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days, and the time required on any occasion varies from two to six hours, according to the nature of the work in hand.
The fee for working three days a week is £3 per Term, no additional expense being incurred by a student, unless by inattention or carelessness he should injure the apparatus entrusted to him.
It is essential that a student in the Physical Laboratory should possess some knowledge of Mathematics, and the greater this knowledge, the greater will be the range of physical study open to him; it is also most desirable that before entering the Laboratory the student should have acquired some knowledge of general Physics, such for instance as is represented by the elementary portions of Jamin's Cours de Physique.
If, upon coming to the University, a student intends to become a candidate for Honours in Physics, it is generally desirable that he should give his attention mainly to the study of Mathematics and Mechanics until he has passed Moderations, merely acquiring a general knowledge of Physics and Chemistry by attending the experimental lectures. He should then devote his whole time to the study of works on Physics and Chemistry and to working in the Laboratories.
As however the most desirable course to pursue depends so much on the extent of the student's knowledge on entering the University, it is recommended that each student intending to give special attention to Physics should, as soon as possible after coming into residence, consult the Professor of Experimental Philosophy, or any other teacher of Physics in the University.
4. Department Of Chemistry.
This department comprises a lecture-room fitted with appliances for experimental illustration, and two principal working laboratories, the larger of which is fitted with sixty-four workingbenches, together with demonstration-rooms, subsidiary laboratories, balance-rooms, furnace-rooms, store-rooms, &c.
The oral instruction consists of two general lectures and one demonstration, or less formal lecture, and two courses of lectures on the elements of organic and inorganic chemistry, given weekly. For attendance on these lectures no fee is required.
The principal laboratories are open daily from 10 A.m. to 4 P.m. during Term-time, for instruction in Practical Chemistry. The fee for each Term is, for students working three days in the week, £3; for students working every day, £5. The ordinary work of the student in the laboratory consists in the practice of qualitative and quantitative analysis, and the preparation of Chemical compounds; and in particular of those methods of analysis, of which a knowledge is required from candidates for Honours in the School of Natural Science who make Chemistry their special subject.
Opportunities are moreover afforded in the different laboratories for the experimental investigation of special subjects of chemical enquiry.
5. Department Of Mineralogy.
(1) Mineralogy. The specimens, mostly obtained by gifts to the University from Dr. Simmons of Christ Church, and others, are arranged in table-cases in the order of their chemical constitution. Beginning with meteoric iron, the series is continued through metals and combinations of metals, sulphides, chlorides, and fluorides.; a large variety of oxides, carbonates and silicates succeeds, followed by sulphates, phosphates, &c. The series closes with combustible substances, including jet and amber. The specimens are labelled, and may be studied by help of Miller's Mineralogy, and other works in the Radcliffe Library.
(2) Lithology. To assist in the study of rocks and associations of minerals—a subject common to Mineralogy and Geology—there is a case of Vesuvian lavas and minerals, and two tables of rock specimens selected to show crystalline segregations, veins, faults, cleavage, metamorphism, and other varieties of structure. A convenient book for these subjects is Cotta's Gesteinslehre, translated by Lawrence^
6. Department Of Geology.
The collections include fossils from the whole series of British strata, with selections from foreign localities. Of the original collection anciently in the Ashmolean Museum, and described by Lhwyd, only a few specimens can be recognised; a great part of those now exhibited were bequeathed to the University by the late Rev. Dr. Buckland.
The general collection, including fossils of all the formations from the Cambrian to the Chalk, is placed in vertical cases in the lower East Corridor. They are arranged in two series—the Palaeozoic and the Mesozoic; and in each series the fossils are placed in the order of natural affinity, so that the student may follow any one selected group of forms—as Brachiopoda, or Cephalopoda, or Fishes—through the whole extent of Palaeozoic or Mesozoic times. The Cainozoic fossils will be found in the upper East Corridor, where also, placed in vertical cases, is the large series of mammalian remains collected in the bone-caves of England and the Continent by Dr. Buckland.
The special collection of organic remains from the several formations in the neighbourhood of Oxford is placed in separate cases between the columns in the West, South, and East Corridors. They range from beds of Pleistocene age down to the Lias.
The collection of the great Saurian remains of the Oxford district will be found in the glass cases on the side of the rightband Central Avenue; and the large series of Saurian remains from the Lias, presented to the University by Mr. Hawkins, are placed in the South Corridor and at the end of the open Court.
