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earth, perhaps because, blowing in a horizontal direction, it is broken by the inequalities of the ground, and also, perhaps, because the few slight exhalations forced from the arid soil by the extreme heat, have power to counteract its virulence. Those who are rash errough to face it are suddenly suffocated ; and in the deserts, where the Simoom blows long and strongly, whole caravans have been buried joi the burning sands, which then rise in waves as high and strong as those of a stormy ocean. (Niebuhr, par. i. pp. 7, 8.) Natural Productions. – The also of soil and climate occasion much variety in the species and amount of the natural products of Arabia. othing can, perhaps, be more strongly contrasted than the vivid descriptions of the country by ancient and oriental writers, and the cold realities exhibited to the traveller or voyager who approaches its confines. Even on nearing the southern shore, the Arabia Felix, or terrestrial paradise of the ancients, the eye looks in vain for the beauty; nor is the smell gratified by the “Sabaean odours." which have been so vividly, but erroneously, described. A wide sandy beach, bounded in the distance by a range of mountains, dreary and unproductive, without a patch of verdure to relieve the eye, or a running stream to slake the thirst, or break the dull monotony of the view, constitutes the southern coast of Yemen. (Walentia, ii. p. 12.) The fertile spots, however, like the oases of the African deserts, are so luxuriant and beautiful, as in some measure to warrant the hyperbolical praises bestowed on the peninsula. In consequence, too, of the various circumstances of elevation, aspect, temperature, and moisture, there is no country whose productions are more numerous and varied. The sandy plains of the centre produce the same plants as N. Africa , — the mesanbryanthemum, aloe, euphorbium, stapela, and salsola ; plants which answer a wise purpose in these wastes, by alleviating the thirst of the calmel, during the painful journeys of the carawalls. The sea coast, consisting for the most part of arid sands, produces, in general, the same plants as the central deserts ; but wherever the Tchama is watered by rivulets descending from the mountains, or wherever the soil is subjected to occasional inundations, a very different scene is presented. Under these circumstances, a vegetation, luxuriant and diversified, is produced, the effect of which is the more striking, from the desolation with which it is surrounded. The valleys, too, in the mountains, exposed to the influence of the regular rains, and consequently abounding in rivulets, are the seats of an abundant vegetation. In such districts, the tamarind, cotton tree, sugar-cane, banana, nutmeg, betel, and every variety of melons and pumpkins are indigenous ; at all events they have grown there from the remotest antiquity (Strabo, lib. xvi. 16. cap. 3. pp. 704, et seq.; §y, Nat. Hist., lib. xii. cap. 8. p. 362. ; Ib. lib. xii. cap. 10. p. 363. ; 1b, lib. xix. cap. i. p. 4.), and continne to flourish in greater luxuriance than in any other part of the world, except in the similar soil and under the similar climate of N. Africa. Arabia produces several kinds of hard wood, of which the agallochum seems to be the same with the sandal wood of the East India islands; and it may be regarded as the native home of the date tree, the cocoa, and the fanleaved palm. Of other trees, there are the fig, orange, plantain, almond, apricot, acacia vera (producing the gum Arabic), quince, and vine. Among shrubs, the sensitive plant, castor-oil plant, and senna (both used in medicine); the globe amaranth, white lily, and pancratium (all distinguished for their fragrance); the aloe, styrax, and sesamum are very abundant. But, notwithstanding this variety of wood, although there are some groves or thickets on the mountain side, Arabia possesses no forest, !'...}. so called. The reason of this is obvious : the fertile, irrigated spots, small in extent, and scattered here and there, are surrounded by the sandy plain or granite rock, and, consequently, the formation of extensive woods becomes a matter of impossibility. (Niebuhr, par. i. pp. 127– 133.) Of Arab trees, the most worthy of notice are the coffee tree, and the tree producing the balm of Mecca, called, by the natives, Abu Scham (that is, the odoriferous tree). 130th are natives of Yemen, the coffee plantations being found chiefly on the W. slopes of the mountains, in that division of the peninsula. It is said that the Arabs have always prohibited the exportation of the coffee plant; but it is a well known fact that it was first introduced into the W. Indies from Arabia. The coffee of Yemen still, however, preserves its superiority, and fetches the highest price in the European imarkets. The balm of Mecca is the most fragrant and valuable of all the gum resins, but it is never met with pure out of Arabia, and there scarcely beyond the contines of Yemen. The merchants of Mocha convey it in great quantities to Mcdina, whence it is never czposted for the

