Baldzi, a towards the sourees of the rivers targe stream which runs on the south- which fall on the north side into the east, and falls into the Onon, fifty- Ouldza. seven wersts from the former.

31. On Mount Arou bain dzourge, 20. On a mountain on the south side or Ara bain zuruko, situated northof the Baldzikha or Baldzikhan, a

west from the river of the same name, stream which joins the Kharaoul on

which falls on the south-west into the north-west; the latter runs in the the Ouldza, twenty-eight versts from same direction into the Baldzi, forty the former. six wersts from the former."

32. On the mountain called by the 21. On Mount Beltsir (Beltsir or Mongols Khara tolokhai, and blackBeltchir, in the Mongol language top by the Russians; near the source means a mountain between two of the Ouber bain dzourge, which falls streams, or the place where they join) into the Ouldza, twelve wersts from between the Galdataï and the Mogai, the former. which after having met, fall into the 33. On a hill near the source of the Baldzi, twenty-one wersts from the Berke, which flowing from north-west former.

joins the Ouldza, eleven wersts from 22. On a mountain near the Kirk. the former. houn, a tributary of the Onon, twenty 34. At the source of the Khourts of nine wersts from the former.

the Ouldza, on a mountain from which

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another river, also called Khourtsa, head), north of the Imalkho, thirteen springs and flows towards the Onon, wersts from the former. seventeen wersts from the former. 48. On Mount Irin, on the same

35. On Mount Moungout nouke or side of the Imalkho, eighteen wersts Mangout nouke, near the spring of from the former. - Between this mayak the Moungout, which falls into the and the next, the border line crosses Ouldza, eight wersts from the the Imalkho, near its mouth in the former.

Dari noor or Tarei, and the western 36. On a hill situated among the banks of this lake. sources of the Tourgine, a large river 49. On two small hills in the plain, which falls into the Ouldza, eight on a spot called Obotou, ten werşts wersts from the former.

from the former. 37, On Mount To soke, fourteen 50. On a hill situated in the plain, wersts from the former,

on a spot called Nibisyie or Nipfé, 38, On Mount Khoi, near the fifteen wersts from the former, springs of the Dchoudzi, which falls 51. On a hill situated at a spot into the Khorin narasou eight wersts called Moo Gedzgi or Modzige, from the former.

twelve wersts from the former. Be39. On a mountain between the tween this and the next mayak, flows sources of the Khorin narasou of the the river Ouldza, which falls into the Ouldza, eight wersts from the former. lake Dari noor.

40. On Mount Chara-tolokhai (yel 52. On an elevated spot in the low heau), eighteen wersts from the plain, called Tsiktou, twenty wersts former.

from the former, 41. On Mount Toktor, north of the 53. On Mount Dzerentou, near the source of the Ouber Toktor, which south-eastern edge of the lake Khori falls into the Ouldza, ten wersts from Duri noor, nineteen wersts from the the former:

former, 42. On Mount Khara tolokhai, call 54. On Mount Engge-tolakhai or ed also in Russian Black Point, among Inke-tolokhai, situated in the plain, the sources of the Koukou esike or twelve wersts from the former. The Koukou ichiga, which falls into the whole of this plain is without water, Ouber berke, ten wersts from the for- except from a few springs. Very

rarely a lake or pool is met with in it, 43. On Mount Tourkine, near the for which reason, the border here could sources of the Ouber berke, fourteen only be pointed out by such hills and wersts from the former.-- Near this elevations, as are distinguished by a Mayak, the borderline leaves the name. sources of the rivers which fall into 55. On Mount Moungge-tolokhai, the Quldza, and runs towards the fourteen wersts from the former, Imalkho, which discharges itself into 56, On a spot in the plain called the lake Dari noor or Tarëï.