The specimens are in greater part named and labelled. There is besides a MS. Catalogue of the general collection, corresponding with numbers on the specimens, which may be consulted on application to the Professor of Geology.
(A guide-book is published, which gives particulars of the arrangement, position, and locality of the specimens, and indicates those which are most worthy of notice.)
Lectures, without fee, are given twice a week during Michaelmas and Hilary Terms, and informal instruction and field excursions during the summer Term.
7. Department Of Zoology.
Specimens illustrative of the great divisions of the animal kingdom (excepting Arachnida, Insecta, &c.) are placed in the middle of the Court, labelled and catalogued. At present the space for mammalia is very restricted. Each natural division of birds from various regions of the earth is placed, as far as possible, together, and distinct from other groups. Of reptiles a considerable proportion was part of the large gifts of the Rev. F. W. Hope of Christ Church, including the fine series of Chelonida collected by Professor Bell: Dr. Gunther has examined a considerable number of the Batrachians, Lacertians, Ophidians, and Crocodilians—very many specimens being preserved in spirits, in the South Upper Corridor. In the central aisle of the Court are cabinets containing a general collection of the shells of Mollusca, mostly presented by Admiral Sir T. Wilson and Lady Wilson (these are arranged in natural groups, numbered and catalogued); also a large cabinet in which the ornithological collection of bird-skins is arranged, including a collection from Borneo recently given by Mr. Treacher.
There is a distinct collection of British Vertebrata, including fishes, reptiles, birds, and mammalia, in the upper north corridor, which also contains a very valuable collection of Arctic birds presented by John Barrow, Esq., and a collection of birds' nests. Among the British birds are especially to be noticed many groups of young birds. Large and valuable collections of British shells, presented by Sir Walter Trevelyan and the late Mr. Barlee, are placed in a room on the north side of the building. Special collections, including eggs of British birds, shells of Madeira, and shells of the vicinity of Oxford, are arranged in glazed drawers under the general collection of shells.
In a distinct cabinet, Echinodermata appear in two main groups—Echinida and Asterida—and the series is closed by a collection of Corals, Gorgonise, and Spongiadae, labelled and catalogued.
The collections of articulated animals and the Entomological Library are placed in rooms in the South Upper Corridor of the Museum. The collection of insects, both British and foreign, also presented to the University by the Rev. F. W. Hope (to which constant additions are being made from a special grant bequeathed by the same donor), is one of the largest in existence, and in some of the groups is unsurpassed in any other museum. The collection of Economic Entomology, formed by Mr. Westwood, the present Professor of Zoology, is of very large extent; portions of it are exhibited in glazed cases in the large Insectroom and in the Corridor.
The rich collection of Crustacea formed by Professor Bell is also here preserved, having been presented to the University by Mr. Westwood on his appointment to the Professorship of Zoology. Large collections of Crustacea, Arachnida, Insecta, and Marine lnvertebrata, in spirits, are preserved in the wallcases of the Insect-room and Corridor.
The Entomological Library of the Rev. F. W. Hope is very extensive, and is open to students on application to the Professor.
8. Department Of Human And Comparative Anatomy.
The Anatomical Laboratory is open daily throughout Term time, from Ioa.m. to 5 P.M., for practical instruction in Human and Comparative Anatomy, under the superintendence of the Professor and the Demonstrators. Those students who have not received any previous instruction in the subject usually begin by making a study of the anatomy of the rabbit, at the same time learning the use of the microscope and the elements of histology. When sufficiently advanced, those who intend to offer Animal Morphology as their subject for the Final Honours School join the Professor's practical class of Comparative Anatomy.
A course of lectures on elementary Comparative Anatomy lasting over two Terms is given by the Demonstrator of Comparative Anatomy; this is intended for beginners and for those who are making Physiology their special subject.
The Professor lectures three days in the week on Comparative Anatomy, and after his lectures superintends a course of practical instruction cn the anatomy of a series of typical animals numbering about ninety in all, specimens of all of which are provided for dissection by the students attending the course. Students further devote a certain amount of their time to the study of the series of anatomical collections contained in the Museum.
Instruction in Practical Human Anatomy is given by the Demonstrator daily. Members of the University who wish to begin the study of any branch of Anatomy should call on the Professor on the first Monday in Term, between 11 A.m. and 1 P.M.