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CHAPTER III.

OF PECUNIARY REWARDS OF AND AIDS TO LEARNING.

The pecuniary rewards of and aids to learning may be divided according as they are in the gift of the University itself or of the several Colleges and Halls. It is sufficient to say of them in general that they are so various as to leave no branch of academical study without its appropriate recognition, and so numerous that few students of ability can fail to obtain substantial help.

It has not been thought advisable to mention here any but those which are in the immediate disposal of the University itself or of the Colleges and Halls, but it may be pointed out that there are in addition two important classes of pecuniary aid which are available by those who are or intend to become members of the University:—

1. A considerable number of Exhibitions are awarded by the London City Companies and other bodies to deserving students of slender means. The nature of these and the conditions under which they may be held can be ascertained by application to the Clerks of the several Companies.

2. A still larger number of Exhibitions are awarded by various Public Schools to their pupils. The nature of these and the conditions under which they may be held can be ascertained in each case by enquiry at the respective Schools.

I. OP UNIVERSITY SCHOLARSHIPS AND PRIZES.

The University encourages learning among its students partly by prizes, i.e. gifts of money or books, and partly by scholarships, i.e. gifts of money extending over one or more years. The latter were probably intended in the first instance chiefly as a help to further study, and to some of them conditions which imply study are still attached, but they are now for the most part rewards of past attainment given to those who best satisfy the conditions of a more or less limited competition. It will be convenient to classify them according to the branches of study to which they relate. The general conditions of competition only can be mentioned here; more precise information will be found from time to time in the Oxford University Gazette. The nature of the examination for Scholarships will be best gathered from the Examination Papers, some of which are published at the Clarendon Press.

1. Classics.

(1) Craven Scholarships and Fellowships. There are six Scholarships, each worth ^40 a year and tenable for two years. Candidates must not have exceeded their sixteenth Term. Three Scholars are elected each year after the same examination as that held for election to the Ireland Scholarship.

There are two Fellowships, each worth ,£200 a year and tenable for two years. Candidates must have passed all Examinations required for the degree of B.A., and must not have exceeded their twenty-eighth Term. One Fellow is elected each year either without examination or after an examination in Greek and Latin Literature, History, and Antiquities. A Fellow is required to spend at least eight months each year in residence abroad for the purpose of study at some place or places approved by the electing Committee.

(2) Ireland Scholarships. These are four in number: one Scholar is elected every year, and (unless he has been a Craven Scholar) is elected at the same time to the First Craven Scholarship. The value is about £30 per annum for four years. Candidates must be Undergraduates who have not exceeded their sixteenth Term. The subject of examination is Greek and Latin scholarship.

(3) Hertford Scholarship. This is awarded every year: the emolument consists of one year's dividend on £1142 10s. $d. reduced 3 per cent. Annuities. Candidates must not have completed two years from their matriculation. The subject of examination is Latin scholarship.

(4) The Chancellor's Prize for a Latin Essay. This is awarded every year: its value is £20 in money. Competitors must have exceeded four but not have completed seven years from their matriculation.

(5) The Chancellor's Prize for Latin Verse. This is awarded every year: its value is £20 in money. Competitors must not have completed four years from their matriculation.

(6) Gaisford Prizes. These are two in number, awarded each year. One prize is given for a composition in Greek Verse, the metre as well as the subject being fixed from year to year; the other is given for a composition in Greek Prose. The emolument of each prize consists of a moiety of the dividends on £1258 7j. 8d. New 3 per Cents., and averages about £18. The compositions are to be sent in on or before March 1, and competitors must not have exceeded the seventeenth Term from their matriculation on that day.

(7) Conington Prize. This is awarded once in every three years for a dissertation, to be written either in English or in Latin at the option of the writer, on some subject appertaining to classical learning. It is open to all members of the University who, on the day appointed for sending in the dissertations, have passed all the Examinations required for the degree of Bachelor of Arts, and have completed six years, and not exceeded fifteen years, from their matriculation. The value of the prize is three years' income of the investment of £1275, subject to a deduction for the payment of Examiners and other expenses.