Angarkhai, forty-four wersts from the 44. On a high mountain without a former. name, ten wersts from the former. 57. On Mount Koboltsikou or Kou

45. On a neighbouring mountain, beldchin, ten wersts from the former, east of the lake Tsagan noor (black 58. On the western bank of the lake), twenty wersts from the former. lake Tarbaga dakhou, fifteen wersts

46. On Mount Kouke tolokhai (blue from the former. head), on the north side of the river 59. On Mount Tchagan oola, sevenImalkho of the lake Darinoor, thirteen teen wersts from the former. wersts from the former,

60. On Monnt Boro tolokhai, in the 47. On Mount Khara tolokhai (black vịcinity of another, called Taboun to


lokhai, situated to the south of the eastern end, and the source of the last-mentioned one, twenty wersts river Katsartai or Katsouratai, wbich from the former.

runs towards the south, or Mongolia, 61. Farther north in the plain, near and falls into the Dzeltoure. The Mount Soukte, fifteen wersts from the mouth of the Katsartai is fifty-six former.

wersts from that of the Dzeltoure in 62. On Mount Erdeni tolokhai, nine the Dzida. The mountain takes : wersts from the former,

north-westerly direction, and sepa63. On Mount Abagaitou, opposite rates the sources of the rivers Dada the mouth of the Gan, on the right of Ekhel ( Iga) and Ouki. This moya! the Argoun, ten wersts from the for- is thirty-four wersts from the former, mer.

10. Near the source of the Dse:i, The following Mayaks are on the which comes from the north, and falls east, from the K'iakhta, to the ancient into the Dzeltoure, thirty wersts abore borders of the Euleuts Dzoungars. the Katsartai, nineteen wersts from the

1. On the right bank of the Kiakhta former. or Kiaktou.

11. At the source of the Modoss 2. On Mount Orkhoitou, ten wersts Koul (wood river), which falls into the from the former.- Between this and river Ering or Iren, which again falls the following mayak, the border line into the Ekhe, forty-six wersts from crosses the Selengga.

the former. Near this mayak, another 3. On Mount Bouilesoutou, near rivulet, also called Modoun Kont, er the left and western bank of the Se- rather Arou Modoun Koul, rises, but lengga, twenty wersts from the former. takes its course towards the north,

4. On Mount Yongkhor oola, west and falls into the Dzida, of the stream Isagan oussoun (white 12. On Mount Boukkótou dabags, water), which falls into the Selengga, also called Bougoutou, at the source of sixteen wersts from the former. the Bouroul, which falls into the

5. On Mount Khonggor obo, ten Ekhe, seventy-seven wersts from the wersts from the former.

former, 6. On Mount Goundzan oola, west 13. On Mount Dosit dabaga o of the stream Bougousoun ama (on the Dochik-tou dabaga, at the source of Mandchoux maps Bos angga), which the Keket, which falls into the Oari, falls into the Dzida or Dzede, sixteen forty-three wersts from the former. wersts from the former.—This mayak 14. On Mount Kesenektou dabaga, is situated between the Mounts Dzor. at the source of one of the streams malik and Mertsel, called on the that form the river Keket, seren wersts Mandchoux maps, Emeltchek. The from the former.- Here the chain of former is to the north, and the latter Egouden dchoo or Uhden dzong termto the south of the Goundzan oola, nates, and another, called Gourbi,

7. On Mount Khoudakhaitou or commences. Khoutougaitou, on the left and western 15. On that part of Mount Gorrbi, 'bank of the river Dzeltoure or Zil where the sources of the Oxri are toura, ten wersts above its mouth on found, forty-three wersts from the the right of the Dzida, twenty wersts former. from the former.

16. At the spot where the chain of 8. On Mount Koukou nourougou,

Gourbi terminates at the north-west, near the source of the Ouber Khoulada, and at the source of the k'kangkka, which falls into the Dzida, twenty- which flows towards the south, and five wersts from the former.

falls into the lake Kosogoul noor of 9. On Mount Egouden dchoo, com Kosogol, forty-six wersts from the formonly called Uhden dzong; at its mer. A few wersts west from the mouth

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