purposes of external commerce till it have been consider. ably adulterated. (Niebuhr, par. i. p. 127 Among the natural productions is the singular substance called Manna, produced from a little thorny bush, which seems to be abundant in all the deserts and their neighbourhood, and exactly answers the description in Exodus xvi. and Numbers xi. Wherever water is found, or can be procured, the labour of the Arabian agriculturist is well répaid. Maize, wheat, dhourrah, barley, and millet cover the mountain sides of Yemen and other fertile parts, Indigo, tobacco, Uars, a plant yielding a yellow dye; Fuar, an herb which produces a red colour; together with many species of garden fruits and vegetables, are cultivated : but, in order to insure success in the cultivation beyond the districts watered by the scanty rivulets and torrents, much labour is required. It is true that the agricultural implements are of a very simple and primitive construction, but it is not in the use of these that the great labour of Arabian agriculture exists. Clannels and dykes have to be constructed to conduct the water to spots where none flows naturally, and to retain it there that it may fertilise them. Great reservoirs are formed, in which the abundant rains of the wet season are collected for future use. The coffee grounds and gardens on the mountain sides are supported by walls, to make their surface horizontal, and so prevent the escape of the moisture. Wells are dug at immense depths; and, in short, since it is upon the amount of irrigation that the productiveness of the soil depends, it is to the collection and just distribution of water that the cares of the cultivator, are principally directed ; and the nature of the Arabian climate and hydrography renders these cares in the highest degree laborious. (Niebuhr, par. i. pp. 134–152.) The fame of Arabia as the land of incense and perfumes, is of very old date. But it was long since suspected, and is now well known, that the srankincense, myrrh, and similar products with which it supplied the ancient world, were not all of its own growth, but were principally brought to its ports from Africa and so E. countries. (Niebuhr, par. i. p. 126. ; Palentia, i. p. 12.) he camel is to the Arabian what the rein-decr is to the Laplander. It has been justly called the “Ship of the Desert ;” and without it the Arab could never cross the seas of sand that fence his country. There are two species of this useful animal ; that used in Arabia and N. Africa has only one hump, while that found in 1’ersia and Bokhara has two. The latter is frequently called the Bactrian camel, and the Arabian species is sometimes called dromedary. This last name is, however, improperly lo, the Greek term 2; oux; (swift) being, most probably, unknown to the Arabians, while by the Greeks themselves it was applied to only one variety of the Arabian camel, distinguished by its greater speed from those best adapted to carrying burdens. ... (Diodorus Siculus, lib. iii. p. 125.) Arabia is generally regarded as the native country of the horse; and there are, perhaps, no breeds to be compared with those trained by the Bedouins of the desert. The horses are of two kinds : the one called Kadeschi, that is, of an unknown race, are used for the purposes of labour, reside in the towns, and are not more esteemed than the horses of Europe. But the true Arab steed, the horse of the desert, is said to be descended from the breed of Solomon this kind is called Kochlani, or horses of an ascertained race; and it is pretended that their genealogy has been preserved in the country for 2,000 years. (Nichuhr, par. i. pp. 142–144.) Horses are, however, by no means so numerous as has been supposed. In the settled districts the most common beasts of burden are oxen and camels (Nicbuhr, passin); and among the Bedouins the mare is rather a mark of distinction than a substantive part of her master's wealth. In many tribes (and those among the richest) not more than one mare to six or seven tents can be found ; in some of the W. districts there are many cncampments without a single horse or mare among them ; and when, in 1815, the S. tribes united against Mehemct Ali, out of an army of 25,000 men not more than 500 horsemen could be mustered. The Arab tribes richest in horses live without the limits of the peninsula, in the fertile plains of Mesopotamia, and in the plain country of Syria. Burckhardt thinks that the number of horses in Arabia does not exceed 50,000. (Notes on Bedouins, pp. 40. 115, et seq. 245–249.) The great cause of this scarcity is o the difficulty of providing food for the animal, especially, in the S. districts; but another cause, depending probably upon the first, is, that the Arabs almost uniformly ride their mares, and sell the horses to the town's-people. The horses that they reserve are merely for the purpose of breeding, and a gelding is rarely if ever seen in the desert. Although the Bedouin parts readily with the horses of his famous Kochlani breed, he o disposes of the mares until they become old, or are from some accident unfit for wār; and even then he contracts with the buyer to receive the first "k foaled of any mare that he 2

