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of this river stood formerly the Rus- of the Chabina dabaga, and leads into sian settlement, called Kossogolskoi Mongolia. It is of ancient construcOstrog:

tion, and is still passable for beasts of 17. On Mount Nouletou dabaga, at burden. the source of the Narin Kharo, which The final treaty between Russia and also falls into lake Kossogol, forty-six China was signed and published on wersts from the former.

the frontiers on the 21st October 18. At the eastern extremity of 1727 (0.s.); but having been drawn Mount Ergik targak taiga, at the up in the name of the Empress Cathesource of the Tenggis, which flows on rine I., of whose death they were then the south, and falls into the Chichkit, ignorant, it was not ratified till the thirteen wersts from the former. 14th June following, in the name of

19. On Mount Toros dabaga, the Emperor Peter II. By Art. II. of among the sources of the k'hamsara this treaty, it is stipulated that the Kem, which falls into the Beikem, and fugitives of both empires are to remain that of the Bede kem, which empties where they are, and not to be reitself into the Khamsara Kem, on the claimed; but that any others who may right side of this river, 133 wersts in future pass the respective bounfrom the former.

daries, shall be carried to the nearest 20. At the western extremity of posts of their respective empires, and Mount Ergik targak taiga, near the there punished. Art. III. relates to source of the Kenchen madan, which the establishment of a commercial déunites with those of the Ous, a river pôt at Kiakhta, and the fixing of the which runs towards the west, and dis- boundary line in general.- Article IV. embogues into the Jeniseë, 378 wersts establishes the number of traders alfrom the former.

lowed to go to Pekin once every 21. On the left side of the Ous, three years, which is not to exceed eighteen from the former.

two hundred. Mere traders are not 22. On a high and steep rock on to be maintained as they used to be; Mount Khonin dabaga, which is called but no impost whatsoever is to be Knonin tag (sheep rock), nineteen levied on them. On their arrival on wersts from the former. On the north the borders, they are to give notice side of this rock, the Mongol Khan of it in writing, upon which an officer Loodzang had a winding pass cut is to be sent to meet and attend them, through the mountain, which leads on account of the commerce. If on from Mongolia to Siberia. Before the road they purchase any camels, that, there was no possibility of cross. horses, or provisions, or hire any laing this mountain, and even now it is bourers, they are to do so at their but with the utmost difficulty that a

own expense.

The traders to be passage is effected.

under the superintendence of a chief, 23. At the mouth of the river who is to manage their affairs, and Kemtchyk, which comes from the west settle any differences that may arise and falls into the Jenisei, eighty-five among them. If this chief be a per. wersts from the former. This mayak son of rank, he shall be received acis called Kem Kemtchyk Bom, or Kem cordingly. All kinds of goods may Kemtchyk Boktsir ; Bom signifying the be sold, except such as are prohibited steep bank of a mountain towards a by the laws of both empires. No one river running through it.

is to remain clandestinely, and without 24. Near Mount Chabina dabaga, 125 the permission of his chief, in the wersts from the former. The Ter- foreign country. If any one dies there, ritory of the Kouznetsk begins to the his property is to be given up to his north of this mayak. A road coming countrymen. Besides the commerce from Siberia, cuts through the rocks carried on by the caravans of the two

empires, houses for the ordinary com- urgent, when the shortest road may meree shall be established on the re. be taken. In cases of infraction of spective frontiers, near Kiakhta, the this regulation, the respective authoSelengga, and Nibtchoo (Nertchinsk), rities are to inform each other of it, and which may be surrounded with and punish the transgressors of their hedges and pallisades, if thought de respective countries. Art.VII. refers to sirable. Those who go to these places the boundary line near the river Oude, for commercial purposes, are to fol about which the Russian ambassador low the direct road; and if any one, declared himself unauthorized to treat, contravening this regulation, carries at that time, as according to his expreson trade in any other place, his goods sion, that part of the country was 25 shall be 'confiscated for the profit of yet but little known. He promised, government. An equal number of however, that strict orders should be officers, under the orders of chiefs of given to Russian subjects not to pass equal rank, are to be established on in that quarter, the limits anciently both sides to watch over these places. established; the Chinese declaring that By Art. V. it is agreed that Russian they would punish every Russian sub travellers are in future to reside in ject they might find there upon their the hotel of that nation at Pekin; territory, allowing the Russian go. that a temple having been built adjoin. vernment to do the same with any ing it, under the superintendance “ of Chinese they might find on theiru

