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ANNAMOOKO, one of the Friendly Islands (which

see). ANNAN, a borough, sea-port, m. town, and p. of Scotland, co. Dumfries. The town is situated on the E. side of the river Annan, which is here crossed by a fine bridge of 3 arches, erected in 1824, about 14 m. above its confluence with the Solway Frith, 67 m. S. Edinburgh. Pop. 5,033. It is clean, well-built, neat, and thriving ; has a handsome new church and spire; a good natural harbour, which has been much improved by an embankment constructed at the expense of Mr. Irving of Newton ; and an academy well attended. There is here a cotton manufactory, which, in 1837, employed from 120 to 140 hands. Ship-building is also carried on to a considerable extent ; but the principal trade of the town consists in the curing of bacon and hams for the Newcastle and London markets, and in the shipping of corn, fat cattle, and sheep, by steam, for Liverpool. In 1837 there belonged to #: town 34 vessels, of the burden of 1639 tons. Annan unites with Dumfries, Kirkcudbright, Lochmaben, and Sanquhar, in returning a member to the H. of C. 10l. houses in 1831, 153. ; constituency in 1837, 179. (Boundary Report, p. 137. ; New Statistical Ac. of Scotland, art. Annan.) ANNAN, the river on which the above town is built. It rises on the S. side of Hartfell, a mountain on the confines of the cos. Dumfries and Peebles, near Moffat, and after pursuing a S. course of about 36 m. in a direct line, unites with the Solway Frith, 11 m. below Annan, to which it is navigable. It has near its mouth salmon fisheries, which let in 1837 for about 550l. a-year. ANNANDALE, the name given to the valley or low grounds traversed lengthwise by the river Annan. ANNAPOLIS, a town of Nova Scotia, on the S. side of the river of the same name, near where it falls into its acstuary or basin, on the S.W. side of the bay of Fundy, lat. 449.47° N., long. 65°50' W. The harbour is spacious and secure. This is the oldest European settlement, in N. America, having been founded in 1604. It was called Fort Royal by the French; but, on their ceding the prov. to England in the reign of Queen Anne, it received its present name in honour of her Majesty. Notwithstanding it was the cap. of the prov. till the foundation of Halifax in 1750, and its fine harbour, it never attained to any considerable magnitude. At present it does not contain above 50 or 60 houses, shops, &c., and the fortifications and government buildings are going to ruin. (M*Gregor's British America, i. p. 360.) ANNApolis, a city and port of entry of the U. States, cap. Maryland, on the Severn, 2 m. from its mouth, 28 m. . S. E., Baltimore. Pop. 2,623. It is a handsome healthy town, with a statehouse, a theatre, &c. The proximity and more advantageous situation of Baltimore as a place of trade, have occasioned the slow growth of Annapolis. ANNECY, a town of the Sardinian states, cap. prov. Genevois, at the northern extremity of the lake of the same name, 22 m. S. Geneva. Pop. 5,700. It is pleasantly situated among hills and mountains ; and is thriving and industrious, having establishments for the spinning of cotton and silk, with manufactures of earthenware and glass, vitriol, straw hats, white iron and steel, &c. It is the seat of a bishopric, and is very ancient. ANNET, one of the Scilly islands, about 1 m. from that of St. Agnes. ANNONAY, a town of France, dep. Ardèche, being, though not the cap., the principal town of the dep., at the confluence of the Cance and the Deume, 7 m. from the Rhone. , Pop. 7,689. It is a thriving improvin town, agreeably situated on the elevated uneven groun between the two rivers, with suburbs on the opposite banks ; being well, though irregularly built. The only public building worth notice, is an obelisk in honour of the celebrated aeronaut Montgolfier, a native of the place. Annonay is principally distinguished by its manufactures, ticularly by that of paper, long reckoned the best in rance; and hence the recommendation, so frequently seen in French catalogues, oftooks being printed on papier Jin ...; (See ARDeche.) It has o. manufactures of cloth, woollen stockings, and gloves; establishments for the spinning of cotton and silk, part of the latter of a iarly fine quality, being employed in the manu}. of tulles and blondes; with dye-works, tanneries, &c. The town is proprietor of a large nursery; and in its vicinity is the first suspension bridge constructed in

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.) ANSPACH, or ANSBACH, a town of Bavaria, cap. circ. Rezat, on the Rezat, 24 m. S. W. by W. Nuremburg, lat. 49° 14′ 30” N., long. 10° 30' 15" E. Pop. 16,500. It is surrounded by walls, and has 4 gates; is the seat of the provincial authorities and of a court of appeal. The objects most deserving of attention are the castle and

gardens that formerly belonged to the Margraves of Anspach; the church of St. John, with the tombs of the rinces. It has a gymnasium, an hospital, an orphan ol. a library of 16,000 vols. with a cabinet of medals, &c.; and manufactures of woollen and cotton stuffs, earthenware, white lead, and pla ing caruls. ANSTRUTHER (EASTER jo TER), two inconsiderable royal burghs and sea-ports of Scotland, co. Fife, on the N. shore of the Frith of Forth. Pop. of both boroughs, with their parishes, in 1831, 1,437; Parl. const; in 1837, 63. They unite with Crail, Pittenweem, and Kilrenny, in returning a m. to the H. o ANTALOW, a considerable town of Abyssinia, cap. prov. Enderta, 85 m. S. S. E. Axum. Pop. probably about 6,000. ANTE QUERA; a large town of Spain, Andalusia, 30 m. N. N. W. Malaga, lat. 379 9° N., long. 4932' W. Pop. 20,150. It is built partly on a hill, and partly on a plain ; has an old castle built by, the Moors, several churches and convents, with establishments for the spinning of silk and cotton, and