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lecture room for scientific demonstrations. There is a good collection of physical apparatus, and a small scientific library including the chief English and foreign periodicals devoted to physics and chemistry. The laboratory has benches for about ten students working at one time. Adjoining the laboratory is a balance-room. In addition to the students' laboratory there is a research laboratory containing elaborate apparatus for the measurement and manipulation of gases, an electric Chronograph with apparatus for the measurement of the velocity of explosions, mercury pumps, etc. Power is supplied by a water-motor and by a gas engine. It is the custom for the most distinguished students to remain a year or more after taking their degree and undertake some piece of original work.
At present the laboratory is used in common by Balliol and Trinity Colleges. The lectures are open to other members of the University on payment of a fee.
At Exeter lectures and practical instruction in some of the subjects recognised in the Biological division of the School of Natural Science are given during Term within the walls of the College. A small laboratory has been fitted up with microscopes, chemical re-agents, a brooding chamber, and other apparatus necessary for the practical study of Histology and Embryology. There is accommodation for ten students. An extensive series of important memoirs on the development of animals, chiefly published during recent years in Germany and France, has been collected and added to the College Library with the view of facilitating such study. The Library also contains a complete set of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, of the Zeitschrift fiir wissenschaftliche Zoologie, and of the Archiv fur Mikroskopische Anatomie.
At Magdalen there is a laboratory with an efficient Curator, and also a library for the use of its Natural Science students. The laboratory is a block of buildings exclusively devoted to the teaching of science. The lecture-room is fitted up with ordinary appliances for chemical demonstration, and contains, in addition, a quantity of physical apparatus. One room is devoted to the geological collection of the late Professor Daubeny, and this, together with a large collection of minerals, is well catalogued and arranged for the use of the student. A second room contains a number of instruments connected with meteorology, and on the roof is placed an achromatic telescope, with a sj-inch objectglass, equatorially mounted, and with tangent screw motions. A series of daily meteorological observations is taken and recorded, including readings from a standard barometer, maximum and minimum temperature, dew-point, maximum solar radiation, rainfall, &c. The upper rooms, four in number, contain a collection of specimens illustrating Comparative Osteology, a Zoological series with dissections in illustration, together with microscopes and microscopic preparations. These rooms are also fitted up as work-rooms for students, and are furnished with a set of physiological instruments used for illustrating the elementary as well as the advanced parts of Experimental Physiology.
The courses of instruction given by the College Tutors comprise—
(1) A course of lectures intended for candidates for Honours
in the Natural Science School.
(2) A course of elementary lectures on Chemical Physics,
intended for beginners, i. e. (a) for those who are not necessarily candidates for the Natural Science School, as a means of general education, (A) as an introduction to the advanced course. Each course of lectures combines formal teaching with attention to the requirements of each candidate in private; and the apparatus is accessible, subject to certain conditions, to advanced students wishing to pursue original investigations.
The laboratory is open for the use of students at all reasonable hours.
All the above courses of lectures and demonstrations are free to members of the College, and are open by arrangement to other members of the University.
At Christ Church there is a laboratory, in which the Lee's Readers in Physics and Chemistry lecture on their respective subjects. The laboratory is open, without charge for teaching or apparatus, to all members of Christ Church, and, on payment of a fee, to other members of the University.
A small Physical and Chemical Library has been formed, from which books may be taken out by the Undergraduates.
The Lee's Reader in Anatomy lectures in his room at the Museum, and has joint rights with the Linacre Professor to the use of the anatomical specimens belonging to Dr. Lee's Trustees, which are at present deposited there.
All three Christ Church Readers admit to their lectures members of other Colleges on payment of a fee.
§ 10. Art Collections.
