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formally repealed, and of which but few traces now remain. At present the discipline, if not more lax, is at least compatible with a greater degree of freedom on the part of a student. The rules which are in force are neither numerous nor irksome. They concern chiefly (i)the wearing of the prescribed academical dress, (2) the non-frequenting of certain places, (3) the abstinence from certain practices, which are regarded as incompatible with the habits of a student.

1. Junior members of the University are required by the Statutes to wear a prescribed academical dress 'quoties in publicum prodeunt.' This regulation has gradually been narrowed in practice, but the cap and gown are still required to be worn (1) before 1 P.m., and after sunset; (2) always within the precincts of the Schools, whether a student is or is not under examination; (3) at University Sermons; (4) in calling officially upon any officer of the University.

2. They are required to abstain from frequenting hotels or taverns, except for reasons to be approved by the Vice-Chancellor or Proctors.

3. They are not allowed to keep a horse or to drive a vehicle of any kind except with the consent both of their College or Hall, and of the Proctors; nor to smoke in the streets; nor to engage in any games of chance; nor to take part in, or subscribe money for, horse-races or shooting-matches.

The punishments which are inflicted for a breach of any of these rules consist of (1) pecuniary fines, the amount of which is in some cases specified in the Statutes, but is more usually left to the discretion of the Vice-Chancellor or the Proctors; (2) rustication, i.e. banishment from the University for a definite period; (3) expulsion from the University.

§ 2. The Chancellor's Court.

By virtue of an ancient privilege, the existence of which has been repeatedly acknowledged by the highest Courts of Law, the University can claim exclusive jurisdiction in all matters, whether civil or criminal, to which its resident members are parties.

Offences of the gravest class fall under the cognisance of the High Steward or his deputy, but in practice the privilege of the High Steward has been seldom claimed, and all criminal charges, in which a resident member of the University is concerned, are in the first instance brought before the Vice-Chancellor, who is by Royal Charter a Justice of the Peace for the counties of Oxford and Berks, and are either dealt with summarily or remitted by him to the ordinary Courts of Law for trial, as circumstances may require. All cases of debt and other civil actions fall under the cognisance of the Chancellor's Court, which is held in the Apodyterium of the Convocation House every Friday during Term, and in which, for the better administration of justice, the Chancellor, or Vice-Chancellor, is usually represented by a legal assessor, who must be a Bachelor or Doctor, of Civil Law. The procedure of this Court is assimilated to that of the County Courts, and the parties to a suit are usually represented by their 'Proctors,' that is, by certain Masters of Arts or Bachelors of Civil Law or Attorneys or Barristers-at-law, who have been admitted to practise in the Court. The Court has the power not only of imposing Academical penalties, such as rustication and expulsion, but also of distraint and imprisonment.

§ 3. College Discipline.

To some extent the discipline of a College or Hall covers the same ground as that of the University; but it differs from it inasmuch as from the nature of the case it is more domestic in its character, allowing in some respects of closer restraint, and in others of greater elasticity. Every College and Hall has its own special code, and its own special mode of administering it; but there are certain general regulations which, with slight varieties of detail, are common to almost all Colleges and Halls, and which can therefore be stated here.

(1) All Undergraduates are required to begin their residence in each Term on a certain day, to reside during the prescribed length of time (usually eight weeks), and not to leave Oxford without having obtained leave from the Head or Vicegerent of their College or Hall.

(2) They are required, unless specially exempted, to attend certain lectures. The number of lectures thus required varies so much that no general rule can be laid down, but when once an Undergraduate has been requested to attend a particular course he must, under pain of censure, either attend, or send a valid excuse to the Lecturer.

(3) They are usually expected, but not compelled, to attend the chapel of the College or Hall at least once a day, a certain proportion of such attendances being at morning chapel; but in some Colleges presence at Roll-call a specified number of mornings is accepted as an alternative. At the Halls the rules as to attendance at chapels are prescribed by the Statuta Aularia of the University; they are to the effect that in every Hall prayers out of the Book of Common Prayer must be read every day, and that all members of the Hall must attend. But in both Colleges and Halls those who are not members of the Church of England are in all cases exempted.

(4) The gates of Colleges and Halls are usually closed at 9.10 P.m. (at Christ Church 9.15 P.m., at Keble College 9 P.m., at St. Mary Hall 10 P.m.): after that hour no one is allowed, without special permission, to leave his College or Hall, and a small fine is imposed upon those who come in. Lodging-house keepers are required to close their doors at 10 P.m., and to keep a list of all who go out or come into their houses after that hour. No Undergraduate is allowed to remain out of either College or lodgings after midnight without the special permission of the Head of his College or Hall: and any Undergraduate who Without leave passes a night away from his College or his lodgings, renders himself liable to a severe penalty.

(5) Undergraduates are not allowed to enter their names for University Examinations without the consent of their Tutor: they are usually required to pass such Examinations within certain prescribed limits of time; and they are usually also required to pass certain examinations in the College or Hall itself.

