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A A.

A A, the name of some small rivers in France, Switzer

land, the Netherlands, Hanover, Saxony, &c. The wide diffusion of the name seems to prove, as has been judiciously remarked, that it has some general signification applicable to all the rivers to which it belongs. Proba§ ; it may be derived from the Celtic Ack or Ac, water. There are, indeed, two small German rivers, one of which falls into the lake of Constance, and the other into the Iller, that are called Aach. AAH, BORG, an old town of Denmark, cap. diocese and bailiwick, and the principal town in Jutland, situated about 17 m. from the sea, on the S. side of the channel of the Lymfiord, or great internal gulf, entering from the Cattegat, near where it begins to expand into an extensive lake. Lat. 579 2 32” N., long. 9o 56' 41’’. E. Pop. 7,050. It is intersected by two small rivers, and surrounded by ditches; it is the seat of a bishopric, has a gymnasium or college, an episcopal library with 11,000 vols., a school of navigation, and an hospital and two workhouses. Exclusive of distilleries and breweries, it has manufactures of soap, fish-oil, fire-arms, refined sugar, leather, silk, &c., with a considerable amount of shipping and trade: rincipal exports corn, flour, fish, butter, spirits, &c. Y., it was accessible to large vessels; but owing to the gradual filling up of the channel of the Lymfiord, it is now accessible only to the smaller class of inerchantmen, or those not drawing more than 9 or 10 feet water.— (Catteau, Tableau des Etats Danois, tom. i. p. 88.) Aalborg means Eeltown ; a name derived from the immense number of eels that are found in the waters in its o: AALEN, a town of Wirtemberg, circ. Jaxt, cap. bail wick, formerly a free imperial city, on the Kocher, 42 m. E. Stutgard. 'Pop. 2,400. It is surrounded by walls flanked with high towers; has manufactures of wool and cotton, and breweries. There are extensive forests in the environs, and iron mines. AA LSMER, a village of Holland, E. side of the sea of Haarlem, 10 miles S.W. Amsterdam. Pop. 1,800. AALTEN, a village of the Netherlands, Guelderland, 71 miles S.S.W. Groenlo. Pop.3,520. AAR, a river of Switzerland, the most considerable in that country after the Rhone and Rhine. Its principal sources are in the glaciers of the Schreikhorn and Grimsel mountains in Berne, near the source of the Rhone. Having united its different arms near Meyringen, it flows thence through the lakes of Brienz and Thun. Escaping from the latter, it takes a northerly direction till it reaches Berne; it then turns W. till having received its tributary, the Saane ; it flows N. E. by Arberg, Soleure, A &c., till it unites with the Rhine, opposite to

Waldshut. Its most important tributaries are, on the right, the Emme, Reuss, and Limmat; and on the left, the Saane, already noticed, and the Thiele. Its course is about 170 m. It becomes navigable on emerging from lake Thun. In the upper part of its course it dashes along with great fury, and is precipitated over several waterfalls. his also is the name of two small rivers in Waldeck. — (Core's Switzerland, Letters 29, 30. &c.) AARAU, or ARAU, a town of Switzerland, cap. cant, Aargau, on the Aar, 1,140 feet above the level of the sea, 23 m. S. E. Basle, lat. 470 23° 35' N., long. 602' 55" E. Pop. 3,100. It is well built, has a gymnasium, a school of art, a seminarium or normal school for the instruction of teachers, a public or cantonal library, a societ of national instruction, &c., with manufactures of sil and cotton, a cannon foundery, and bleach-fields. The

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peace, which terminated the civil war of 1712, was concluded here.

AARGAU, or ARGOVIA, one of the Swiss cantons, separated by the Rhine from Baden, having the canton, of Zurich on the E., that of Lucern on the S., and Soleure and Basil on the W. Area 502 sq. m. Pop. (1836). 182,755, having increased from 144,093 in 18(3. The mountains in this canton do not attain to any very great height, and it possesses a very considerable extent of fertile land. It is traversed by the Aar, whence it derives its name, and by its important tributaries the Reuss and Limmat. The country is well cultivated, and the produce of wheat and other grain exceeds the consumption: there are numerous vineyards, but the wine is inferior; with abundance of garden and orchard fruit. The rearing of cattle and sheep is not found to be productive, but they are advantageously fattened in the meadows, which are both extensive and excellent. Manufactures have made great progress. The principal is that of cotton, next to it is silk, and then follow linen, straw