(8) Derby Scholarship. This is awarded every year to the Candidate who has in the judgment of the electors attained the highest academical distinction in Classical scholarship. Candidates must be members of the University who have completed their twentieth and not completed their twenty-fourth Term of standing, and who have attained the following academical distinctions: (1) a First Class in Classics at the First Public Examination; (2) a First Class in Literis Humanioribus at the Second Public Examination; or, a Second Class in Literis Humanioribus at the Second Public Examination, together with the Chancellor's Prize for Latin Verse and the Chancellor's Prize for either the English or the Latin Essay; (3) two out of the three Classical University Scholarships, that is to say, the Hertford, Ireland, and Craven Scholarships.

2. Mathematics.

(1) Senior Mathematical Scholarships. These are two in number. One Scholar is elected every Hilary Term: the emoluments of the Scholarship itself are £30 per annum for two years; but in addition to this the Scholar receives during his first year a moiety of the dividends upon £1389 13J. %d. Consols, which is derived from another fund, and on account of which he is called during that year 'Johnson University Scholar.' Candidates must be Bachelors of Arts, or at least have passed all the Examinations necessary for that degree, and must not have exceeded the twenty-sixth Term from their matriculation inclusively. The subjects of examination are Pure and Mixed Mathematics.

(2) Junior Mathematical Scholarships. These are two in number. One Scholar is elected every Hilary Term: the emoluments are £30 per annum for two years. Candidates must not have exceeded eight Terms from their matriculation inclusively. The subject of examination is Pure Mathematics.

(3) Johnson Memorial Prize. This is awarded once in every four years, for an essay on some astronomical or meteorological subject. It consists of a gold medal of the value of ten guineas, together with the balance of four years' dividends upon £338 Ss. Reduced Annuities, which usually amounts to about £30. It is open to all members of the University, whether Graduates or Undergraduates.

3. Physical Science. (1) Radcliffe Travelling Fellowships. These are three in number. One Fellow is elected every Hilary Term: the emoluments are £200 per annum for three years, subject to the condition that not more than eighteen months of that period shall be spent in the United Kingdom. Candidates must be Bachelors of Arts (or must have passed all the necessary Examinations for that degree), who either have been placed in the First Class in one of the Public Examinations of the University, or have gained a University Prize or Scholarship. No one, however, can be elected who is already legally authorised to practise as a physician. Candidates are further required to declare that they intend to graduate in Medicine in the University, and to travel abroad with a view to their improvement in that study; but if neither any one willing to make this declaration, nor any one of sufficient merit to be elected, shall offer himself as a candidate, the competition is thrown open to all persons who shall have been placed in the First Class in the School of Natural Science; the previous declaration is not required, and a physician is not disqualified. The subject of the examination is Medicine.

(2) Burdett-Coutts Scholarships. These are two in number. One Scholar is elected every Hilary Term: the emoluments of each Scholar are a moiety of the dividends on £5800 Consols, for two years. Candidates must have passed all the Examinations for the degree of Bachelor of Arts, and must not have exceeded the twenty-seventh Term from their matriculation.

The subject of the examination is Geology generally, with so much of Experimental Physics, Chemistry, and Biology as is requisite for an understanding of the principles and applications of Geological Science.

(3) Rolleston Memorial Prize. This is awarded once in two years for original research in any subject comprised under the following heads—Animal and Vegetable Morphology, Physiology and Pathology, Anthropology—to be chosen by the candidates themselves. Its value is ,£60, and it is open to members of the Universities of Oxford or Cambridge who have not exceeded ten years from the date of their matriculation.

4. Law.

(1) Eldon Law Scholarship. This is awarded once in every three years. Candidates must have passed all the Examinations necessary for the degree of Bachelor of Arts, and must have been placed in the First Class in one School at least, or have gained one of the Chancellor's Prizes. There is no examination for the Scholarship, but candidates are required to send a written application to the Trustees.

(2) Vinerian Scholarships. These are three in number. One Scholar is elected every Hilary Term: the emoluments are £80 per annum for three years. Candidates must have completed two, but not have exceeded six years from their matriculation. The subjects of examination are the Civil Law, International Law, General Jurisprudence, and especially the Law of England, both public and private.

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