At University, Responsions must be passed within the first two Terms. All Undergraduate members of the College are required to read for Honours in some one Final School, and, unless specially permitted to do otherwise, for Honours in either Classics or Mathematics at Moderations.

At Balliol, all Undergraduates are required to read for Honours in some Final School, and all University Examinations must be passed, Unless special permission be given to do otherwise, at the earliest opportunity. There is a College examination at the end of each Term, at which every Undergraduate member of the College is expected to bring up a portion of his work for Moderations or one of the Final Schools, as the case may be. At each of such examinations he is also liable to be examined in the work of previous examinations.

At Merton, Responsions must be passed within the first two Terms of standing, Pass Moderations within the first eight Terms. There is an annual College examination, at which an Exhibition for Commoners and prizes are awarded.

At Exeter, Responsions must be passed within the first year of residence, Pass Moderations in the fourth Term after passing Responsions, and in no case later than the eighth Term of standing; and all Examinations for the B.A. (Pass) degree by the end of the sixteenth Term. A College examination is held at the end of each Term, the result of which is shown by a class-list. All who are placed in the first class receive a prize of books.

At Oriel, Responsions must be passed within the first two Terms of standing, Pass Moderations within the first eight Terms. There is a terminal College examination.

At Queen's, Responsions must be passed by the end of the fourth, and Pass Moderations by the end of the tenth Term, (i) There are periodical College examinations. (2) All Classical Scholars and Exhibitioners of the College who have not passed Moderations are required twice a year to pass an examination in portions of their Moderations work; the Tutors offer a prize of books to the person who passes the best examination; any member of the College who has not passed Moderations is allowed to compete. (3) Prizes are offered annually for Greek or Latin, and for English, composition. (4) A present of books of the value of £5 is given to every member of the College who obtains a first class in Moderations, and of the value of £10 to one who obtains a first class in the Final Examination for B.A. or in the Examination for B.C.L. A book or present of books is given to one who obtains a University Scholarship.

At Hew College, all University Examinations must, as a rule, be passed at the earliest opportunity, and every Undergraduate must read for Honours in some one School.

At Magdalen, all University Examinations must, as a rule, be passed at the earliest opportunity. There is a terminal College examination. Prizes are offered annually for Greek and Latin Composition, Modern History, and Natural Science.

At Brasenose, Responsions must be passed within the first year, 'Moderations before the end of the eighth Term, and all Examinations required for the degree of B.A. before the end of the sixteenth Term.

At Corpus, all University Examinations must be passed, unless special leave be given to the contrary, as early as possible. All members of the College are expected to read for Honours in some one of the Final Schools. There is a College Examination at the end of Hilary Term, at which every Undergraduate member of the College is examined in a portion of his work for the First or Second Public Examination, as the case may be. A certain number of Exhibitions, of the value of £40 per annum, for two years, are awarded on the results of this Examination.

At Christ Church, Responsions must be passed by the end of the first Term of residence, Moderations by the end of the sixth Term from the beginning of residence, and all Examinations required for the degree of B.A. by the end of the fourteenth Term of standing, except in the case of Candidates for Honours.

At Trinity, it is expected that Undergraduates should offer themselves for all University Pass Examinations at the earliest opportunity. There is a terminal College examination.

At St. John's, Responsions must be passed by the end of the second Term, Moderations by the end of the ninth. There is a terminal College examination.

At Jesus, Responsions must as a rule be passed within the first year, Moderations within the second year. All Scholars and Exhibitioners are expected to read for Honours in at least one School. There is a terminal College examination.

At Wadham, an Undergraduate who fails to pass any Examination within the time judged reasonable in his case by the Warden and Tutors is required to remove his name from the College books.

At Pembroke, Undergraduates are required to pass Responsions not later than their sixth Term, and to pass Moderations not later than their twelfth Term. There is a terminal College examination.

At Worcester, Responsions must be passed before the end of the first year; and if an Undergraduate fails to pass Moderations on his third opportunity he must discontinue residence; if he fails on the second opportunity subsequent he must remove his name from the College books. There is a terminal College examination.

At Keble, Responsions must, under ordinary circumstances, be passed by the end of the second Term, Moderations by the end of the sixth, and the Final Schools by the end of the fourteenth. Those who read for Honours in any School are, in regard to that School, exempt from this rule; but all Undergraduates are required to pass in the Rudiments of Faith and Religion by the end of their fourteenth Term, and the College does not retain on its books the names of those who fail twice in the same division of the Final Schools. Undergraduates are examined by the College before their University Examinations: and there are Exhibitions or prizes of books awarded in connection with the College Examinations in Honour subjects.

At Hertford there is a terminal College examination, and also a preliminary examination before each of the University Examinations.

At St. Mary Hall there is a terminal Hall examination, and also a preliminary examination before each of the University Examinations.

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