fabrics of paper, morocco leather, and soap. There are in its neighbourhood quarries of marble of different colours, and plaster, a salt lake, and a mineral spring. . It was taken by assault from * Moors, by Ferdinand, afterwards king of Arragon, in ANTHEME (ST.), a town of France, dep. Puy de Polo, cap. cant. on the Ance, 9 m. E. Ambert. Pop. x -va ANTHONY (ST.), FALLS OF, in the Mississippi, about 2,000 m. above its embouchure, lat. 44° 50' §: Here the river descends about 74 feet, viz. is feet of perpendicular fall, and 58 more of rapids. ANTHoNY (Sr.), a cape on the coast of S. Aimerica, Argentine republic, being the S. extremity of the aestuary of the La Plata, lat. 36° 15' 19° S., long. 56° 37' W. ANTIBES (an. Antipolis), a sea-port town of France, dep. War, cap. cant on the Mediterranean, 22 m. E. N. E. Frejus, lat. 43° 34' 40” N., long. 79 7' 50" E. Pop. 5,939. Being an important station on the side of Italy, Antibes is pretty strongly fortified. It is the seat of a tribunal of commerce, and of a school of navigation. The port, which is circular, of considerable size, and easy access, is formed by a mole projecting from the town, the distance from it. extremity to the point on which Fort Carré is built being only about 150 fathoms. In most parts the port is shallow ; but within and near the mole there are from 15 to 18 feet water. The inhabitants are principally employed in the fishing and curing of sardines o anchovies. Antibes is very ancient, having been sounded by a colony from Marseilles, 340 years B. c. It was afterwards occupied by the Romans, by whom it was fortified and embellished. Having been destroyed by the Saracens towards the end of the 9th century, it continued in a comparatively neglected state, till it was again fortified . rancis I. and Henry IV. It was unsuccessfully besieged by the English and Imperialists in 1746. (Ilugo, France Pittoresque, art. P'ar. ANTICOSTI, a o island in the mouth of the St. Lawrence, between 499 and 50° N. lat., and 61° 43' and 64° 35' W. long. It has an unfavourable soil, is without a single good harbour, and is uninhabited, with the exception of the attendants on the light-houses, one of which has been erected on its E. point; and another either has been or is about to be erected on its W. extremity. ANTIGUA, an island belonging to Great Britain, in the West Indies, being one of those denominated the Windward Islands. It was called by the natives o maca, but Columbus gave it the name of Santa Maria dela Antigua. It is about 25 m. N. E. Montserrat, and 40 m. N. Guadaloupe. It is oval-shaped, being 20 m. in its greatest length, and contains about 108 sq. m., or nearly 70,000 acres. The pop, has decreased since 1774, when it, had 2,590 whites, and 37,808 slaves. In 1837, the people of colour and whites together were only about 2,000 ; and the blacks, all of whom were enfranchised in 1834, about 33,000. It has little of the mountainous character of the neighbouring islands, the greatest elevation being only 1,2io feet. On approaching it from the sea, instead of mountains coho with rich foliage and luxuriant vegetation, a barren rugged coast, almost destitute of verdure, presents itself. A few miles, however, from the shore, the prospect is more F. the country being agreeably diversified with hill and dale; and when not parched by the droughts, to which it is subject, green fields of canes, clumps of feathery bamboos, flowers of dazzling brilliancy, and verdant cliffs hung with beautiful varieties of intertropical plants, enchant the voyager. The island has neither fountain nor river, and but a few scanty springs among the hills. Rain water; preserved in tanks, is substituted, and it is found particularly light and pleasant to the palate. The soil in the high lands is a reddish clay on a substratum of marl ; that in the lowlands, a rich dark mould on a substratum of clay. The climate is remarkable for its want of moisture, though the average

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fall of rain be 45 inches. The dew is scanty, and the rainy season very uncertain, but it may be o to extend from June to the end of the year. The alternations of temperature are very slight, the thermometer seldom ranging more than 4° in 24 hours. The deaths among the white troops for the last 20 years, according to Captain Tulloch's tables, was 40.6 per 1000 of mean strength. Among the black troops, 28:9. The sugar cane is the principal article of cultivation ; but sufficient #. provisions are also procured in favourable seasons or the supply of the inhabitants. The crops vary considerably. In the years 1770, 1773, 1778, there was no produce of any kind, the canes and ground provisions being destroyed by drought, and the inhab. would have perished, but for the importation of flour and corn-ineal from America. The total value of imports in 1833 was 170,334/. ster., the principal of which were grain, meal, and flour, cotton manufactures, linens, woollens, and fish. In 1834, the value of the imports was 176,0761. There would seem to have been a very extraordinary falling off in the exports of produce from Antigua since 1834, in consequence, o perhaps, of deficient harvests, but more, as we apprehend, of the emancipation of the slaves. The o imports into the United King§o from Antigua in the under-mentioned years, have en —

