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tion is left to a considerable extent in the hands of the Examiners (who from the analogy which they bear to certain ancient officers are called 'Masters of the Schools'). The following is, however, the order from which there is seldom any considerable departure.

On the first three days all the Candidates are assembled together in one or more of the large rooms within the precincts of the 'Schools,' and printed questions in subjects 1, 2, 3, 4 (and sometimes in subject 5) are given to all alike, to be answered in writing. On the succeeding days the Candidates are examined viva voce, chiefly, but not exclusively, in their Greek and Latin books. For this purpose they are arranged in two divisions, and to each division three Examiners are assigned. The Examination in each of these divisions goes on simultaneously, and in each of them not more than twenty-one Candidates can be examined every day. The order in which Candidates are required to present themselves is usually that of the printed list, but the Examiners have power to vary it, and Candidates should be careful to consult from day to day the list prepared by the Clerk of the Schools which is exhibited in the Hall of the Schools. Any Candidate who fails to appear at the appointed time is liable to have his name erased from the list, unless he is able to satisfy the Vice-Chancellor of his having had a valid reason for absence, in which case another place in the order of the Examination is assigned to him by the Examiners.

At the close of each day those Candidates who have satisfied the Examiners in all the subjects of Examination, receive, on application to the Clerk of the Schools, a written certificate or Testamur, signed by them, to that effect. Those Candidates who have failed to satisfy the Examiners are at liberty to present themselves for examination again in a subsequent Term, provided that on each occasion of their doing so they give in their names to the Junior Proctor in the way mentioned above (p. 129).

At the close of the Examination the names of those who have passed are printed in the University Gazette.


This Examination, which from the circumstance of the Examiners being styled 'Moderators' is sometimes known as ' Moderations,' varies according as the Candidates (i) do not seek Honours, (2) seek Honours in Classics, (3) seek Honours in Mathematics. Every Candidate must satisfy the Examiners in one or the other of the first two divisions, the third is wholly voluntary.

1. Examination of those who do not seek Honours.

1. Time.—The Examination is held twice a year: (1) in Michaelmas Term, beginning on the Monday in the eighth week of full Term; (2) in Trinity Term, beginning on the Monday in the week before Commemoration.

2. Candidates.—Two preliminary conditions must have been fulfilled by those who offer themselves.

(1) They must have entered upon the fourth Term from their Matriculation. (But members of an Affiliated College, who wish to claim the privileges mentioned on p. 224, must not have been matriculated.)

(2) They must be able to present one or other of the following certificates:—

(a) That of having passed Responsions (or the Examination in

lieu of Responsions) (p. 129). (A) That of having passed the Previous Examination at


(f) That of having satisfied the Oxford and Cambridge Schools' Examiners in Latin, Greek, and Elementary Mathematics (p. 213).

(d) That of having shown sufficient merit in the Local Examinations to be excused Responsions (p. 216).

(e) That of having completed a course of three years, and of having obtained honours in the Final Examination, at an Affiliated College (p. 224).

(/) That of being on the List of Selected Candidates for the Civil Service of India, or of having been on such list and having become a member of that Service (p. 222).

(3) Those who have satisfied these conditions must further, either in person or through their Tutor, have given in their names to the Junior Proctor, at a place and time of which notice is previously given by him (about a fortnight before the beginning of the Examination). But Candidates who have omitted to enter their names at the appointed time may do so by application to the Proctor up to Twelve o'clock at noon on the day before that on which the Examination begins, or if the day before be a Sunday, then up to Twelve o'clock at noon on the Saturday preceding, on payment of Two Guineas in addition to the statutable fee or fees, on the occasion of each such application. In so giving in their names they are required—

(a) To exhibit their Matriculation paper (unless they offer

themselves as members of an Affiliated College under the

conditions mentioned on p. 224). (A) To exhibit one or other of the six certificates mentioned


fV) To pay a fee of £1 10s.

(d) To state in writing, on a form provided for the purpose—

1. The particular Greek and Latin books which they offer.

[Seep. 137.]

A Candidate born in India of parents born in India may offer one Oriental language, either Sanskrit or Arabic, in place of either Greek or Latin.

2. Whether they offer Logic, or Mathematics.

3. In what Greek and Latin books they satisfied the

Masters of the Schools, or the Oxford and Cambridge Schools' Examiners, or the Examiners of Senior Candidates at the Local Examinations.

(e) Every Candidate who desires to be excused from examination in the Gospels must deliver, or transmit through his Tutor, to the Proctor a statement signed, if he be of full age, by himself, or, if he be not of full age, by his parent or guardian, that he or his parent or guardian for him, as the case may be, objects on religious grounds to such an examination. The book which such Candidate offers in place of the Gospels (see below) must be specified on the list of subjects given in by him to the Proctor.