may sell, or to receive back the mare, the buyer retaining the filly. Sometimes the first two, three, or even four fillies are thus reserved to the seller ; and this, in Arab phraseology, is called selling a half, a third, or a fourth of the mare's belly. It is very rarely, indeed, that a Bedouin will part with a Kochlani mare except under such reservation of right in her future offspring. (Burckhardt's Notes on the Bedouins, pp. 117, 118, &c.) An Arab will sometimes take his mare a journey of several days, in order that she may breed by some celebrated horse; but, in general, the Bedouins are by no means, so particular in this respect as Europeans, and consider the good qualities of the colt to depend rather upon the dam than the sire. They never, however, willingly mix the Kochlani with the Kadeschi breed ; and if such mixture take place by accident, the colt is reckoned of the inferior race. In the towns, Kadeschi mares are coupled with Kochlami horses, but in this case, also, the offspring is accounted Kadeschi. (Niebuhr, par. i. p. 144.) Kochlani horses are mostly small, seldom above 14 hands high, of a delicate but extremely graceful form, and have all some characteristic beauty which distinguishes their breed from every other. ...This breed is subdivided into almost innumerable families ; for every mare distinguished for speed or lo may give rise to a new breed called after her. They all, however, belong to five great divisions, named after the favourite mares of Mohammed, Taneyse, Manekeye, Koheyl, Taklawye, and Dujlfe. The colt, when foaled, is not suffered to fall to the ground, but is received into the arms of attendants, and attended for a while as though it were a human infant Witnesses are assembled, before whom the genealogy of the colt is drawn out, and suspended to the animal's neck. A colt is not mounted till it is two years old, but from this time the saddle is rarely off its back ; it becomes the intimate companion of its master... sharing all his comforts (such as they are), and also all his privations. Pasture in the rainy season–barley and wheat when the lains are scorched by the tropical sun – date-paste, and ried clover when grain is scarce—form the variable diet of the Arab horse, in different districts and seasons. As long, too, as its master's camels can supply inilk, it receives its share, and the Bedouin most commonly gives the fragments of his own meal to the mare on which he rides. It is, moreover, a common practice, more especially in Nedsjed, to give horses' flesh, both raw and cooked, particularly before the commencement of a fatiguing journey. Like their mastors, the Arab horses live all the year iń the open air. With little grooming and attention to their health, they are seldom ill. Being constantly in the o of their masters, they become gentle, docile, and intelligent in a high degree : they are ridden without bits — generally, too, without stirrups; and instances of vice or ill-temper are almost unknown among them. (Niebuhr, par. i. pp. 141–143: ; Burckhardt, Notes on Bedouins, pp. 115-123. 246–256.) The other domestic animals are oxen, generally of a humped kind, like those of Syria; sheep, one variety of "... have extremely thick and broad tails ; goats and asses, of which last there are two varieties – one not differing from those of Europe, the other large, courageous, and more desirable for a journey than even the horse. From these asses a breed of very valuable mules is procured. The buffalo, o common in Egypt, Syria, and on the banks of the Euphrates and Tigris, that is, all round the confines of Arabia, is not found within its limits ; at least Niebuhr did not meet with it, and no other writer mentions the animal, except in one or two instances, when the o Syrian ox seems to have been mistaken for the buffalo he latter requires a moist pasture and a plentiful supply of water. ence it is found on the banks of the Nile and the Orontes, though in the close neighbourhood of parched deserts : but the want of water in Arabia clearly renders that country unfit for its location. Among the wild animals are the jackal, hyaena, several kinds of asses, the jerboa, wolf, fox, boar, and panther. Besides these, there are several kinds of antelopes; the goat runs wild among the mountains, and wild oxen and asses are to be met with in the plains. Domestic poultry is very plentiful in all the fertile districts, and the plains are filled with partridges, the woods with guinea fowl, and the mountain sides with pheasants. But the most celebrated bird is one of the thrush kind, called by the natives Samar-mog, which comes in flocks every year from Persia, and commits great devastation among the flights of locusts. For this important service it is held in a degree of respect, amounting almost to adoration, The ostrich wanders in the sandy deserts, and is called by the Arabs Thar-edsjammel, that is, camel bird. It is, certainly, a remarkable circumstance, that in a country lying on both sides the tropic there should be no great abundance of insects; yet this appears to be the case. Ali Bey, speaking of Hedjaz, says, “There are few flies, and no gnats or other insects.” (Travels, ii. pp. 45. 118.)

The locust is, however, one of the scourges of Arabia, though even this pest seems to be less destructive here than in the o countries of Syria and Persia. The esculent locust is sold in the markets, and is esteemed a great delicacy. (Rochart, Hierozoicon, par. i. lib. iv. cap. 6. p. 45.) These destructive ravagers come to Arabia from different quarters: a S.W. wind brings them from the Libyan desert to the shores of Yemen and Hedjaz : a N.W. wind hurls them upon Oman and Lachsa, from Persia and Mesopotamia ; and a wind from the N.E. frequently overwhelms Nedsjed with this o: from . They seem, however to be confined to their several localities, perhaps from inability to pass the interior deserts: for the W. flight, as it may be called, or that from the African shores, never passes the mountains of Yemen, and commonly retraces its route on the day following its first appearance. No part of the year seems to be peculiarly exposed to or exempted from this plague. Niebuhr noticed locust flights in the months of January, May, June, July, November. and December. In one of these, the Red Sea between Mocha and the ote coast of Africa was covered with their dead bodies. of the reptile tribes, land and sea turtles are very numerous: there are also several species of serpents, one of which, very small, and covered with white blotches, is o, venomous, its bite being instantly mortal. The guaris, a large lizard, is said by Bochart, on the authority of Karwyni and Abdollatis, two native writers, to be equal in size and strength to the crocodile. (Hierozoicon, par. i. lib. iv. cap. 3. p. 1070.) All the coasts abound in fish ; recss of coral and madrepore extend along the shores of the Red Sea, and the pearl oyster is abundant in the Persian Gulph. (Niebuhr, par. i. pp. 142–159.) Minerals are scarce : , but this may proceed from a want of industry or skill in working mines. The mountains, of an old formation, are precisely those in which the precious metals are found, and the unanimous voice of antiquity proclaims this country as the land of gold and gems, as well as of incense and perfumes. Niebuhr affirms, however, that no gold is found, and that only a small portion of silver is found mixed with lead in the mountains of Oman. There are some iron mines in the N. of Yemen, but the metal they yield is brittle and of little worth ; and with regard to gems, it is now well known that the agate called Mocha-stone and the Arabian cornelian come from India; and there is nothing to contradict the presumption that the other gems for which Arabia was formerly distinguished, were derived from the same source. he onyx, however, is found in Yemen, and an inferior emerald. The other minerals are basalt, blue alabaster, several kinds of spars and selenite. (Niebuhr, par. i. pp. 123–125.) Population, Manners, and Customs of Arabia. — The native Arab has always been an object of interest and curiosity to the rest of the world. Descended from the same stock with the Jews, he has preserved his race almost as unmixed, and traces up his genealogy to Abraham through Ishmael, with the same pride as his congenitor looks up to the same patriarch through his lawful but . offspring Isaac. Through all the centuries which ave passed over his head, he has preserved the character given to his infant ancestor in the wilderness. The desert has continued his home; he has been a man of war from his youth – “his hand against every man, and every man's hand against his.” The descendants of Ishmael were by no means, however, the first inhabitants of Arabia; and though the various eastern traditions on the subject are too numerous and too involved to be here stated, it seems pretty certain that the Arabs of the towns and those of the descrt owed their origin to different ancestors — that the settled population on the coasts are descended from a more ancient, if not an aboriginal race, while the wild horseman and shepherd of the waste is the descendant of the discarded son of Abraham. Between these a marked and striking difference has existed throughout the historic period ; and not only is this the case, but each class seems to have retained pretty nearly the same distinguishing features which marked it in the earliest times. The carayans from Mocha and Sanaa still convey the produce of the South to Turkey, Egypt, Syria, and Persia (Niebuhr, par. i. p. 126.) as they did 2,500 years ago (Pliny, Nat. Hist. lib. vi. cap. 28.), though the Arab merchant be not so important a character in this commercial age, as when it could be said of him that “he must, of necessity, be exceeding rich ; for with him the Itoman and the Parthian leave large sums of gold and silver for the products of his woods and seas, which he sells to them without buying anything in return.” (Pliny, l. vi. § 28.) The Bedouins, too, or Scentar, are described by Pliny as living in the black hair-cloth tents, under which they shelter themselves at present; and he expresses his astonishment at the fact, that, being so numerous a race, the half of them, at least, should live by plunder. (Nat. Hist., 1. vi. § 28.)