. the grandees of the Central Empire, Art. VIII, directs the punishment of charged with the affairs of the Oros commanders on the respective borders

, (Russians),” the priest, then in the who might delay the decision of any metropolis, is to reside in it with case for their own interest. Art. IX. three assistant priests, who are all to relates to the reception and enterbe supported by the Chinese govern- tainment of ambassadors, and the ment. The Russians are to have the forwarding of letters and messengers free exercise of their religion; and six in their respective empires. If the Russian lads, acquainted with the former arrive in a year when con. Russian and Latin languages, are to merce is not permitted, they are to reside, and to be supported in the carry no goods with them; and if any same place, for the purpose of being unnecessary delay is any where thrown instructed in the Chinese language, in the way of the latter, neither the which individuals on their studies being traders nor ambassadors of the councompleted, are to return to their coun- try which shall have been guilty of try, without any impediment being such neglect, are to be received till thrown in their way. Art. VI. orders satisfaction is given. Art. X. fixes that letters going from China to Russia, the punishment of subjects deserting

, are to be sent under the seal of the military deserters, marauders, cattletribunal of the affairs of the external stealers, hunters, &c., of both enprovinces, to the Russian senate, and pires, on their respective territory; letters from China to Russia, are to the first of which are to be extbe transmitted to the same tribunal, cuted on the spot where they are under the seal of the Governor of taken. Tobolsk. It farther fixes upon the

It was hoped that this treaty would officers on both sides who are to sign have settled the quarrels between the papers concerning deserters or thefts, two empires; but this was not the and establishes that such correspon- case. The article X, respecting şube dence between the respective authori- jects violating the respective frontiers ties is to be carried on by special was worded so loosels, that it conmessengers, and by the road of Kiakhta stantly gave rise to new discussions ; alone, unless the business should be till at last, Catherine II., in 1767, des


patched the commissary K'ropotow, for it was agreed that every post should the purpose of examining and altering be guarded by Mongol horsemen well the treaty, conjointly with the Chi- armed; their number is from twenty nese plenipotentiary, who had arrived to thirty men, whose commander is for this purpose at Kiakhta. In con. obliged to ride every day along the sequence of this, a supplement to the line, as far as the next guard-house. treaty was agreed upon, and the Art. In desert parts, however, this visit is X. completely altered, and its pro- not made daily on account of the disvisions made perfectly clear and in- tance. The advanced posts stand close telligible.

to the border, and consist of several The line of demarcation which se

The principal duty of the comparates these two immense empires, manding officer is to examine every begins in the west, near the river morning if there be any indication on Bouktourma, and terminates in the east, the grass or sand, of people having on the shores of the sea of Okhotsk. passed the border during the night; Its breadth is from five, ten, or thirty and the Mongols have such an acute fathoms, according to the nature of sight, that even on horseback, they the country through which it runs. can discover the smallest mark. As This line, in fact, belongs to neither soon as any such trace is perceived, of the two states, and forms their real they alight from their horses and folborder, which is to be protected by low it up towards the neutral line the two powers, and cannot be passed without effacing it. If the trace is of except at the places stipulated. a horse or any other domestic animal,

