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A period of at least two years is necessary for the acquirement of an adequate knowledge of the subjects of the Honours School of Animal Morphology.
Courses of lectures on various branches of Animal Morphology are given each Term by the Lee's Reader in Anatomy and several College Lecturers. These are thrown open to all Members of the University, and arrangements are made whereby they complete the course of study required for the Final Honours Examination.
9. Department Of Physiology.
Lectures are given by the Waynflete Professor three times a week during each Term, on (1) the mechanical functions of the body, (2) the chemical functions of the body, (3) the functions of the nervous system. The course extends over six Terms.
Practical instruction is given by the Professor and by Mr. F. Gotch, B.Sc. London; practical instruction in Physiological Chemistry is given by Mr. Laws, F.C.S. In Histology, lectures are given and practical work superintended by Mr. Dixey, M.A., B.M.
Both courses are adapted to the requirements of Students of Medicine, as well as to those of Undergraduates who desire to take honours in the Natural Science School.
10. Department Of Medicine.
The University has not at present undertaken to develop teaching in the technical applications of the Natural Sciences, and has not therefore a practical Medical School, any more than a practical Engineering School. It has, however, been thought desirable to form in the Museum a Department connected with Medicine, as being necessary for a philosophical view of Biological Science. This department illustrates generally the study—(1) of the ways in which the healthy structures of living beings become unhealthy; (2) of the modes of preventing the tendencies to ill-health, or death; (3) of the principles by which injuries may be repaired; and (4) of the several ways in which life is brought to a close.
The arrangements for these ends, though for the reason just stated much less extensive than those of a complete Medical School, include—
1. A Pathological Museum, consisting of about 1000 specimens, and comprising the collection of Schroeder van der Kolk, that of the present Regius Professor, and others.
This is divided into two parts, arranged according to the divisions of the Hunterian Collection. The first part illustrates the general forms of disease, and the second local diseases. It aims at showing these processes in animals generally as well as in man, and so is to be counted a continuation of the Biological series in the Court, also arranged on the plan of the Hunterian Collection.
The collection is catalogued, and may be studied by leave of the Professor. Pathological Books are to be found either in the Pathological Museum itself, or in the Radcliffe Library.
2. An Instrument Room.—In this apartment are being collected instruments of Diagnosis, Ophthalmoscopes, Optometers, the Phacoidoscope, Laryngoscopes, Sphygmographs, &c.
The room can be darkened for the use of the reflecting instruments. Members of the University desiring to use them are to apply to the Professor or to his Deputy.
In this room the Radcliffe Artist may be consulted as to instruction in Anatomical Drawing, Natural History Drawing, or the mode of drawing Diagrams.
The Office of the Regius Professor of Medicine.—The Regius Professor attends on certain days, which are announced in the University Gazette, to advise members of the University on subjects connected with the department. From time to time the Professor takes members of the University to inspect localities in town or country, for instruction in Sanitary defects and remedies, and in the general elements of Sanitary knowledge.
Students of Medicine.—For the purpose of enabling Students of Medicine to begin professional study in Oxford a Lectureship on Human Anatomy has been founded. The holder of this office is to lecture and give practical instruction in accordance with the requirements of the Professional Examining Boards.
Undergraduates who intend to enter the Medical Profession should be registered as 'Medical Students' immediately after passing the Preliminary Examination in the Honour School of Natural Science.
Application lor this purpose is to be made to the Registrar of the General Medical Council, 299 Oxford Street, London, W.
§ 7. The Botanic Garden.
1. Department Of Botany.
The Botanic Garden, formerly known as the Physic Garden, was founded in the year 1622 through the munificence of Henry, Earl of Danby. It was the first piece of public ground set apart in this country for the scientific study of plants.
The material now existing in it for instruction or research may be described under the following heads:—
1. The Garden, containing collections of living plants.
2. The Herbarium, containing collections of dried plants.
3. The Museum, containing collections of such parts of plants as
cannot conveniently be incorporated with the Herbarium.