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Though the younger race, the Bedouins account themselves the more noble ; and the Arab is prouder of his rank than the native of any other country in the world. They have no titles of nobility, excepting such as refer to religious or political offices. The Bedouin has no idea of rank depending upon letters patent of a caliph or sultan ; all men descended srom the same ancestor are, in his estimation, equal in rank; and hence the preservation of their genealogies is a matter of extreme care. Among their great houses, those descended from the Prophet hold the first rank; then those whose ancestors diverged the latest from the common stock; the lowest place being seemingly assigned to those, who trace their floo to Acc, the second son of Adnam, thus divergng from the ...}. stock in the first accredited geoak, ntrod. Koran, p. 9. ; Niebuhr, par. i. pp. 9, 10.

According to Niebuhr, the Bedouins are, now, the only true Arabs,-the inhabitants of the cities and coasts being, in consequence of their commerce, so mixed with strangers, that they have lost much of their ancient manners and customs; whereas, the Bedouins (les wrais Arabes) have always looked more to their liberties than their ease or riches, and continue to live in separate tribes, under tents, preserving, in the present day, the same manners and customs which distinguished their forefathers in the most remote times. (Par. ii. p. 327.) Niebuhr enumerates above a hundred Bedouin tribes, each under its own particular sheikh or sheriff; these are not, however, all found within the limits of the peninsula, but extend over Syria, the plain country between the Euphrates and the Tigris, and even from the left bank of the latter river into Persia. There are, however, two classes of Bedouins ; the Ahl-el-Abaar (true, noble Arabs) who live entirely by pasturage and plunder, and those tribes, who, finding an so of the countr fitted for agriculture, bestow i. abour on the ground, an occupation which the true Bedouin considers far beneath him. This second class of Arabs is called Macdan, and it seems to hold an intermediate place between the Noble-Shepherd (Ahl-el-Abaar) the peasant of other countries. Mr. Buckingham, who remarks this distinction in their occupations, does not, however, use the terms Ahl-el-Abaar and Moedan, to distinguish them, but calls the first race Khyali, the other Fellaheen. (Travels, p. 87.)

The Bedouin tribes who inhabit the open country between the Euphrates and Tigris, extend as far north as Orfa and Diarbekr. They are under the nominal sovereignty of the Turkish pachas of Bagdad, Mcussul, and Orfa; their sheikhs frequently receive the Tajk, or horse's tail, from the grand signor; but it appears that the bestowal, and the acceptance of this mark of dignity is almost the only assertion on the one hand, or acknowledgment on the other, of supremacy or subordination that is ever attempted or conceded; except in occasional instances, when direct force has ão a sheikh, and appointed another in his place, without, in the slightest degree changing the relative position of the tribe and its so-called sovereign pacha.

The Bedouins .*. Syrian desert are rather more closely connected with the pachas of Syria, inasmuch as the necessity of protecting the trade between Aleppo and Damascus on the W., and Bagdad and Balsora on the E., has caused the employment of the various Arab tribes as a kind of irregular soldiery; and the bestowal of the rank of emir on the reigning sheikh of the most powerful tribe for the time being. This emir sheikh (in consideration of his rank) is obliged to conduct the caravans in safety through the desert, and to hold in check any or all of the other tribes. “We may easily judge,” says Niebuhr (Des. de l'Ar. par. ii. p. 339.), “that this is not done for nothing.” In fact, if it happen, as it not unfrequently does, that the pacha is unable to fulfil his engagements with the sheikh, he is compelled to cede to him such towns and villages as border on his encampment; and thus to make him, in effect, the master of the settled, as well as of the open country. The tribe of Anoese is the most considerable of all the Syrian Arabs. It has frequently been at war, with the pachas of Damascus; and, at such times, the departure of the caravans from that city for Bagdad has been delayed; and the reason, openly assigned, that the Arabs of Syria were discontented with the pacha.

The Bedouins, within the peninsula, do not acknowledge a sovereignty of any kind, except in their native chiefs. They are very numerous in Nedsjed, and are scattered among the settled population in all the other provinces. The most powerful tribe of any in Arabia is, perhaps, that of Beni-Khaled ; it inhabits that part of the desert which borders on the Persian Gulph, and has under its dominion not only many smaller tribes, but also most of the towns and villages of Lachsa. The reigning sheikh passes a portion of each year in these towns; but by far the greater part is spent in the open country, under tents.