Guard-houses were placed at con- it is surrounded by bits of wood or venient distances, whose number, as turf, in order to preserve it. After well as the strength of their garrisons, having stationed a sentinel near it, was determined by the degree of po- they advance towards the opposite pulation in the vicinity. The guard post till they reach the first sentinel, houses of the respective countries are to whom they cry out to send his all placed opposite each other, and at commanding officer with an escort. such distances as to admit of their The two parties then repair to the mutually observing each other. They spot where the trace was found, in are commonly placed within five, ten,or order to examine its direction. Then twenty wersts from the border. Theline the respective officers surround the of demarcation is carefully visited every places where researches have been day, not only for the purpose of pre-made, with fine strings fastened and venting its being passed, but likewise, sealed to planks of wood, in order to to prevent all communication between prevent other thieves or marauders from the border tribes. In wild and oun- making use of them, for the purpose tainous parts, where the distances of of crossing the border. The party to the guard-houses are more conside- whose territory the trace leads, is now rable, the ground has been raised bound to follow it up, it order to find in various places for the purpose of out if any stranger has arrived, or any indicating the direction of the frontier theft been committed. If the deline. In those spots where it is cross- sorters are found, they are taken to ed by a stream, posts were fixed on the guard-house, whither the officer each side, and ropes of horse-hair from the opposite one is invited, in drawn across, which were sealed up at order that they may be delivered over both ends, so that it is impossible for to him. The parties are then tried, any one to pass the border without and the respective authorities informperceiving it.

ed of the result, in order that every When the members of the congress party may receive the fullest satisfachad surveyed the whole line in 1727, tion. It is thus that the line of de


marcation, established in 1727 and near the Kiakhta. This fort was named 1768, has been preserved to this day. Troitzoi Sawsk krepost, but is gene

The first commercial dépôt has been rally called Kiakhta. The border and established near the Kiakhta, ninety-one commercial gate between the two enwersts from Selenginsk, and the se- pires had been fixed three wersts cond neur the Gan, which falls into farther in the valley watered by the the Argoun at Tsouroukhaitou. All other Kiakhta. There were two border ce commerce and connexion between the lumns raised, near which the comtwo empires was at the same time mercial dépôts were established on stopped.

each side, at a distance of 120 fathoms During the congress, Count Sawa from one another. The Chinese cogave a new organization to the Rus- lumn bears the Chinese inscription sian Mongols and Bouriates, who dwelt Mai ye tchhu, and the Mandchou, idee to the south and east of the Baikal. dai ba, both meaning places of conA body of armed men was formed for the purpose of guarding the frontiers. In the centre of the Russian depuit

, The chiefs of the tribes of Isangol, which, like that of the Chinese, is Sartal, Khori, and Podogrodskvi, were square, is the bazaar, built of wood, raised to the nobility in recompense in which is a chapel built of stone. for the services they had rendered On the east is a church, and on the at the congress; and pensions were south, near the Chinese gate, are the settled on them and their descendants. barracks, the great guard-house, and Other chiefs were made members of the governor's house. The remainder the provincial courts of judicature, of the space is occupied by the dwelland the jurisdiction of their tribes en- ings of the merchants. The whole is trusted to them. Every tribe received surrounded by chevaux-de-frise, and a standard to be displayed on great on each side is a gate, surmounted by occasions. The chiefs of the Bouriates a belfry. The Cossacs employed in renewed their oath of allegiance, and the border service, together with their were compelled to pay the whole families, live outside the place, in a amount of tribute for their subjects, suburb, which contains, besides sereand to furnish, in proportion to the ral public offices, three chapels, and is strength of the tribe, horsemen, to also surrounded by chevaux-de-frise. guard the borders. Every outpost A little higher up is the fort Troitskai of these horsemen is commanded by a Sawsk, which contains a commercial Russian subaltern.