latting, &c., Cottons are not woven by power-looms,

ut mostly in the cottages of the peasants, or small labouring farmers, as has been the case with linen in Ireland. But though this sort of double o: has hitherto afforded a considerable degree of secur ty against the injurious influence of the vicissitudes incident to agriculture and manufactures, the presumption is that the rapid |...". of mechanical improvements in other countries will force its abandonment, and that the Swiss will have to employ machinery, in the weaving as well as in the spinning of cotton, or be compelled to abandon the former department. This canton is especially distinguished by the attention it has paid to education. Every district of 120 children must have at least one primary and one superior school. In every circle (Bezirk), the population being from 15,000 to 20,000, there are from 5 to 6 secondary schools. There is also in the capital a gymnasium, a school of arts, and a normal school for the instruction of teachers. The expense of the schools is defrayed partly by the communes and partly by the state funds. In the gymnasium and school of arts the state provides for the payment of 14 o: and their assistants. About 3-5ths of the | ation are Catholics and 2-5ths Protestants. The public revenue amounts to about 45,000l. a-year; but as nearly, the half is derived from state property, interest, &c., it is immediately seen that taxation is very light. The cantonal contingent to the diet is fixed at 2,410 men, and 52,212 Swiss fr. For an account of the government, sce art. Switzerland. Principal towns Aarau, Laufenberg, Baden, Zoflingen, &c. (Rotoring on the Commerce of Switzerland, p. 80.)

AARHUUS, a sea-port town of Denmark, cap. diocese and bailiwick of the same name, on the E. coast of Jutland, lat. 56° 9° 35' N., long. 10° 14' E. Pop. 6,765. It is pretty well built, has a large cathedral founded in 120i, a lyceum, a museum of antiquities, and a valuable diocesan "...; Its commerce and industry have increased considerably of late years. The exports consist principally of agricultural produce; with spirits and beer, the produce of its distilleries and breweries ; and cloth and gloves. Considerable sums have recently been expended on the improvement of its port, which has been rendered one of the best in Jutland. Packets sail regularly between it and Callundberg, on the west coast of Zealand.

AARONSBURGH, a small town of the United States. Centre Co., Pennsylvania.


AASZY, the Orontes of Greek geographers, which see. AATY L. A town or village of Syria, in the Haouran or Great Plain, extending S. from Damascus and E. from the mountains beyond Jordan, lat. 32° 15' N., long. 36° 33' E. The inhabitants consist of Druses (see Libanus and Syria), of the number probably of 200 or 300. T. now insignificant, the remains of ancient grandeur in its vicinity prove that Aatyl was once a place of importance. hese remains occupy a circuit of a mile, o many instances are inhabited by the present population. W. of the town a perfect arch of very fine workmanship, with broken pillars and friezes, marks the site of a small but elegant temple. On the S. another temple, almost entire, with a portico of four columns and an entrance beautifully and elaborately carved, has been converted into a private residence. Aatyl is 54 m. (direct distance) S. S. E. Damascus, and 48 m. i2. Lake of Tabaria, the Genesareth of the Bible. – (Robinson's Travels in Palestine and Syria, vol. ii. pp. 155, # ABADEH, a town of Persia, prov. Fars. 115 m. N. S}.iraz. Pop. 5,000. It is surrounded by walls in a state of decay; and is defended by a large square fort, now containing the whole population. It has suffered severely from the frequent contests for the Persian throne during the 18th century; but it is still environed by gardens, and sends fruit to Shiraz. ABAKAN, a river of Siberia, an affluent of the Jenisei, which it joins, 16 miles S. Abakansk. ABAKA NSK, a town of Siberia, gov. Jenisseisk, on the Abakan near the Jenissei. The climate is mild ; but it is notwithstanding a poor miserable place, and would be wholly unworthy notice were it not that on mount Isik, and other places in its environs, are found soune of the most remarkable of those singular remains of former civilisation that are met with in many places of Southern Siberia. They consist principally of tumuli or tombs, which srequently contain ear-rings, bracelets, and other ornaments and utensils of gold, silver, and copper, with iron stirrups, &c. Near Abakansk are statues of men from 7 to 9 feet high, and covered with hieroglyphics, of which unfortunately no explanation has yet been given. — (Malte Brun, Balb. ed. 1837, p. 806. ; Gmelin, J’o age en Siberie, cap. 63, 64, &c.) A BANCA Y, cap. prov. of same name in Peru, 60 miles N. W. Cuzco. A BANO or ALBANO, a village of Austrian Italy, prov. Padua, 10 m. S. W. Padua. Pop. 3,000. This village derives its entire celebrity from its hot springs and muds. It is situated near the Euganean hills, in a place marked with some low eminences, whence issue copious springs of water, capable at their source of boiling an egg quite hard. The waters are partly employed to prepare and soften mud, partly to supply the baths, and partly go to waste, or turn a mill which revolves amid volumes of smoke. They are supposed to be efficacious in cases of palsy, rheumatism, and a variety of complaints. The mud is applied hot to the aff part, somewhat after the manner of taking a stucco cast ; and the baths are regarded principally as an o to the “dirty" application. The season is in the heat of summer; and, according to Mr. Rose, the accommodations for company are very deficient. These baths were well known to, and much used by, the Romans. They were called Patavinae Aquae, the principal source being distinguished by the name of Aponus fons, whence their modern name has evidently been derived.