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The shipping entered inwards in 1833, was 33,654 tons, emloying 2,370 men ; outwards, 32,002 tons, and 2,183 men. The legislature is composed of a governor, a council of 12, and an assembly of 25 members. The courts of equity and law are the same as in Great Britain. The governor for the time being acts as chancellor of the court of equity, and suitors have a right of appeal from his decrees to the king in council, on giving security for costs. The militia consists of 89 officers, and 903 rank and file. There are 10 public or free schools, and 4 private, 15 infant, and many Sunday schools, giving instruction, in all, to nearly 1,000 children. The manners, customs, and habits of the people differ in no degree from those of the other West Indian Islands. The revenue, in 1831, was 15,097l., the expenditure 15,708l. The island contains 6 towns and villages, viz. St. John's, Parham, Falmouth, Willoughby Bay, Old Road, and James Fort. St. John's the capital, on the N. W. side of the island, lat. 18° 22′ N., long. 64°42' W., is regularly built, partly on a high rock, connected with the mainland by a causeway, which is, however, submerged at high water. In the harbour, there is sufficient depth of water for merchant vessels, and perfect security in all winds. English Harbour, on the S. side of the island, is however the best harbour in Antigua, and is indeed one of the best in the West Indies. . It has water for ships of any size, and is well sheltered in all weathers. It has a dock-yard, a naval hospital, and every convenience for careening and repairing ships... (Blunt's American Nanigator, p. 402.) Antigua is the oldest W. I. colony, aster St.Kitt's and Bar: badoes, in possession of the English, having been acquired in 1632. Its planters have been remarkable for their leniency to the slaves, who were finally enfranchised in 1834. The amount awarded to Antigua out of the 20,000,000l. granted for the freedom o, slaves, was 425,865l. 7s. 044., those of Anguilla included. The average value of each slave was reckoned at 141. 12s. 3d. (Edward's Parl. Papers, &c.) ANT II, I, ES, see West INDIEs. ANTIOCH (vulg. Antakia) (Antioch), properly Antiocheia (Avrozoiz), a famous city of Syria, and once the residence . its sovereigns, on the left bank of the Aaszy (Orontes), 20 m. above its mouth; 53 m. E. Aleppo, and 29 m. S. Iskenderoun, in lat. 869 12 N., long. 369 15° E. The population, which at its most flourishing epoch probably amounted to 400,000, is now reduced to from 6,000, to 10,000, of whom about a tenth part may be Christians, and about the same proportion Jews. Modern Antioch does not cover more than a sixth part of the area of the ancient city, the walls of which, though ruinous, may still be distinctly traced throughout their whole circuit. The Bab-Boulous (Gate of St. Paul), the entrance from the E., is now 3 m. from the nearest houses; and, in every other direction except the W., the buildings have similarly receded from their old limits. Volney describes it as a wretched collection of huts, built of mud and straw, with narrow and miry streets, and exbibiting every appearance of misery and desolation. Kinneir, however, says that “the houses are in the Turkish fashion, smals, but neatly built of hewn stone.” But though this be the case with some of them, the majority are constructed of slight materials ; and, unlike the houses of other Syrian or rather Eastern towns, have sloping roofs covered with thin tiles. There are 10 or 12 mean aud unimportant mosques, with low minarets;

but in this city, so famous in the annals of Christianity, there is not at present a single Christian church : The baths and bazars are numerous, but neither exhibit any thing remarkable. It has manufactures of coarse pottery, cotton stuffs, leather, &c.; but the greater part of the inhabitants are engaged in the cultivation and manufacture of silk. All traces of its famous theatres, its circus, and its magnificent baths, have irretrievably perished. For about 3 m. on the E. of the town, a part of the ancient pavement still exists; and on the S. are the ruins of an aqueduct, which conveyed a * ly of water from the foot of the Djebel Okrah (an. o Cassius). The old walls are, however, interesting monuments. The situation of the ancient city was most delightful. It occupied the summits and slopes of two considerable hills, and the plain between them and the river. Over these hills and across this plain, the walls were built nearly in a rectangular form, inclosing a space of several m. in circumference. They are of various ages, P. being, apparently, as old as the first foundation of the town, part referable to the aera of Roman power, and part the work of the crusaders. They are carried over the beds of mountain torrents, and down the sides of almost perpendicular precipices, filling up the intervening gorges and ravines, so that they vary from 20 or 30 feet in height to upwards of 70. The oldest portion of the walls is also the most perfect ; it stands upon a rock, and, having been originally well built, has resisted the influence of time and the shocks of earthquakes. There are two bridges, one of 5 arches with piers, cut out of the rock, across a ravine ; and one of inferior dimensions, across the Orontes. In the sides of the mountains to the S. E. of the town are numerous excavations, o intended for cemeteries or catacombs, some of which are now used as places of worship by the Christian population. The ancient Syrian name of Antioch is said to have been Riblath ; but being enlarged and beautified by Seleucus Nicator, he gave it. B. c. 301, after his father, the name of Antioch. It became at once the capital of the Macedonian kingdom of Syria, and continued for nearly 23 centuries to be the residence of the monarchs of the Seleuceidan dynasty. About 65 years B. c., the conquests of Pompey brought Antioch, with the whole of Syria, under the control of Rome. At this arra it consisted of 4 distinct towns, each having separate fortifications, the whole being surrounded by a common wall; hence it was sometimes called Tetrapolis. Under the Romans, Antioch continued to advance in importance: it was the centre of an extensive commerce, the residence of the governor of Syria, the frequent resort of the emperors, and the most celebrated town of the empire (the capital only excepted) for the amusements of the circus and the theatre. It is intimately connected with the early history of Christianity, the doctrines of which were planted in it by Paul and Barnabas; and in it, also, the term Christian had its origin as a distinctive appellation. (Acts, xi. 26.) It has sufsered severely on many occasions from earthquakes. One of the most celebrated and disastrous of these calamities occurred A. D. 115. The emperor Trajan, who had just concluded his victorious Parthian campaign, being then in the city, it was crowded with troops and strangers from all parts of the ancient world. The shocks are said to have continued for a lengthened period, and to have been most severe; the emperor himself narrowly escaped with some bruises ; and many thousands of individuals were buried in the ruins of the city. (Ancient Univer. Hist. xv. 138. 