1. The University Galleries contain (1) a collection of original drawings by Michael Angelo and Raffaelle, of which a full account has been written by Mr. J. C. Robinson (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1870); (2) a collection of drawings by J. M. W. Turner, R.A.; (3) a small collection of paintings by Masters of various Schools; (4) the original models of statues and busts by Sir F. Chantrey; (5) the Douce collection of early prints, chiefly German and Italian; (6) a small reference Art Library, the books for which have been obtained chiefly through funds given by the present Lord Eldon. They also contain the Pomfret collection mentioned below, p. 67.
The Galleries are open without fee to all members of the University in Academical dress, and to persons introduced by them, daily throughout the year (except during a short interval in the Long Vacation), from noon to 4 P.m. Visitors not so introduced are charged a fee of 2d.
2. The Ruskin Dra-wing School, which occupies part of the same building as the University Galleries, is under the direction of the Master of Drawing appointed by Mr. Ruskin. It is open, under certain regulations, not only to all members of the University, but also to the general public. Students, have access, for the purpose of practical work, not only to the collections in the University Galleries, but also to the following special collections of Drawings and Engravings which have been prepared for the School by Mr. Ruskin—(1) the Rudimentary Series, which illustrates the instruction in elementary drawing which is given in the School; (2) the Educational Series; (3) the Reference Series, and (4) the Standard Series, which illustrate the higher work of the School. Of these series there are two descriptive catalogues, which can be obtained at the School. A small fee is charged to those who attend the Master's classes.
(The works of Art given to the University by Mr. Ruskin and comprised in the above series are under the control of the Ruskin Trustees. The Galleries are under the care of the University Curators.)
3. A collection of Casts illustrative of Greek Art in its several stages is under the care of the Professor of Archaeology.
[In the same building as the University Galleries, a School of Art, in connection with the South Kensington Museum, is maintained chiefly for the use of Artisans and their children. Evening classes are held there.]
§ 11. Archaeological Collections.
1. The Ashmolean Museum originally consisted of the miscellaneous collections (including books and manuscripts) of Elias Ashmole, given to the University in 1684, and subsequent additions have been made to it in all its branches. On the building of the University Museum all natural objects were removed to it, the coins, books, and manuscripts, including those of Ashmole, Dugdale, Aubrey, and Anthony Wood, were transferred to the Bodleian Library, and the Ashmolean was re-arranged as an Antiquarian, Archaeological, and Ethnological Museum. The Museum now contains (1) a choice collection of flint implements; (2) Egyptian, Etruscan or Italo-Greek, Roman, British, RomanoBritish, Anglo-Saxon, and Mediaeval articles of considerable interest; (3) a collection of upwards of 3000 photographs of the principal buildings of Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Greece, and Rome, including Mr. Parker's photographs of buildings, etc. of Rome, Pompeii, and other parts of Italy, with the Recent Excavations, the whole of which are systematically arranged for reference; also Mr. Parker's collection of drawings of buildings in Rome; (4) an Ethnological collection. Every article in the Museum now has a label distinctly written. The Museum is open daily from 11 to 4 o'clock. The Keeper of the Museum occasionally gives lectures upon Archaeological subjects.
2. The Arundel and Selden Marbles are deposited partly in the Ashmolean Museum, and partly in the Museum Arundelianum in the quadrangle of the Schools. Among the latter is the most important marble in the collection, viz. that which is known as the Parian Chronicle.
3. The Castellanl Collection consists of (1) Greek Fictile Vases, including specimens from the earliest to the latest period of that style of art; (2) Bronzes, chiefly from Magna Graecia; (3) Terra cottas, chiefly from Capua and Etruria.
4. The Pomfret Collection consists of a number of ancient marbles, which are deposited in the University Galleries.
§ 12. Indian Institute.
The main object of this Institute, founded in 1883, is to give effective teaching in all subjects that relate to India and its inhabitants. Only half the building is as yet completed, but this contains Lecture Rooms, a Library, and a Museum; it is thus intended to assist the Selected Candidates for the Civil Service of India, and all native students from India who matriculate, or merely reside, at Oxford. Moreover it will serve as a meetingplace for students of all countries who are engaged in Oriental research.