Aponus terris ubi fumiser exit.
Lucan, vii. 1, 194.

There is a very full account of these baths in Rose's Letters on Northern Italy, i. pp. 59–70. ; see also Crawner's Ancient Italy, i. !. 23.

A BAZIA, a country in the region of Caucasus, in the Russian gov. of that name, which see.

ABB, a town of Arabia, in the Dsjebel, or mountain land of Yemen, lat. 13° 58' N., long. 44° 15' E., 95 m. S. Sanaa, 73 m. N. E. Mocha, and 104 m. N. W. Aden. Number of houses said to be about 800, which at an average of 6 individuals to each gives a pop. of nearly 5,000. It is built on the summit of a mountain ; is surrounded by a strong and well-built wall; and overlooks a well-watered (for Arabia) and extremely fertile country. Houses (as usual in the mountain towns of Yemen) of stone; streets well paved, which, in this country, is very uncommon. An aqueduct conveys water from a mountain at a little distance on the N. to a large reservoir in front of the principal mosque. — (Niebuhr, Des. de l'Ar. par. ii. *}}

Åo. ,E, a thriving, indsistrious town, in the N.W. of France, dep. Somme, cap. arrond. on the navi

le river of that name, 25 m. N.W. Amiens, lat."500 ’ 4” N., long. 1959' 58° E. Pop. 13,842. It is neat and well built ; is regularly fortified on the system of Vauban ; and has, exclusive of the old Gothic church of St. Wulfrau, several public buildings worthy of notice

and a public library. A fine cloth manufactory was established here in 1609, by a Dutchman of the name of Van Robais, under the auspices of Colbert ; and Abbeville has since continued to be distinguished as one of the most industrious towns in France. Besides black cloths of the best quality, with serges, barracans, &c., there are produced calicoes and stockings, sackings, packthread, cordage, jewellery, &c. It has also establishments for the spinning of wool, print works and bleaching works, tanneries, soap works, a glass work, a paper manufactory, &c. The tide rises in the Somme about 7 feet, and vessels of from 100 to 150 tons come up to town. Being situated in the centre of a fruitful country, and communicating by canals, and roads with all the surrounding districts, Abbeville has a considerable commerce.—(Hugo, France Pittoresque, Dep. Somme.) Ässäßsšč. a town of Venetian Lombardy, rov. Pavia, on the canal of Bereguardo, 14 m. W. S.W. silan. Pop., 4,600. It is fortified ; and its position has made it be always regarded of considerable importance in a military !'; of view. ABB's f 2 AD (ST.), a promontory on the E. coast of Scotland, being the most southerly point of the Frith of Forth, lat. 55-54' 50" N., long 29 & 20" w. ABELA, ABIL, or ABILA, a town of Syria, in the Haouran, on the Sheriat-el-Mandhour (anc. Hieromar), one of the largest affluents of the Jordan, lat 340 47° N., long. 36° E. It is now in a ruinous and dilapidated state, having probably not more than from 100 to 150 inhabitants; but formerly it was a place of considerable importance, being the capital of and giving its name to one of the six departments (Abulene) into which the Romans divided the country E. of Jordan. Some broken pillars and overthrown columns evince its ancient grandeur; but none of its old buildings remain entire, and it is preserved from desertion only by its vicinity to the water, which renders it a ...i. residence for the few Arab families by whom it is still occupied. — ( alesting and Syria, ii. 122. 214.) ABENOJA, a town of Spain, prov. La Mancha, 20 m. S.W. Ciudad treal. ABER, a sea-port and village of Wales, Caernarvon, where there is a ferry to the island of Anglesea, 9 m. Conway. Pop. 552. ABER BROTHOCK, cra RBROATH, a sea-port and manufacturing town of Scotland, co. Angus or Forfar, at the mouth of the Brothock water, lat. 56° 34° N., long. 2° 35' W. Pop. of borough and parish in 1831, 13,795. Number of o in borough 184; Parl. constituency in 1837, 445. Arbroath unites with Brechin, Bervie, and Montrose, in of a m. to H. of C. It has a parish church and two chapels of ease, with churches for Episo Seceders, Methodists, and Independents. ne other public buildings are the town-house, the tradeshall, the public schools, and the signal tower, which communicates with the Bell-Rock lighthouse, distant about 12 miles. The harbour is secure, though small, and of difficult entrance. The town, which is rapidly increasing, owes all its prosperity to the flax manufacture; nearly half the population being cmployed in the spinning, dressing, weaving, and bleaching of coarse linen goods. Some of the mills are driven by the little rivulet that intersects the town; but steam mills are numerous, both in the town and the vicinity. Here are the ruins of an abbey, founded in honour of Thomas à Becket, in 1178, by Wài. the Lion, king of Scotland, who, on his death in 1214 was interred within-its precincts. It was destroyed in 1560. ABERCON WAY, or CONWAY. See CoNway. ABERDEEN, a maritime co. Scotland, bounded N. and E. by the German Ocean, S. by the cos. of Perth, Forfar, and Kincardine, and W. by Banff, Elgin, and Inverness. Extreme length 86 m. from N. to S., and 42 from E. to W. Area 1,260,800 acres. In the southwestern division, called the district of Mar, are some of the highest mountains of Scotland. Ben Macdhu rises to the height of 4,327 feet above the level of the sea, being only 43 feet lower than Ben Nevis ; and several of the other mountains are but little inferior in altitude. About a fifth part of the surface consists of high mountainous tracts; and these, with hills, extensive moors, mosses, and waste lands, occupy nearly two thirds of the entire country. The arable land lies principally in the eastern parts. Principal rivers Dee and Don ; and besides these are the Deveron, Bogie, Ythan, Urie, Ugie, &c. Limestone abounds in various places; there are quarries of excellent slate ; and millstones are found of good |...}. Vast quantities of granite are shipped at Abereen, particularly sor London, where it is used in paving the streets. The mountains of Braemar contain numbers of coloured crystals, or cairngorms; and some real topazes have been met with. The winters, owing to the great extent of sea coast, are mild: but the summers are usually short and cold. Agriculture is prosecuted with much more spirit and success than might have been sup!. Oats is the principal crop, about 160,000 acres ing supposed to be sown with that grain; barley is also