8vo. ed.) It again suffered severely from similar catastrophes in the years 340,394, 396, 458, 526, and 588 ; the last destroying, it is said (but such statements are almost always much exaggerated), above 60,000 persons. Notwithstanding these repeated inflictions, and its devastation by Chosroes the Persian in 548, it revived again and again, and continued to be the “Queen of the East,” and a place of great importance, till 638, when it fell under the power of the Saracens. In 1098, it was taken by the crusaders, and continued to be the capital of a Christian principality till 1269, when it was taken by the Egyptian sultan, by whom it was partially demolished. It was added to the Ottoman empire, by Selim I., in 1516; but its commercial importance had already vanished ; and it has continued, under the barbarous sway of the Turks, to decline till it has reached its present state of comparative insignificance. The valley of the Orontes spreads, in the neighbourhood of Antioch, into a fertile plain, 10 miles in length, and 5 or 6 in width ; the town and river, occupying the extreme edge, being close to the bounding mountains on the S. E. The soil is excellent, consisting of a rich alluvial deposit, o figs, olives, vines, and mulberries in great abundance. he deserted spaces within the old walls are one continued garden ; but in general the country is ill-cultivated, being abandoned to the Turkmans and other wandering tribes. Pliny speaks of a part of Antioch lying on the right bank of the river (Hist. Nat. v. 21.) This must have been a suburb, and probably, as in the case of Aleppo, as extensive as the town within the walls; but no vestiges of it now remain. Modern critics and travellers differ in opinion as to the site of the grove, and village of Daphne, and temple of Apollo, in the immediate vicinity of Antioch. Gibbon has given the following description of this long-famous seat of religion and pleasure. “At the distance of 5 m. from Antioch, the Macedonian kings of Syria had consecrated to Apollo one of the most elegant places of devotion in the pagan world. A magnificent temple rose in honour of the God of light ; and his colossal figure almost filled the capacious sanctuary, which was enriched with gold and gems, and adorned by the skill of the Grecian artists. The deity was represented in a bending attitude, with a golden cup in his hand, pouring out a libation on the earth, as if he supplicated the venerable mother to give to his arms the cold and beauteous Daphne; for the spot was ennobled by fiction, and the fancy of the Syrian poets had transplanted the amorous tale from the banks of the Peneus to those of the Orontes. The ancient rites of Greece were imitated by the royal colony of Antioch. A stream of prohecy, which rivalled the truth and reputation of the elphic Oracle, flowed from the Castalian fountain of Daphne. In the adjacent fields, a stadium was built by a special privilege which had been purchased from Elis : the Olympic games were celebrated at the expense of the city; and a revenue of 30,000l. sterling was annually . to the public pleasures. The perpetual resort of grims and spectators insensibly formed, in the neigh{j of the temple, the stately and populous village of Daphne, which emulated the o: without acuiring the title, of a provincial city. The temple and the village were o bosomed in a thick grove of laurels and cypresses, which reached as far as a circumserence of 10 m., and formed in the most sultry summers a cool and impenetrable shade. A thousand streams of the purest water springing from every hill, preserved the verdure of the earth and the temperature of the air ; the senses were gratified with harmonious sounds and aromatic odours ; and the peaceful grove was consecrated to health and joy, to luxury and love. The vigorous youth pursued, like Apollo, the object of his desire, and the blushing maid was warned by the fate of Daphne to shun the folly of unseasonable coyness. The soldiers and the philosophers wisely avoided the temptation of this sensual paradise, where pleasure, assuming the character of religion, imperceptibly dissolved the firmness of manly virtue. But the groves of Daphne continued for many ages to enjoy the veneration of natives and strangers; the privileges of the holy ground were enlarged by the munificence of succeeding emperors; and every generation added new ornaments to the splendour of the temple.”