The form of government among the Bedouins is strictly

patriarchal, and their manner of living is that of the pastoral ages recorded in the Bible. The head of a tribe receives a submission from his subjects, similar to that which a father receives from his family; and, in the East, that submission is unbounded. There is, however, a check upon the abuse of power in the sovereign sheikh, which, though indirect, is by no means weak. Since every tribe consists of many branches, the various heads of these sub-tribes, as they may be called, form a powerful restraint upon the chief; and should he become unpopular, though direct opposition to his will is never attempted, the discontented branch not unfrequently leaves his encampment, and either forms itself into a new tribe, or, if not powerful enough for that, joins itself to the tents of some other powerful sheikh. Instances have been known in which a Bedouin chief has been entirely deserted, and thus the names of several tribes have vanished. As, however, the pride of tribe is strong in every Arab breast, this expedient is only resorted to in the last, extreme ; but the assumption of supremacy by some subordinate branch, is frequent enough to render the continuance of the sovereignty of the tribe of Montefidsj in the same family, since the days of Mohammed, a remarkable circumstance. The preservation of their herds being the first care of the Bedouins, a wandering life seems awarded to them by nature; the search for proper pasturage leads from place to place in their extensive country, according as the desert has become temporarily fruitful under the influence of the tropical rains, or has been burnt up by the continued . action of a tropical sun. Accustomed to live in a clear air, their sight and smell become extremely fine, insomuch that, on arriving at a spot which affords nourishment, however, scantily, to .. or herbage, they can at once determine at what depth water is to be found, and, consequently, whether it be worth the labour of digging for. Accustomed to privations, the Bedouin is temperate from habit as well as from disposition, and can almost emulate the endurance of his camels, which, in the burning desert, live five days without drink. Robbery is an honourable occupation among these wanderers, but the Arab boasts of being the most refined and civilised of thieves. His robberies are never attended with violence, except in the case of violent opposition ; and, as he considers his country as sacred ground, he regards the plunder of the pilgrim caravan as the mere levying of tribute, or payment, for permission to pass through it. If the right to this tribute be recognised, and the permission to pass through the country purchased, the bargain is never violated on the part of the Bedouin; strict faith being one of the best points of his character, as his deadly spirit of revenge is, perhaps, the worst. . This spirit is very easily excited ; and, once aroused, descends frequently from generation to generation : the duty of pursuing the quarrels of his father being regarded as a sacred part of the Arab's inheritance. According to the Koran (chap. ii. p. 20.), whoever sheds blood, owes blood to the family of the slain; but the same law allows, and even recommends, a commutation, by way of fine. If this be not accepted, retaliation is wed to the injured family; but, as this usually exceeds the offence, new cause of hatred and revenge is #. till a single (perhaps accidental) murder puts Hood, in Arab phraseology, between whole families for" ever. But the irascibility of the Arab requires no such serious offence as the death of a relative to rouse it into action. A slighting expression, or an insulting sarcasm, is sometimes sufficient to put blood between two families. * Your turban is filthy,” is frequently answered by a death-blow ; and instances are on record where, for an offence as slight, the offender has been pursued for years, and fallen, perhaps in old age, at last, for the insult offered by him in his youth. Niebuhr reports, that a noble Arab being asked, scoffingly, if he were the father of the handsome wife of a person mamed, construed the question into a sneer upon his daughter's virtue. Being unarmed at the moment, the offender escaped ; and the father spent years in vainly pursuing him, during which, however, he killed both the parents, and many relations of the scoffer, his slaves, his cattle, and reduced him to the verge of beggary. The offence was at last commuted by an enormous fine. (Niebuhr, par. i. pp. 27, 28. ; Burckhardt, Not. on Bed., pp. 84–89. 177. 184. 209. A relief to this dark shade in the Arab's character is found in his hospitality. In many of the towns where the population is most unmixed, houses of entertainment are kept at the public expense, or at that of some rich individual, where the traveller is fed and sheltered without charge. But, in the desert, o is a part of the Bedouin's nature; and though the influence of foreign manners has, upon the Hadj roads, considerably dimmed the lustre of this virtue, yet even there a helpless, solitary traveller, is sure of finding relief, though the assembled Hadjis should crave in vain for assistance or mercy. In districts off the Iladj roads, that is, over much the greater portion of the descrt, the Bedouin considers his property less "khis own than as that of the 3