inson, Travels in raised ; and some, though only a little, wheat. The culture of turnips and potatoes is extensively carried on. Several thousand acres of land in the ..", of Aberdeen have been trenched. The practice is not, however, confined to that district, and large additions are being constantly made to the arable land. Farm houses and offices are now, with few exceptions, comfortable and commo


dious. A greater number of cattle are bred in this than in any other Scotch county: the native breed is preferred. They have increased much in size during the

last thirty years; and are said, indeed, to have doubled in weight since the introduction of turnips They are commonly black, but there are many red or brindled. Sheep comparatively few, and of a mixed breed. There are some large estates, but . is, notwithstanding, a good deal subdivided. Great diversity in the size of farms. It is usual for mechanics to occupy an acre or two. The woods, which are very extensive, afford shelter to the red deer. Average rent of land 4s. an acre. The woollen, cotton, and linen manufactures are carried on to a considerable extent, principally at Aberdeen. There are considerable fisheries on the coast and in the rivers, articularly in the Dee. Principal towns Aberdeen, W. and Fraserburgh. Parishes 88. Pop. in 1831, 177,657; inhab. houses in do. 29,502. Returns one member to the H. of Commons. Parl. constituency in 1837, 3,066. Valued rental 235,665l. Scotch. Annual value of real property in 1815, 325,218l. sterling. ABERDEEN, the capital of the above co., an ancient, distinguished, and flourishing royal borough, situated mostly on rising ground on the N. bank of the 1)ee, near its mouth; lat. (of Marischal College Observatory) 57° 8' 58' N., long. 2° 5'41" § Pop. in 1821, 44,796; in 1841, 64,778. It . trade and importance at a very early period, and made a conspicuous appearance in many of the stormy scenes of Scottish history. The earliest preserved charter is one granted by king William the Lion, about 1179; and the journals of the magistrates and town council have been preserved very nearly entire since 1398. King Robert Bruce bestowed much property upon it; in the civil wars, during the reign of Charles I., it made a conspicuous figure, and suffered greatly. It remained in a nearly stationary state for about two centuries o to 1750, when it began to increase. t has since been signally improved, especially during the present century, by the extension of its manufactures and trade, and the formation of many new streets, which have superseded many of its old narrow and winding thoroughfares. From the S. Aberdeen is approached by two bridges across the Dee; one of 7 arches of stone, first erected 1520–6, and rebuilt 1719-23; the other a suspension bridge of iron, opened in 1830. The roads from these bridges conduct to Union Street, which with Union Place, and Castle Street, in the same straight line, form agrand entrance of about a mile in length, the houses all of white granite, finely dressed : in one part this street crosses a deep and partly wooded ravine by a bridge of granite of one arch of 130 feet span, opened in 1804. Among the public buildings may be mentioned the assembly rooms, the town-house, court-house and new jail; the E. and W. churches of St. Nicholas; the N. church and others of late erection; St. Andrew's church of the Scottish Episcopalians; the barracks, placed on the castle #. which in former times was the site of a fort; Gordon's hospital, the bridewell, theatre, infirmary, medical hall, and the new edifice of Marischal college. Besides the latter seminary, there are many public and private academies and schools, among which is the grammar school, established before 1418, the masters of which are appointed by comparative trial. The establishment of a regular post to Edinburgh dates from 1667; a printing press was set up in 1621, and the first almanacks published in Scotland commenced here in 1677. The number of charitable establishments and endowments is great;