dépôt, and some offices. The road A border chancery was established thither is bordered on each side by a at Selenginsk, whence all couriers very high parapet; it is cut by a going to the Ourga and Pekin were to stream, the bridge over which is closed be dispatched. Nine wersts farther, by chevaux-de-frise, which are raised to on the banks of the Tchikvi, a small give a passage to carriages. A sentifort with a church was raised. The nel stands near it; and travellers and goods destined for China arrive here goods going to or coming from the by water, whence it has become the frontiers, must pass through this gate. principal dépôt, and the custom-house This little town has a considerable for the Chinese trade has been es- population, spacious streets, and the tablished here.

houses, although built of wood, have a As soon as the congress t:ad finished very neat appearance. The crowd of its labours in 1727, a caravan com merchants of various nations and posed of 205 persons was despatched tribes, together with their servants aud to Pekin, under the command of the Cossacs of the garrison, give this Lieut. Lange. In the following year place a very animated appearance. A the first Russian guard-house was built suburb is appropriated for the accom

modation of travelling merchants and edge of the roof, and at the least Russian Mongols, the latter of whom draught of air produce a chime, which resort here for the purpose of ex- delights the Chinese. The houses changing their cattle for merchandize. closely adjoin one another, having They have brokers of their own na seldom any windows towards the tion, and sometimes fifty of them en street. The principal entrance to each gage for an annual pay to do the house leads into a yard, round which service of the Cossacs. Russian pea- the apartments are ranged. They are sants here exchange their furš, hides, chiefly built of clay. On the outside and tallow, for Chinese articles. Up- of the door one generally reads the per. Kiakhta seems to be the most name of the proprietor, the allegorical important place of the two. From title of his shop, or the words, happiboth sides of the border columns a · ness and long life. Towards the yard, row of chevaux-de-frise extends for the houses and railings are painted several leagues along the border, in with lively colours. On entering the order to prevent the cattle sold by the door, the stranger is received by the Russians from returning home again. master and his people, who drive away The Chinese town is called Mai mai- the large dogs from the yards, which tehin (place of commerce.) It is larger are ready to tear every one to pieces. than the Russian dépôt, and surround- When seated in the drawing room, ed by pallisades, having three gates on tea, sweet-meats, fruit, and tobacco the north side, and as many on the are brought in. The rooms are either south. The gates towards Russia are

varnished or lined with painted or bidden by a wooden screen, with the printed paper. The air is kept pure word Fou (luck) written upon it, and by means of a hole in the ceiling. which is to secure them against the The windows are made in the European influence of the evil eye, and even of fashion, with the exception of the incantations. There are guard-houses pannels being filled up with fine paper on the four angles of the town, and a instead of glass. In the middle of a fifth on the western front, which has the window is an aperture which closes to watch over the numerous carts on with a square of white mica, and which the Russians bring their goods, which is opened when they want to and which they leave under their care.

look outside. The paper is protected The Chinese have many gardens, against the effects of snow and rain wherein they grow their vegetables, by the projecting roof. Both streets without which they could not subsist. and yards are kept exceedingly neat. The stream is crossed by two bridges, The Chinese are very regular in their near each of which are some wells of manners, but at the same time, exclear water, the water of the Kiakhta tremely cunning. Those of them who being so muddy as to render it unfit trade here (for which privilege they pay

The streets are straight, and a certain duty to their government) are lead from the gates, dividing the town all from the western parts of the prointo regular squares. On the central vinces of Pet-che-lee and Chan-si. They spot where the two principal streets are not allowed to have wives with intersect each other, is a tower of them; and most of them have no some height, with a place under it in other society than the young men who which the government orders are are in their service. Some rich men posted up. These orders are com- keep Mongol mistresses, who live monly written in large characters, and under felt tents outside of the town. pasted on boards. This tower is as Most of the merchants speak the cended by four flights of steps placed Mongol language, which they learn on at the corners. Bells and sheets of their road hither. There are some, metal and glass are suspended on the too, who speak the Russian well Asiatic Journ.-No. 102.

Vol. XVII. 4 M

for use.

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