casual stranger he may meet ; however hungry, he shares his last morsel with the wayfarer; and sacrifices which he would not make for himself or his family, are made unhesitatingly for the wants of his guest. The inhabitants of the towns have fewer points of interest than the Bedouins. Niebuhr (par. ii. p. 327.) says they have lost much of their distinctive character ; and other travellers speak of them, as having superadded the vices of civilised society to those of a savage state. “Superstitious, yet irreligious ; performing all the rites of their faith, yet living in the practice of every vice, natural and unnatural. Hypocrites by profession, preferring a lie to the truth; even when not urged by motives of interest, deceit forms a part of their education from youth. Their governments are systems of extortion and tyranny: their traders are fraudulent, corrupt, and dishonest overreachers ; the individuals of their communities are sunk into the lowest state of ignorance and debauchery.” Such is the character given of the town Arabs by Lord Valentia (ii. 354, 355.), and a similar picture is unwillingly exhibited by Niebuhr (par. ii. pp. 180–190.). Ali Bey, Burckhardt, and Buckingham, passim. In prosperous times, the right of entertaining a guest is frequently disputed; and should a stranger reach the encampment unobserved, it is reckoned an affront if he pass the first tent on his right hand, and enter another. In many tribes the women are permitted to drink coffee with strangers; and in some, towards the S., the wife entertains a guest in the abscnce of her husband, and does the honours of the tent. To tell an Arab that he neglects his guest, is the greatest insult that can be offered. (Niebuhr, par. i. pp. 41–43. ; Burckhardt's Not. on Bed., pp. 100–102. 192–199.) The superiority of the Bedouins appears to be admitted by the town residents; for the descendants of Mohammed, resident at Mecca, send their male children, eight days after birth, to the tents of the neighbouring Bedouins, where they remain till they are 8 or 10, and frequently 14 or 15 years old. All sheriffs (descendants of the #o. rom the sovereign downwards, have been thus bred ; and, as they usually take wives from the tents where they have §o educated, they preserve the race and many of the customs of the Bedouins, in the midst of the mixed population by which they are surrounded. This custom is very ancient among the pure Arabs. Mohammed, himself, was educated in the Bedouin tribe of Beni Saad. (Burckhardt's Travels, vol. ii. K. 424–428.) The Arabs are of a middle height, generally extremely thin, and when either very young, or far advanced in life, of a highly prepossessing appearance. The mild but expressive countenance of an Arab boy, and his dark, sparkling eye, are spoken of in terms of admiration by all travellers. As he reaches manhood, however, a very disadvantageous change takes place; his mea.’re figure becomes still more attenuated, and seems as though it were parched and shrivelled up. The very splendour of the eye, buried between high cheek bones, apparently destitute of every covering except the tightened skin, is then rather a deformity. But, in old age, the Arab is truly venerable. The fine dark eye contrasts admirably with the long white beard; and the emaciation which middle life, seems to intimate premature decay, as lates well with the closing scenes of exist There are exceptions, however, to this general descr Aeneze Bedouins are generally short, well formed, and by no means so thin as the majority of their countrymen. The lower orders, in Mecca, are generally stout. The Arab women are stouter than the men, and i. limbed. The complexion of the Bedouins is tawny, but this is cvidently the effect of their exposed life; an effect which the same exposure would produce upon the most N. }. le. At the time of birth the infant is fair, even of a ivid whiteness; and Burckhardt, who, as a physician, saw the naked arms of a sheik's lady, states that her skin was as fair as that of any European. Lord Valentia makes the same remark regarding the wives and daughters of an Arab of 1)jidda. (iii. 308.) In the towns, the Arabs may be described as fair, especially in the mountain districts. 13ut this remark must be understood as limited to those of pure descent: on the coasts, and in the towns of Mecca, Medina, &c., the ailing colour is a sickly, yellowish brown, lighter or according to the origin of the mother; Wi. is, in , perhaps in most cases, an Abyssinian slave. (Nichohr, par. i. p. 41. ; Ali Bey, vol. ii. pp. 103. 106. ; Burckhardt, i. p. 322. ; ii. p. 240. ; Notes on Bedouins,

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wear a kombar, or long gown of silk or cotton stuff, and the poorer classes a woollen mantle, is the usual costume. The mantle is of various kinds: one, very thin, light, and white, is called mesourny; a coarser and heavier kind, worn over the former, is called abba. In some cases, however, this last is a very splendid garruent. It is usually striped white and brown, but the