— (Calmet, Dictionnaire de la Bible, art. Antioche, Decline and Fall, cap. 23. ; Polney, ii. 130. ; Browne, 390–392. ; Kinneir, pp. 149–161. ; Robinson, ii. 273–277.) ANTIPAROS (an. Oliaros), a small island of the Grecian Archipelago, o of the Cyclades, between Paros and Siphanto, 13 m. W. of the former, and 16 m. E. of the latter. It is about 7 m. in length from N. to S. by about 3 m. breadth, its highest point being in lat. * 59' 40" N., long, 25°3' 60' E. . It consists of a mass of marble covered with a moderately fertile soil; and, exclusive of some cotton and wine, it produces barley enough to suffice for its inhab., consisting of some 60 or 70 families who live in a miserable village about 1 m. from the shore, and are partially employed in fishing. Though hardly worthy of notice in other respects, this island is famous for an immense subterranean cavern or grotto. Its entrance is on the side of a hill under a low arch. The passage thence to the cavern is long, narrow, and in parts precipitous. “The mode of descent is by ropes, which are either held by the natives, or joined to a cable fastened at the entrance round a stalactite pillar. In this manner we reached the spacious chambers of this truly enchanted grotto. The roof, the floor, the sides of a whole series of magnificent caverns, are entirely invested with a dazzling incrustation, as white as snow. Columns, some of which were 25 feet in length, pended in fine icicle forms above our heads ; fortunately, some of them are so far above the reach of the numerous travellers who during many ages have visited this place, that no one has been able to injure or remove them. Others extend from the roof to the floor, with diameters equal to the mast of a first rate ship of the line. The last chamber into which we descended surprised us more by the grandeur of its exhibition than any other. Probably there are other chambers still unexplored.” (Clarke's Travels, vi. p. 125. 8vo ed.) The aera of the discovery of this cavern in modern times is not ascertained; but it was first made fully known by the visit paid to it by M. Nointel, ambassador from France to the Porte, who descended into it with a cortègo of no sewer than 500 individuals, at Christmas,

1673. On this occasion it was brilliantly illuminated. His excellency and suite remained in it for three entire days, and celebrated high mass at midnight on Christmas in this most magnificent of subterranean temples. It was also visited by the learned and excellent traveller, M. Tournefort, who supposed that he saw in it conclusive proofs of his singular theory as to the vegetation of stones. (Tournofort, Voyage du Levant, i. pp. 185–195. 4to ed.) It has since been repeatedly visited by other travellers; and it is said that the smoke from the numerous torches that have thus necessarily been carried within its recesses, have somewhat impaired its otherwise unrivalled splendour and brilliancy. ANTIVARI, a town of Turkey in Europe, 19 m. W. Scutari, within a short distance of the sea, lat. 42° 15' 20° N., long. 1994. 15” E. Pop. It is defended b a castle on a steep rock, is the residence of a Gree archbishop, and the entrepôt of the merchandise of the valley of Drin. ANTOING, a market town of Belgium, prov. Hainault, 4 m. S. E. o: Pop. 1,951. ANTONIN (ST.), a town of France, dep. Tarn ct Garonne, cap. cant., in a spacious valley at the confluence of the Aveyron and the Bonnette, 22 m. E. N. E. Montauban. Pop. 5,455. The waters of the Bonnette bein charged with the refuse of various tanneries establish on its banks, render the town at times unhealthy. It has fabrics of serges and other woollen stuffs, paper, &c.; and a considerable commerce is carried on in leather, prunes, and juniper. ANTONIO (ST.), a city of Mexico, cap. prov. Texas, situated near the source of the river of this name. Pop. 2,000. o 1019 W., lat 29° 50' N. ANTRA1GUES, a town of France, dep. Ardèche, cap. cant., l l m. W. Privas. Pop. 2,029. AN TRAIN, a town of France, dep, Ille et Vilaine, cap. cant, on the Couesnon, 14 m. S. E. Dol. Pop. 1,651. ANTRIM, a marit. co. Ireland, prov. Ulster; its greatest length being about 55 m., and its greatest breadth about 32 m. ; having N. and E. the Irish Sea, S. Lough Neagh and Down, and W. Londonderry, from which it is separated for the greater part by the Bann. It contains 758,866 imp. acres, of which 225,970 are mountain and bog, and 49,790 water, being part of Lough Neagh which lies principally within this county. The N. and E. districts are mountainous, and there are some high rugged rounds in other places, while the flat ground i. #. Neagh is in many F'. boggy Still, however, there is a large extent of fertile ground. Property in very great estates; but large portions of some of them are leased for ever. Farms small : agriculture in most respects similar to that of Down (which see): average rent of land, 15s. an acre. The country round Belfast has more of an improved appearance, and the people are more orderly and industrious than any where else in Ireland. Linen manufacture universally diffused: the manufacture of cotton has also been successfully introduced, with some others of inferior importance. A coal mine is wrought at Ballycastle; but not extensively, the coal being of quality. Besides the Bann and the La gan, which form part of its S. boundary, it is watered by many smaller streams, but none of them are navigable. The N. coast is remarkable for its basaltic columns, which are particularly, conspicuous at the far-famed Giant's Causeway (which see). The lofty promontorios of Bengore and $o. are also, in a great measure, composed of these columns. There are considerable salmon fisheries on the coast. Carrickfergus is the county town; but the rincipal towns are Belfast, Lisburn, Antrim, and Larne. op. in 1821, 262,860; in 1831,316,909; it contains 8 baronies and 77 parishes; and returns 5 m. to the H. of C., viz. 2 for the co., 2 for Belfast, and 1 for Carrickfergus. Parl. constituency of co., 1836-37, 3,496. ANTRIM, an inland town of Ireland, cap. co. Antrim, row. Ulster, on the Six-mile-water near its embouchure in Lough Neagh, 94 m. N. Dublin. Its ancient name was Entrium, or Entrum-meagh, and it is supposed to owe its origin to a religious house founded by a disciple of St. Patrick. It suffered much in the wars with the Danes and with the first English settlers; and in 1641 was burnt by the Scotch, under Munroe. In 1798 it was the scene of a sanguinary conflict between