A Candidate who offers an Oriental language instead either of Greek or of Latin may offer, in lieu of the Holy Gospels, an additional book in that Oriental language to be approved by the Board of Studies; or he may substitute for an examination in the Greek Text of the Holy Gospels additional matter sanctioned by the Board.

(/) Every Candidate whose name has previously been placed in the Class-list by the Classical Moderators, but who failed to satisfy them in either the Gospels or the book offered instead thereof, and who offers himself for subsequent examination in a book offered instead of the Gospels, is required to specify the books and subjects which he offered for Classical Honours.

The names which are thus given in are printed in a list which is affixed to certain public places within the University, and also published in the University Gazette.

3. Subjects Of Examination.—These are five in number; between them no compensation is admitted: a Candidate is required to satisfy the Examiners in each of them separately.

(1) The Tour Gospels in Greek.

[Candidates are expected to be able to translate the Greek text, and to answer questions on the subject-matter.]

Candidates who desire under the conditions specified above (e) to offer a book in place of the Gospels, may offer any one of the Greek books in the list of Subjects from which they may choose their other books, provided that it is not the same as the book in which they satisfied the Masters of the Schools (or the Examiners whose certificates are accepted in lieu of the Testamur of the Masters of the Schools), nor a portion of any of the same authors which they are offering in the course of the same Examination.

(2) Logic, or Mathematics.

(a) For Candidates who offer Logic the subjects of examination are the Elements of Logic, Deductive and Inductive.

The subjects may be studied either in Fowler's Elements 0/Deductive Logic and the first five chapters of Fowler's Elements of Inductive Logic (omitting the sections on Classification, Nomenclature, and Terminology, and the notes appended at the end of each chapter), or in Jevons' Elementary Lessons in Logic, or in any other works which cover the same ground.

(b) For Candidates who offer Mathematics the subjects of examination are (i) In Algebra, Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, and Division, of Algebraical Quantities (including simple irrational quantities expressed by radical signs or fractional indices), Greatest Common Measure and Least Common Multiple, Fractions, Extraction of Square Root, Simple Equations containing one or two unknown quantities, Quadratic Equations containing one unknown quantity, Questions producing such Equations, and the simplest properties of Ratio and Proportion, (ii) In Geometry, the Geometry of the Circle, viz. Euclid, Book III, and the first nine Propositions of Book IV.

(3) Translation of English into Latin. A Candidate is expected to be able to translate into Latin, without grammatical mistake, a passage of an English author slightly more idiomatic than is required at Responsions.

(4) Three Books, of which one at least must be Greek and one Latin, and one either a historical or a philosophical work, from the following lists. Whatever be the particular books offered, candidates are required to show a competent knowledge both of the text and of the contents of the books which they offer, and to answer not only questions relating to Grammar and Literature, but also any questions directly arising out of the matters treated of in these books.

Candidates who matriculated in or after Easter Term 1876 must select their three books from the following list and under the following conditions:—

Greek—*Herodotus, V, VI. *Thucydides, VI, VII. *Xenophon: Memorabilia, I, II, IV. *PIato: Apologia, Meno. * Aristotle: Polit. I, III. Demosthenes: De Corona. Homer: II. XVII-XXII. Aristophanes: Acharn., Nubes. Latin.—*Livy, V, VI, VII. "Tacitus: Hist. I. II, III. Cicero: Pro Roscio Amerino, Philipp. II. Terence: Andr., Phorm., Heaut. Virgil: JEn. VII-XII. Horace: Sat. I, II; Epist. I, II. Juvenal (except Sat. II, VI, IX).

[Candidates who matriculated between Easter Term, 1876, and Hilary Term, 1880, both inclusive, may also select yEschylus: Prom., Pers., Sept. c. Theb. *Cicero: De Natura Deorum, I, II.]

The historical and philosophical works, from which one at least of the books which are offered must be selected, are marked with an asterisk.

No Candidate will be allowed to offer any of the same books, or a portion of any of the same authors, in which he satisfied the Masters of the Schools (or the Examiners whose certificates are accepted in lieu of the Testamur of the Masters of the Schools), except in the following cases:—

(i) Candidates who have offered any portion of Cicero other than his

Orations at Responsions (or the equivalent Examinations) may offer Orations of Cicero at Moderations, and vice versa.

(ii) Candidates who have offered the Odes or Epodes of Horace

together with the Ars Poetica at Responsions (or the equivalent Examinations) may offer the Satires and Epistles of Horace at Moderations.

But Candidates who have offered a portion of the Odyssey at Responsions or the equivalent Examinations will not be allowed to offer

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