rich Arab o clothes himself in a black abba, interwoven w gold, in preference to the koobar, or Turkish gown. The abba is not used in the W. districts, Yemen and Hedjaz. In the towns, large cotton drawers are worn by the men; but these rarely form a o of the Bedouin's dress, among whom any coverng for the feet or legs is almost unknown. Though they walk and ride barefoot, they greatly value yellow boots and red shoes; but more as articles of ornament than use. A very rude kind of sandal is worn by the lower orders in the settled parts of the country, and the more wealthy inhabitants of the same districts use a slipper of yellow or red leather, sometimes vory elaborately worked, brought from Egypt or Turkey. The head-dress is a turban, varying in form, size, and material, according to the taste or wealth of the wearer. Among those who would pass for men of superior learning and attainments. the turban is ridiculously large. The wealthy classes wear shawls, wrought with gold and silver, on their heads ; and certain colours are restricted to certain families, as green to the descendants of Mohammed, black to the houses of Abbas, &c. The women's dress is a gown or shift of most ample dimensions; which, in the tents, and among the middle and poorer classes in the towns, is of cotton ; but the more wealthy of the townswomen use silk. Qver this is worn a robe of Indian cotton; and this, with a handkerchief on the head, and sometimes very full trousers, completes the ordinary in-door dress of an Arab female. The women enjoy more liberty in Arabia than in any other Mohamme dàn country, but still the veil is indispensable in the streets. A cloak or scarf of blue and white striped linen is worn with much grace, the arrangement and placing of which is an important part of the tactics of Arab coquetry. Rings, §ol. of silver, are worn in the ears and noses of the women ; and tatooing of the face, arms, breast, and ankles is very common with both sexes; as is also painting, not to assist but to disguise nature; the face and hands being frequently daubed over with black, blue, and yellow, the first colour being esteemed a beauty on the cyclids, the last on the teeth. (North, , par. i. pp. 54–6i.; Burckhardt's Travels, vol. i. pp. 334 –3:0. ; Notes on Isedouins, pp. 26–29. 131–133. ; Ali Bey, vol. ii. pp. 105, 1(6.) le Arabs are proverbially abstemious. Even the wealthy classes drink little else than water, and live principally (next to dates) upon a coars; bread made of dhourrah, steeped in camel's milk, and saturated with butter. There is no want of animal food, but very little is consumed. The butchers in the towns on the Red Sea are foreigners, and depend entirely on the influx of strangers. Among the Bedouins, if a man of rank arrive at an encampment, a kid or lamb is killed, and being boiled is served up in a paste made of dried wheat, camel's milk, butter, and the fat of the animal. Sometimes, but yery rarely, a camel is killed, and on such occasions the w hole tribe meet together at the repast. In the S. districts, the Bedouins occasionally eat horse flesh. This is not, however, a matter of choice. It sometimes occurs, especially in the interior of the desert, or in times of scarcity, that not a single measure of corn can be found among a whole tribe. It is only under such circumstances of necessity that the Bedouin has recourse to a diet of milk and flesh alone ; and there are many tribes (especially in the N. and near the larger towns) who, like the settled population, scarcely know the taste of animal food. Bosides the ayesh, the dish already described, rice, boiled with camel's milk, is a common article of food, as also dhourrah bread, butter, and dates, blended together into a paste; there are also many preparations of various vegetables, among which the kernmaye, or desert plant, of the trusile kind, is a great favourite with the Bedouins ; but wherever dates grow, or can be procured, that fruit constitutes the chief diet of both tent and town. The date palm flourishes where most other vegetation withers, and is peculiarly abundant in the sands of Arabia. The fruit continues in season about two months, or from the end of June to the end of August ; and, during this period. the new fruit forms a part, in some cases the whole, of the daily food of the Arabs. When the dates are sully ripe, they are gathered, pressed into a hard solid paste or cake. This paste, which is called adjome, is in lumps of about 2 cwts. each. The adjoue forms a part of the daily food of all people for the remainder of the year; and thus the date palm is to Arabia what the bread corns are to European nations. A joue is an article both of export and import, considerable quantities being taken to Hindoestan, while the kind most esteemed in the Hedjaz is imported from the Persian Gulph. Arab cookery is extremely friant, more so than even the Italian ; but no oil is used for culinary purposes, except in frying fish. I5utter is their universal sauce, and of it the consumption is immense ; their vegetable dishes all float in butter; with it they work their adjoue into a proper consistency; dried corn, or bread crumbs, boiled in butter, is a common breakfast with all classes; and in the desert, the kemmayes are prepared for use in the same manner. In short, butter may be said to be to the Arab what the potato is to the Irishman : it forms an indispensable part of his diet; and, besides the various forms in which it is taken with other articles, it is a common practice with both Bedouins and townspeople to drink a coffee-cup full of butter every morning; the former, and the lower orders of the latter, adding another half cup, which — to the disgust of strangers — they snuff up their nostrils : Arab butter is made from the milk of sheep and goats, that of camel's not being used for that purpose. The home supply is not ..., sufficient for the o and butter consequently forms an important article of importation. It is bro { from the opposite coast of Africa, chiefly from j, Massouah, and Upper Egypt. Sallads are unknown. Coffee is used to a great extent, though scarcely so much as might be expected ; and tobacco is smoked universally by young and old. The Arabs feed sitting, or, rather, reclining on the ground ; they use neither knife nor fork, but divide and take up the food with their fingers. This practice, notwithstanding what has been said in its extenuation (see Niebuhr, par. i. p. 47.), is very disgusting to a European. he hands are carefully washed before eating ; but (among the Bedouins, at least,) rarely after. The common hour of breakfast is 10 in the morning ; of dinner, sunset: and at these two, which are the only meals, they eat heartily. The women feed apart from the men; and, in the desert, their repast consists of the remains of that of the men. (Niebuhr, par. i. pp. 45–52. ; Burckhardt's Notes on Bedouins, pp. 32–36. 135–138. ; Travels, i. pp. 47–56. ; Lord J'alentia, ii. p. 351.) The Arabs are healthy, and instances of longevity are more frequent among them than most E. nations. The diseases to which they are most subject are, an induration and obstruction of the stomach—said to be caused by the camel's milk which they drink, and leprosy. Like the Jews, they regard the latter as a visitation from heaven; and believe that, once confirmed in a family, it can never be eradicated: it is considered as disgraceful in the highest degree, and the unfortunate leper is completely shut out from society. The other diseases to which the Arabs are chiefly exposed are, the small-pox, severs, ophthalmia, and worms. The method of treatment is, in all cases, extremely simple: but few internal medicines are administered, and those chiefly aperient simples. In slight cases of disorder, or, as a prevention, o rub the body with oil (sometimes of a very offensive kind) or butter. In severe cases they sear the parts affected with red-hot iron ; and Niebuhr, who saw this severe remedy applied to a boy who complained of the cholic, remarks, that “if he did not complain again of his first suffering, it probably was because the remedy was so much more painful.” Disorders of the teeth are very rare, and among the Bedouins unknown. The women suffer little in child-birth ; and such is the general health of the people, that the profession of medicine is unprofitable, and at a low ebb. Some surgeons can set a limb, but these are principally Jews. ... Chronic disorders are but little known ; and acute diseases either yield to the rough treatment, before described, or carry off the patient. As the Bedouin, from his mode of life, is more exposed to casualties than the townsman, instances of long iife are less frequent in the desert than in the settled districts. (Niebuhr, par. o: 114-122. ; Burckhardt, Notes on Bed. pp. 52–56. ; Palentia, ii. 350.) All household duties and menial offices devolve upon the women. This arrangement falls heavier on the Bedouin females than on those of the town, the latter having merely to attend their husbands within doors; and where slaves are kept, this is little more than superintendence. But the Bedouin women perform all the laborious out-door occupations, fetching water from the wells, driving the flocks to the pasture, and bringing them back to the tents at night ; while the men, during their stay in the encampment, spend their entire time in utter listlessness, or, at best, in playing at a sort of draughts. This indolence within doors is a part of the Arab character. A merchant or shopkeeper in the towns, returning from his daily avocations, undresses himself, changes his shirt, and, with no other covering, sits for hours upon his carpet, in the projection of his latticed window. The women, according to Ali Bey, are also frequently seen at the front windows, unveiled; and sometimes entirely undressed (Travels, vol. ii. p. 105.) : but the usual apartments of the females are in the back part of the house. The parental character is highly respected; though the Arab children, both in the towns and in the desert, have more freedom than in any other E. country. The Bedouin child runs naked, in the open country, round his father's tent; and at Mecca, Djidda, and other towns, the children, even of the better classes; are allowed to play in