the King's troops and the insurgents, in which the former were victorious, but with the loss of Lord O'Neil, who commanded a regiment of militia. Pop., including that of the suburb of Parkgate, amounted in 1821 to 2,485, and in 1831 to 2,655, being half the pop. of the par. of same name in which it is situated. In 1834 the pop. of the ar. was 5,543; of which 750 were of the E. church, 1,252 R. Catholics, and 3,541 Prot. dis. The town, lying in the bosom of a fertile *i; consists of two main streets, with several branches. ouses substantially built of stone, several exhibiting proofs of considerable antiquity. Its public buildings are the par. church, an ancient edifice, but lately repaired; a spacious R. C. chapel; two places of worship for Presbyterians; two for Methodists; and one for the Society of Friends. There are schools for boys and girls, under the endowment of Erasmus Smith; and several private schools, in all of which nearly 700 children receive instruction; also a mendicity society, and a savings' bank. Previously to the Union the borough sent 2 m. to the Irish parl. The court-house, in the centre of the town, is used for holding general sessions of the peace in April and October, and petty sessicns on alternate Tuesdays. The court-leet and court of record of the manor of ... which the town is, and at which the seneschal, o by the Marquis of Donegal, presides, – are also held here; the latter court decides leas of debt to the amount of 20l. Part of the marketouse is used as a bridewell. Close to the town is the residence of Viscount Ferrard, and about 3 m. distant is a perfect pillar-tower, 95 feet high, with a conical roof. The manufactures are those of linen, cotton, and .. There are several o: in the neighbourhood; and two paper-mills, one of which first introduced into Ireland the process of *Hoo in webs like cloth, instead of separate sheets. ere are also several flour and meal mills, and a brewery. 8,445 bushels of malt were manufactured here in 1836. Most of the grain is sent to Belfast, its conveyance being facilitated by the contiguity of Lough Neagh, where a small quay has becn erected at the mouth of the Six-mile-water. Markets are held on Tuesdays for grain, and on Thursdays for general pur§. and fairs on Jan. 1, May 12, Aug. 1, and Nov. 12. o tolls are now levied. A branch of the Ulster bank was opened in 1836. The o revenue increased from 348l. in 1830, to 4321. in 1836. Two caravans and three cars convey passengers between Antrim and Belfast three times a week. The average number carried is 15 each trip. (Stat. Survey; Railway Report.)


ANTWERP (Ger. Antwerpen, Fr. Anvers), a marit. city of Belgium, cap. prov., and arrond. of same name, on the N. bank of the Scheldt, 26 m. N. Brussels, 32 m. E. Ghent; lat. 51° 13' 16" N., long. 4° 24′ 10" E. It is in the shape of a bow; the arch being formed by the walls and the chord by the river, and is well fortified. A strong pentagonal citadel, built by the Duke of Alva, in 1567, and improved by the French, stands on the S. side of the town, which is farther defended by various forts on both sides the river. Though much declined from its former prosperity, Antwerp is a wellbuilt fine old city, and is in various respects highly interesting. The principal street, Place de Meer, rivals any in Europe. It is about the width of Portland Place, but the variety and richness of the architecture render it far more magnificent. The older and narrower streets, bordered by lofty houses with their gables to the street, are singularly picturesque. Altogether it is supposed to contain about 10,000 houses, mostly built of stone; and had in 1835 a pop. of 75,363. The great boast of Antwerp is its cathedral, a superb Gothic structure, begun early in the 15th and not finished till the 16th century. Its spire, of the most beautiful and delicate workmanship, is said by Schreiber and others to be 466 feet high; but according to a statement in the Penny Cyclopaedia this is 100 feet too much, the height being there affirmed to be only 366 feet ! The interior corresponds in grandeur with the exterior, and it contains two famous pictures of Rubens; one of which, the Descent from the Cross, is generally regarded as his chef-d'acuvre. Of the oš. churches that of St. James, which contains the tomb of Rubens, St. Andrew, and St. Paul, are the most celebrated. All of them are adorned with fine paintings. The Bourse, or exchange, is one of the finest buildings of its class in Europe: it is said to have served as a model for the London exchange, burnt down in 1837. The Hôtel de Ville, a marble structure, rebuilt in 1581 after being destroyed by fire, is a magnificent fabric. The convent of the Recollets has been converted into a museum, in which is a superb collection of paintings, including many that were formerly scattered among the different churches and convents. It comprises

some of the choicest specimens of the masters of the Flemish school; as Rubens, Van Dyke, Jordaens, Van Vien, Martin de Vos, &c. Antwerp has a theatre; an academy of painting (St. Luke's), which originated in the 16th century; a royal academy of the fine arts, established in 1817; an academy of sciences; an Athenaeum, or college; Latin, medical, and naval schools; a gallery of sculpture; a public library with 15,000 vols.; a botanical garden; with various learned societies, and many good private collections of works of art. Its charitable institutions include several hospitals, asylums, and workhouses. It is the seat of the courts of assize for the province; of a tribunal of original jurisdiction, a commercial tribunal, &c. The eople have every appearance of being in comortable circumstances, and are quiet and orderly. The upper classes speak French, and the lower Flemish. The manufactures are very various, and are of considerable importance and value. They comprise fabrics