upwards of 70 o under the management of the magistrates, of which the nett annual revenue, in 1838, was 30841. 12s. 4d. Gordon's hospital supports and educates 140 boys, and has an annual revenue of about 3000l.; and there are besides an infirmary; a lunatic asylum erected a few years ago at an expense of upwards of 10,000l.; an institution for deaf and dumb persons; a large hospital, for girls about to be opened, and one for the education and support of the blind. An assessment for the poor, after having been long postponed, commenced a few years since in the six parishes of the city and the adjoining one of Old Machar. Aberdeen occupies a distinguished place in the manufactures and commerce as well as in the literature of Scotland. The town and adjoining country were, during the last century, distinguished for the manufacture of knit woollen stockings, which were exported to the Continent, but the late war, and the introduction of machinery, superseded this branch of industry. There are very large establishments for the spinning of cotton, flax, and wool, in most of which steam power is employed; great quantities of the wool of the country are made into carpets; the cotton manufacture, introduced in 1778, employs nearly 3,000 hands; that of flax about 4,000; in 1838, there were imported 1,3204 tons of cotton, 3,460 of flax, and i,657% of wool. Extensive iron works have been established where steam en gines, anchors, chain-cables, and spinning machinery are produced. Ship-building is carried on to a considerable extent, and there are ropeworks and sail cloth manufactories: in the vicinity are paper mills, with tanneries, soap and candle works, distilleries of spirits, and brewhouses which export much porter. The natural productions exported are salmon, which is sent to London in ice, granite, of which the export in 1838 was 19,880 tons, eggs, butter, pork, corn, and live cattle, of which the number exported in 1838 by steam was 7001. The value of the exports coastwise and to foreign parts may be estimated at from a million and a half to two millions sterling; it is increasing steadily and rapidly. On the ist of January, 1836, there belonged to the port 359 vessels, Ph. burden of 41,743 tons, navigated by 3,095 men. There is a constant communication by steam ships with London, Leith, Peterhead, Inverness, and the Orkneys. The amount of customs duties in 1835 was 45,134l., of ostage in 1836, 9,230l. There is a canal to nverury, 184 m. in length, which conveys chiefly agricultural produce, manure, and coal. The harbour of Aberdeen has great natural capabilities, the Dee forming a considerable aestuary; it has been in a train of improvement for the last 60 years. There being a bar at the mouth of the river, which sometimes shifts, great exertions have been made to remedy this defect, by the erection of a pier of about i,500 feet in length, projecting into the ocean on the N. side of the river, by a breakwater on the opposite shore, and various subsidiary works. Still however the harbour is a tide one, only entered when there is sufficient water on the bar, which has 12 feet at neap, and 16 or 17 at spring tides. The bay affords safe anchorage with off-shore winds, but not with those from the E. A light-house has been erected on Girdle Ness, the S. point of the bay. In the interior of the harbour the quays have been greatly extended, the channel of the Dee confined by a massive embankment, and there is in progress the conversion of part of the tide aestuary into a wet dock, of large dimensions. The reventie of the harbour, which is managed by a board of trustees, was for the year 1837-8, i5,9761. 9s. 4d. ; the ordinary expenditure 8,713]. 5s.; the expenditure on works in progress 9,226l. 5s. 10d. From 1810 to 1838 inclusive, there have been expended on the harbour 456,016l. 16s. 10d., of which sum the interest of money borrowed amounted to 156,466l. 16s. 6d. From the great expenditure on new streets, and the harbour, the affairs of the burgh became involved in 1817, and a disfranchisement ensued, but no permanent loss was sustained, and for many years it has been in good credit. In 1838 the revenue was 17,5071. 10s. 6d. ; the expenditure 16,651. 5s. 8d., of which about 7,500/. was for the interest of borrowed money. In 1832, the number of houses was 2,588, of which 1,289 were of the value of 10l. and upwards; since that year, Aberdeen returns one m. to the H. of C. being no longer associated with Arbroath, Brechin, Bervie, and Montrose. In 1837 the constituency was 2,539, having increased from 2,166 in 1834. A ÉÉišš OLID), an ancient city, situated about a mile N. of Aberdeen, with which it is nearly connected by a village called Spital. In former times it was the seat of a bishoprick, the see of Mortlach having been removed to it in 1154. In 1498 it received a charter from James IV., under which are elected a provost and 18 other members; in 1715, it became disfranchised, and again in 1723. It is a small place consisting merely of a single street, has no trade, and very little property, its importance depending entirely upon its university. Population in 1831, 1483. The revenue in 1832 was about 431. 5s., the expenditure 14l. 6s. 6d., and there was no debt, but a surplus. Seven trades are incorporated. The chief edifices are the college, cathedral, and bridges across the Don, near which the place is situated. The buildings of King's College have an antique appearance, and are of different periods; from recent additions and alterations they are in good repair, about 6,000l. having been expended upon them. The library and chapel are attached to a lofty square tower, surmounted by an imperial crown of open stone work. The cathedral of St. Machar, or Macarius, after whom the parish is named, is an ancient Gothic edifice, chiefly of granite, commenced in the 14th century; the choir, transept, and great central tower have been demolished or fallen down upwards of a century ago; the nave remains, and is used as the parish church; at the west end are two finely proportioned stone spires; the roof of the interior also presents a curious relic. Near its mouth the Don forms a small haven, which does not admit any vessels but of a few tons' burden; a little above is the ancient bridge, erected by King Robert Bruce, of one Gothic arch, 70 feet in span, crossing a rocky and woody ravine in which the river flows; between it and the sea is a new bridge of 5 arches, opened in 1830, the expense of which was defrayed from the funds of the old and less convenient structure. The Universities of Aberdeen are two in number, in each of which one college has been founded. The most ancient is that of Old Aberdeen, founded by Bishop William Elphinston in 1494, under a papal bull of Pope Alexander VI. ; its buildings have been noticed above. It early received the name of King's College, instead of that of the Virgin Mary, to whom it was originally dedicated. The other and later seminary was established in 1593, and is called Marischal College, from its founder George Keith, Earl Marischal. King's College has a principal, sub-principal, and 9 rofessorships. A sum of about 1770s, arising }. charitable foundations, is annually distri