4. The Laboratory, containing apparatus for the study of
1. The Garden.—"The Gardens, which are open from six in the morning till six in the evening in summer, or till sunset in winter, contain collections of both hardy and tender plants. Of the former, those within the walls are for the most part arranged in beds illustrative of the natural orders; but on the plot of ground outside the walls, facing the south-west, about five hundred of the more common wild flowers have been arranged in rows to illustrate the British genera. This Generic Garden has been laid out with the view to assist the student, who, upon application to the Professor, will have leave to gather for himself such specimens as he may need, and may be further supplied with special opportunities for carrying on his examination of them.
The more tender plants are preserved in conservatories. These are not open to the public, on account of the narrowness of the passages leading through them; but any student, upon application, will have the same opportunities afforded him for study in them as are mentioned above in connection with the collection of hardy plants.
2. The Herbarium.—The collections contained in the Herbarium may be classed under three heads :—
(a) The Modern British Collection; The Modern General Collection; (y) The Ancient Collections.
(a) The Modern British Herbarium is now completed, and is especially intended as an herbarium of reference for students. Not only have good typical specimens of each species been selected, but seeds also and the more minute parts are, in most cases, preserved in capsules, from which the student may be supplied. Special appliances are also offered him for their maceration and dissection.
(/S) The Modern General Herbarium, the noble gift of the late Mr. Fielding, is, after those at Kew and the British Museum, one of the largest and most valuable in the country. It is now cleaned and rendered safe from the further attacks of insects: it is also being rapidly arranged, and all the post-Linnean collections are being incorporated with it.
(y) The Ancient Collections include all such as have been made previous to the time of Linnaeus. Among these may be reckoned those of Morison, Sherard, Dillenius, and Dubois. All these are kept separate, and serve to illustrate the state of botanical science in the times in which they were made.
3. The Museum, although containing at one time a great number of valuable and useful specimens, is unfortunately of little service to the student, owing chiefly to the excessive darkness of the room in which the cases are placed.
4. The Laboratory is open for practical work daily.
The Professor lectures three days a week on Elementary Morphology and Physiology; and after each lecture practical instruction in illustration of the lecture is given.
2. Department Of Rural Economy.
The house in the Botanic Garden, formerly assigned to the Sherardian Professor of Botany, now contains the books bequeathed by Dr. John Sibthorp; and the Professor of Rural Economy lectures and gives instruction on the scientific principles of Agriculture and Forestry.
§ 8. Radcliffe Observatory.
The Radcliffe Observatory, although founded for the purpose of affording practical instruction to the students of the University, is not now strictly an educational establishment: but the Radcliffe Observers have, since the separation of the offices of Radcliffe Observer and Savilian Professor, admitted advanced students to the benefit of practical instruction in observing.
The Astronomical instruments of the Observatory are at present: (1) a transit-circle with telescope of 66 inches focal length and 5 inches aperture: (2) a heliometer, of which the telescope is of io|-foot focal length and 7J inches aperture: (3) an equatorially-mounted telescope of 10-foot focal length and 7 inches aperture: (4) a 42-inch achromatic telescope: (5) four sidereal clocks, and a sidereal box chronometer. The foregoing are all in actual use: there are in addition, (6) two 8-foot mural quadrants with corresponding 12-foot zenith sector, (7) a transit-instrument and meridian circle, (8) an unmounted Gregorian telescope with 18-inch mirror by Short, (9) a 10-foot Newtonian telescope, (10) two small unmounted telescopes, which are not in actual use.
The Meteorological instruments consist of a barograph, thermograph, hygrograph, anemograph, rain-gauge, and sunshine recorder, for automatic registration of the corresponding elements; and of the ordinary standard instruments, viz. barometer, dry and wet bulb thermometers, maximum and minimum thermometers, and rain-gauges.
The Observatory is one of the stations reporting daily by telegraph to the Meteorological Office, London, in connection with the system of daily weather Charts and Forecasts issued by that office.
§ 9. College Scientific Institutions.
At the following Colleges there are Scientific Institutions, accompanied with scientific teaching, in addition to the Institutions which are common to all members of the University, and which have been described above.
At Balliol there is a chemical laboratory for students, and a