of silk and cotton stockings, thread and tape, linen, calico printing, &c. Embroi dery, bleaching, and ship-building are extensively carried on. The business of sugarrefining employed, in 1834, from 500 to 600 individuals, and consumed about 6 millions kilogs. of raw sugar. The lapidaries of Antwerp are very skilful in the cutting of diamonds and other precious stones. Of 54 mills for various purposes, within the city in 1834, only one was wrought by steam, two by wind, and one by water, the rest being moved by horses! In this respect there is certainly much room for improvement. The depth of water in the river opposite to the city is from 32 to 40 feet at ebb tide, with a rise at springs of from 12 to 14 feet; and as this depth is increased towards the sea, Antwerp is a peculiarly eligible situation for the formation of dock-yards and the building of large ships. Its capability in this respect did not escape the observation of Napoleon, who endeavoured to raise it to the first rank as a naval arsenal. His plans in furtherance of this object were judiciously devised on a very grand scale, and were zealously prosecuted. Two large basins, capable of admitting ships of the line, were excavated on the N. side of the town; one comprising an area of 17, and the other of 7 Eng. acres. Attached to these was an extensive dock-yard, with careening and repairing docks, storehouses, &c. all planned and executed in the best and most approved manner, and at an immense expense. On the downfall of Napoleon the dock-yard, with its fortifications, &c., was completely destroyed; and it was even debated whether the two great basins should share the same fate 1 Luckily, however, they were preserved; and being converted into commercial docks, are of the most signal service to the trade and navigation of the city. The fleet and naval stores in the arsenal, when it surrendered to the allied forces in 1814, were divided; two thirds being assigned to France, and one third to the King of the Netherlands. Her fine river, and the numerous canals with which it is united, give Antwerp great advantages as a commercial emporium ; and during the early part of the 16th century she was one of the first trading cities of Europe. Owing, however, to the ascendency and jealousy of the Dutch, and the supineness of her rulers, her foreign trade was nearly annihilated during the 17th and 18th centuries. But the navigation of the Scheldt, which had been formally closed by the treaty of Wcstphalia, was re-opened on the occupation of Belgium by the French, and since the peace of 1815 the trade of the town has rapidly increased; and the probability seems to be, looking at the natural advantages of her situation, that it will go on increasing. The eater part by far of the foreign trade of §.m. centres here. The imports consist principally of coffee (16,000 tons), sugar (18,000 tons), cotton, tobacco, and all sorts of colonial produce; with cotton stuffs, wine, hardware, ashes, coal, hides, pepper, indigo and other dye-stuffs, &c. The timber used in ship-building is mostly brought by water from the interior. The exports consist chiefly of corn, linseed, flax, bark and madder, linen, lace, carpets, tallow, hops, &c. The increase in the trade of Antwerp is evinced by the fact, that while only 681 ships arrived at the port in 1824, and 800 in 1825, there arrived in 1836 1,245 ships of the burden of 176,079 tons, and in 1837 1,426 ships 9f the burden of 225,030 tons. In 1836, 59 ships belonged to the port of the burden of 8,754 tons. In 1837, 6 new vessels were launched. The railway from Brussels to Antwerp, 283 m. in length, was opened throughout the whole dis. tance in 1836. It has been signally successful; and will, no doubt, be of great advantage to both cities: Antwerp has produced many distinguished men, being the birthplace of the painters Teniers, Van Dyke, Jordaens, and Crayer; the o: Ortelius, the admirable engraver Edelink, &c." Antwerp is very ancient. Lodovico Guicciardini, in his Descrizione di Paesi Bassi, describes it in 1560 as a city of vast wealth and the most extensive commerce; adding, that it was no uncommon thing for 500 ships to enter and leave its port in a single day ! And making every allowance for the exaggeration obvious in this statement, there is no doubt that it then enjoyed a more extensive foreign trade than any other city in the N. of Europe. But this prosperity was destined to be of short duration. }. 1576 it was sacked and partly burned by the Spaniards. In 1585, it was invested by the famous Alexander Farnese, prince of Parma, who took it after a lengthened and memorable siege. After its capture the greater part of its merchants and principal ople emigrated to Amsterdam and other towns in the United Provinces, carrying with them their capital, skill, and connections. The ruin of its trade dates from this epoch, and was consummated by the Dutch obtaining the command of the river, and by the stipulation in the treaty of Westphalia by which, as already seen, it was regularly closed. In 1794 it fell into the hands of the French, who made it the capital of the department of Deux Nethes, and held it till 1814. n the revolt of the Belgian provinces in 1830, the Dutch garrison continued to hold the citadel for the King of the Netherlands: and the latter having refused to make it be evacuated, agreeably to the determination of the great wers, a French army of 65,000 men, under Tarshal Gerard, entered Belgium in November, 1832, to compel its evacuation. The details of the siege are well known. . The trenches were opened on the 29th November; and after an obstinate, but not a skilful or energetic defence, the citadel surrendered on the 24th of December. (Vandermaelen, Dict, Géog. de la Prov. d’Anvers, pp. 4—20. ; Barrow's Family Tour in S. Holland, oc. pp. 11–41. ; Murray's Handbook; and Private Information.)