buted in different proportions among 134 students, who are called bursars. Marischal College has a principal, 10 professors, and 2 lecturers on humanity, and Scots law; in it are also taught medical classes, by 5 lecturers, appointed by both colleges. About 1,200l. is appropriated to bursaries, distributed in various amounts among 107 students. The attendance of students at each college is about equal; those of divinity hear prelections in both, the distance between them being a few yards more than a mile. In session 1837-8, the aggregate number of students in arts, divinity, law, and medicine, was about 700. Both universities have chancellors and rectors and exercise their powers independently of each other; various efforts have been made to unite them into one establishment, but as yet without success. Although their bursaries are numerous, their other revenues are very small. Formerly the university of Aberdeen was entitled to copies of all works entered at Stationers' Hall; but in 1836 they relinquished the privilege for an annual payment of 2421. 14s. At present their libraries are exceedingly defective; in Marischal College there is a small museum, an observatory, and an extensive apparatus for teaching natural philosophy. The education given in these seminaries has been highly useful in disseminating knowledge over the N. of Scotland, and raising its intellectual state; particularly in improving the character of the parochial schoolmasters, who having been all at college, are superior to many of their brethen in the southern parts of the country. The cheapness of the education, and the number of bursaries, most of which are given by comparative trial, are inducements to attend; the fees paid by a student who is not a bursar do not amount to more than about 6l. yearly, on the average of 4 years' study in the curriculum of arts; and respectable board may be obtained for about 25l. or 30, during the session which commences in the last Monday of October, and ends at the beginning of April, without vacations. Many eminent men have been professors in these universities; among whom may be mentioned Dr. Reid, the author of the Inquiry into the Human Mind; 1)r. Gerard; Principal Campbell, author of the Philosophy of Rhetoric, and the new Translation of the Gospels; Dr. Beattie, the bard of the Minstrel; and Dr. Hamilton, author of the celebrated Essay on the National Debt. The new buildings now raising for Marischal College, in order to replace very ineffective and ruinous ones, are on an extensive and elegant }. government, through the agency of Mr. Bannerman, M. P. for the city, granted 15,000l. towards their erection, and 7,500l. have been raised by subscription among the alumni and friends of the establishment. It is expected that their completion will lead the way to such additions to the university, and such improvements in teaching science and philosophy as will materially conduce to the benefit of this part of the Empire. (We are indebted for these valuable articles to a gentleman of distinction in Aberdeen.) ABERDOUR, a parish and village of Scotland, in Fifeshire, on the N. shore of the Frith of Forth, 10 m. N.W. Edinburgh. Pop. 1751. ABER FOYLE, in Scotland, a parish, and a celebrated pass or narrow valley leading into the Highlands, in the district of Monteith, in the S. W. part of Perthshire. The village or clachan of Aberfoyle in this pass is the scene of some of the most interesting adventures in the novel of Rob Roy. Pop. of parish 600. ABERGAVENNY, a town of England, co. Monmouth, at the confluence of the Gavenny with the Usk, 14 m. S. W. Monmouth, 129 m. W. by N. London. Pop. of arish 4,230. It is built in a straggling manner; has a ne, bridge of 15 arches over the Usk, and some branches of the woollen manufacture. There are very extensive iron works in the vicinity. On an eminence, near the S. end of the town, are the ruins of its ancient castle. ABERGELEY, a sea-port and m. town of Wales, co. Penbigh, hund. Isdulas, considerably resorted to of late years for bathing. ABERNETHY, a parish of Scotland, partly in Fife and partly in Perthshire. It was once the seat of an archiepiscopal see, removed to St. Andrew's in the ninth century. All that now remains of its ancient structures is a round tower 75 feet high, and 16 in diameter. The modern village of Abernethy is small, and the houses mean. Pop. of parish, 1776. ABERYSTWITH, a sea-port town of Wales, co. Cardigan, at the mouth of the Ystwith, over which is a neat bridge, 178 m. W. N. W. London. Pop. 4,128. It stands on an eminence overlooking the bay; and the streets, though well paved and ...i. are steep and uneven. It is a place of considerable trade, exporting lead, calamine, oak bark, flannels, &c., mostly to Liverpool; but owing to the shallowness of the water, it is accessible only to small vessels. As there is no market town within 18 m. it has the supply of a considerable adjacent territory. Latterly it has been extensively resorted to in summer for sea-bathing. Public rooms were opened for the accommodation of visiters in 1820, and a new theatre, in 1833. It seems to have been once strongly fortified... Its castle, of which some vestiges still exist, was rebuilt by Edward I. in 1277. A considerable extent of fen land to the N. of the town has recently been recovered from the sea.— (Municipal Boundary Reports, &c.) ABERYstworh, a parochial chapelry, hund. , Aberavenny, co. Monmouth, celebrated for its collieries and ron works, which have greatly increased during the last