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ANWEILER, a town of Bavaria, circ. of the Rhine, on the Queich, 7 m. W. Landau. Pop. 2,000. It has tannerics, and distilleries of Kirschwasser. Its castle, now in ruins, built by the emperor Frederic, was long the depôt of the jewels of the crown. ANZIN, a village of France, dep. du Nord, in the immediate vicinity of Valenciennes. Pop. 4,182. This is the seat of the richest coal mines in 1°rance. They have been wrought since 1734, and some of the pits are as much as 1,500 feet in depth. The mines of Anzin, Vieux Condé, Furnes, &c., are said to employ in all above 4,000 ..o.o. and to furnish annually nearly 3,000,000 hectolitres of coal. The cost of its production is estimated at 65 cent. the hectolitre; and it is stated that a company at Anzin, for working the mines, clears annually nearly 3,000,000 fr. profit, in consequence of the increased production and price of coal caused by the high duties on foreign coal. (Hugo, France Pittoresque, art. Nord.) AOSTA, a town of the Sardinian States, cap. prov.same name, at the confluence of the Butera with the Dora, at the opening of the two valleys of the Great and Little St. Bernard, 49 m. N. N. W. Turin. Pop. 7,000. It has straight broad streets; and many of the hotsses having gardens attached to them, it covers a large extent of ground. It is the seat of a council of Justice, and of a bishopric ; but is principally distinguished by its ruins of edifices constructed by the Romans, among which are a triumphal arch, a superb gate with 3 arches, the remains of an amphitheatre, &c. It received different names from the Romans, being sometimes called Civitas Augusti, Augusta Praetoria Juliar, and Augusta Salassionum ; the latter from its having been the capital of the Salassii, subdued by Terentius Varro. APENNINES, the name given to the mountain system which traverses the whole length of Italy. Umbrosis mediam qua collibus Apenninus of: Italiam, nulso qua vertice tellus Altius intumuit, propiusque accessit olympo. Moos inter geminas medius se porrigit undas, Inferni superiaue maris: collesque coercent, Hinc Tyrrhena vado frangentes aequora Pisae, Hinc Dalmaticis obnoxia fluctibus Ancon. Lucan. lib. i. At itsW. extremity this range is so closely connected with the Alps, that it may be considered as an extensive offset of that great system. It is difficult to determine where the Alps terminate and the Apennines begin : some think that the road over the co di Tende (7° 40' E. long.) forms the boundary; others assign for it that road which begins on the N. at Alessandria, runs in the valley of the Bormida to Acqui, Spigno, &c., and tern inates on the coast at Savona, rising at its highest point to 4460 f. above the sea; others think that the sea Alps extend to the road which leads from Novi on the N, over the Pass of the Bocchetta (2550 f.) to Genoa on the coast. The Northern Apennines extend from the Pass of the Bocchetta E., with a slight declination to the S. through three degrees of longitude (9° and 12°) to Monte Falterona, lying E. of Florence. The Central Apennines extend from Monte Falteroma S. E., with some bends to either side, as far as Monte Velino, or nearly two degrees of latitude (44° and 42°). The Southern Apennines, beginning at Monte Velino, run E. S. E. between 42° and 41° N. lat. South of the last-mentioned parallel, between the towns of Conza, Acerenza, and Werosa, and at the sources of the Brandano, they divide into two branches ; of which the E., extending first E. and then S. E., terminates at Capo de Leuca, oit; Corfu. The W. range runs between 419 and 39° N. lat., nearly S. S. E., and between 39° and 38° S. S. W., and terminates with the Capo dell'Armion the S. extremity of the Straits of Messina. The Northern Apennines, which, near the Pass of the Bocchetta, are of moderate height and breadth, occupy farther E. a greater space and rise to a higher elevation. The o: summits are between 10° and 11° E. long., where Monte Pellegrino rises to 5,161 f. and Monte §: mone to 6,975 f. Their northern declivity towards the plain of the Po is gradual and gentle; but towards the S. they lower with an abrupt and steep descent. On the S. they send off some lateral ranges, among which that which is called the Alpi Apnani is the most remarkable, and highest. It leaves the main range W. of Monte Pellegrino, and is separated from it by a considerable depression. It extends southward, and terminates at a short distance from the sea, near the towns of Massa and Carrara. It forms a mass of finely crystallised limestone nearly thirty miles long, and scarcely ever at a less elevation than 4,000 feet above the sea, rising often much higher, as in the Panni della Croce, at the S. extremity, 6,102 f., the Pizzo d'Ucello, at the N.W. end, 6,147 f., and Monte Sairo, near Carrara, 5,540 f. On the slope of the last-mentioned mountain the quarries are worked, from which, nearly for 2000 years, the finest marble has been extracted.

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