20 years. Åion (BA HR EL). See Nile. AB INGI) ON, an ancient town of England, co. Berks, at the confluence of the Ock with the Isis, and at the junction of the Berkshire canal with the latter, 55 m, W. N.W. London. Pop. 5,259. It has several well-paved streets terminating in a spacious market-place, having a market-house in the centre. It has two churches, o places of worship for Dissenters, a well-endowed grammar school, and sundry almshouses and charitable endowments. It has a considerable corn market: some trade is carried on in malting, hemp-dressing, &c. During the late war a good deal of business was done in the manufacture of canvass, sacking, and such like coarse articles; but since the peace this employment has materially diminished. It returns one m. to the H. of Commons. No. of houses in 1831, 1,114, of which 451 were estimated at 10l. a year and upwards. Constituency in 1836, 292. This was formerly a scot and lot borough ; every inhabitant assessed to the poor rates exercising the elective franchise. —(Boundary Reports, i. p. 27.) ABO, the ancient capital of Finland, near the extremity of ..". formed by the gulfs of Bothnia and Finland, on the river Aurajocki, by which it is intersected, lat. 60° 26' 58° N., long. 22° 17' I5' E. It was the seat of a university, and has a considerable trade. But in 1827 it suffered severely from a fire, which destroyed the university and above 700 private houses. The university has been since removed to Helsingfors, now the capital of the province. Previously to the fire the town contained about 13,000 inhabitants. It has a gymnasium, a bank, and some unimportant manufactures. A treaty was concluded here in 1743 between Russia and Sweden. ABOMEY, cap. of the kingdom of Dahomey, in Africa, nearly 100 m. N. from the sea, lat. 79 30' N. long. 29.17 E. Pop, said to be 24,000. ABOUK1R, a village of o!'; with a citadel, on a promontory, about 10 m. N. E. of Alexandria, being suposed by some to occupy the site of the ancient Canopus, at. 31°19′ 44° N. long. 30.97° 16' E. ABOUKIR BAY, on the north coast of Egypt, formed on the west side by the point of land on which Aboukir is situated, and on the east by that which lies at the mouth of the Rosetta branch of the Nile. Here, on the 1st of August, 1798, was fought the famous battle of the Nile, when the French fleet that had conveyed Napoleon to Egypt was totally defeated by the British fleet under Lord Nelson ; and here also, on the 7th of March, 1801, the English army, under Sir Ralph Abercromby, effected its disembarkation. ABOUSAMBUL. See IpsAMEUL. ABRANTES, a fortified town of Portugal, prov. Estremadura, lat. 390 26' N., long. So 15° W., at the S. extremity of a ridge that trends S. W. from the great range dividing the valleys of the Douro and Tagus. Pop. 4,514. Its position adapts it admirably for a military station ; and Sir A. Wellesley availed himself of its local advantages by resisting there the progress of the French in 1809. (See Napier, ii. 317. &c.). It is about } m. from the right bank of the Tagus and 72 m. above Lisbon. The hill-side on which the town is built, as well as the hills about, bear vines, olive, peach, and other fruit trees, while the plain eastward produces pumpkins, watermelons, and other vegetables: all these products are

carried down the river in barges to the capital, with which this town has very considerable traffic. The trade now occupying above 100 barges, would be much increas if the navigation were improved. A few small craft go 24 m. higher, as far as Villabella; but the stream is rapid, and the bed much impeded with sand and rocks. The church of San Vincente is the largest and finest in Portugal. —(Miñano, Napier.) ABRUZZO, an extensive territory of Italy, forming the N. E. portion of the Neapolitan dominions, between 419 50’ and 42° 55' N. lat. ; bounded E. (a distance of about 80m.) by the Adriatic, N. and W. by the Papal dominions, and S. by other provinces of Naples. It is divided into the provs. of Abruzzo Ultra I., Abruzzo Citra, and Abruzzo Ultra II., so called from their position with respect to Naples. The first two, lying along the Adriatic, are divided by the Pescari, and occupy the whole country to the E. of Monte Corno and Monte Prata. Abruzzo Ultra II. is an interior prov., and comprises the whole country included between the others and the Papal states. Their extent, population, and revenue, ordinary and extraordinary, in 1831, were as follows:–

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The country presents every variety of soil and surface ; but the greater part is mountainous, rugged, and occupied by extensiveforests. . It is traversed throughout its whole extent by the Apennines, and has some of their highest summits. Monte Corno, surnamed Il Gran Sasso, or the Great Rock, rises to the height of 9,527 feet above the level of the sea, Monte Majella to about 8,500, and Monte Vellino to 8,397. It is watered by many rivers, most of which fall into the Adiatic ; and in Abruzzo Ultra II. is the celebrated Lago Celano, the Lacus Fucinus of the ancients (see CelANo, Lake of). The climate differs with the elevation of the soil ; but too. very cold on the mountains, and comparatively hot in the low grounds, it is, speaking generally, temperate and healthy. Along the Adriatic, and in the valleys and plains, the soil is very productive; and large quantities of corn, oil, wine, silk, liquorice, almonds, &c., are produced. Saffron used to be very extensively cultivated in the valley of Aquila, but the quantity raised is now very much restricted. The inhabitants of the mountainous districts are principally engaged in the rearing of sheep and cattle. he upper regions and recesses of the mountains, which cover by far the larger portion of Abruzzo Ultra II., are depastured in the summer season by vast flocks of sheep, brought from the Capitanata and other level provinces more to the S. Their migrations are regulated by law, and are similar to those that take place in Spain and in the S. E. depts. of France. The migratory sheep are supposed to amount, at present, to between 500,000 and 600,000, having been formerly much more considerable. The inhabitants are stout, well-made, healthy, and industrious. The occupiers and labourers, who form the vast majority of the population, are mostly poor, living in miserable dirty huts, feeding principally on Indian corn, and drinking a poor wine. Many thousands of the peasants emigrate every autumn to seek for employment in the Roman and Tuscan Maremme. Manusactures have made but little progress ; but woollens, silks, earthenware, &c., are produced. An extensive contraband trade is carried on with the Papal dominions ; and the coasting and foreign trade would be much more extensive than it is, were it not that the entire coast is without a single good port. Principal towns Chieti, Aquila, Teramo, Sulmona, Avezzano, &c. (See the 2nd vol. of the Descrizione, Topografica, Fisica, &c. del Regno detle Due Sicille, Napoli, 1835, which is entirely occupied by an account of the Abruzzi: see also Mr. Keppel Craven's Ercursions in the A i, 2 vols. Lond. 1838; and Sir R. C. Hoare's Classical Tour, 4to. 1819.)

ABU-ARISCH. A petty state in the S.W. of Arabi on the borders of the Red Sea, between 159 50' i 17° 40' N. lat., and 41° 30' and 43° E. long., consisting of the narrow slip of low land which lies between the coast and the mountain district of Haschid-u-Bekel. On the N. it is separated from El-Hedjaz. } a small district inhabited by wandering tribes of peculiar manners; and on the S., it borders upon the state of Loheia. Its extreme length is about 130 m., and its greatest width from 70 to 80 m. It forms part of the Tohama or low lands of Yemen, being almost wholly a sandy plain (see ARABIA), extremely hot and dry, destitute of permanent

* These are Italian sq. m. 60 to the degree, and are equivalent 3,213%."...o.floo egree, eq to


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