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the streets, as soon as they can walk, nearly in the same

rimitive state. But, within doors, the strictest decorum s observed, a boy never presuming to eat in his father's

resence, unless expressly invited. It would seem,

owever, that this is little better than mere ceremony; for, when emancipated from his father's authority, the young Arab pays him little deference, and instances are not uncommon where the old man, having fallen into poverty, is left by his, Fo wealthy, son, to struggle with distress, or to seek for assistance at th. hands of strangers. An old Bedouin is sometimes supported by the charity of the whole tribe; and the daily quarress between the father and his adult sons form one of the most revolting features in the Bedouin character. On the other hand, however, it should be stated that the Arab, young or old, invariably treats his mother with the most respectful attention. This fact is the more remarkable as contrasted with the little estimation in which the female parent is held in other E. countries ; and as combined wo, the fact that, in Arabia, the facility of divorce (see Laws, &c.) tends naturally to loosen every tie that connects families. (Niebuhr, par. i. pp. 44, 45. : Burkhardt's Travels, i. p. 340. ; Notes on Bost. pp. 65, 66. 199—-203.) The Arab has a grave deportment, but a lively imagination : he is a stranger to gaiety, in the European sense of the word, but the silent reserve of most other E. nations is equally unknown : he delights in public meetings — especially on occasions of weddings, births, and the like ; his language is animated and picturesque ; he is intuitively a poet and orator, and is extravagantly fond of music. In a word, the demeanour of the Arab may be characterised as a serious cheerfulness, equally removed from boisterous mirth on the one hand, and dull apathy on the other. One of the chief amusements is listening to the recitations or songs of poets, by profession, who travel from town to town, or from encampment to encampment, after the fashion of the bards and minstrels of Gothic Europe, accompanying their verses, usually in praise of some native hero, with the nebaba, a kind of guitar. Niebuhr affirms, (Poyage en Arabic, ii. |. 134.) that it is reckoned scandalous in people of credit to practise music ; and Burckhardt (Notes on Bedouins, p. 143.) states, that, in most districts, slaves only perform before company. This contempt for instrumental music does not, however, extend to vocal performances: songs, or chanted poems, form the great delight of the Arabs. Love odes, closely resembling the similar productions of the Trobadours and Provincials of the middle ages, are in every mouth. Dancing is reckoned disgraceful in a man, but a woman piques herself upon nothing more than skill in that art. heir ordinary amusements, beyond those now mentioned, are of a sedentary and indolent kind. The military, indeed, and the young Bedouins, practise the Djireed, and other warlike sports ; but unless particularly excited, the Arab, both of the town and desert, employs his leisure in smoking, or in playing games of chance — of which chess, draughts, and cards are the principal. The cards in use are similar to those of the Chinese, which are much more numerous than those of Europe; and the games, also, are more intricate and involved. The Mohammedan law prohibits playing for money, but this prohibition is not always attended to. Nicbuhr, Voyage en Arabie, tom. i. pp. 141–152. ;

urckhardt, Notes on Bed., p. 202. ; Travels, i. 377. ; Lord Halentia, vol. ii. p. 308.) All public occasions are festivals to the Arabs. The poorest will make his marriage a gala day; but the greatest family festival is that of the circumcision of an infant : on such occasions the greatest efforts are made to give a handsome entertainment. In the desert it is usually so arranged that all who have families perform the ceremony on the same day, which is consequently one of great festivity. The religious festivals and the saints' days—which are very numerous — are also days of sport and rejoicing. On such occasions, the town Årabs affect great splendour in appearance, and a person would rather be thought a thief than allow one of his equals to exceed him in finery. The Bedouin, also, on such occasions, loads his wife with gold and silk, but seems little careful as to what appearance he may make. Ali Bey affirms that the people of Mecca are the dullest and most melancholy he ever saw ; that their marriages and births are unaccompanied by rejoicings, and that the arrival of the Hadj is the only thing that rouses them from their lethargy; and that it is rather an incentive to avarice than pleasure. (Ali Bey, ii. pp, 103, lll: ; Burckhardt, i. p. #. Notes on Best., pp. 50, 51. 147, 148.) Mohammed found the slave-trade so firmly established in Arabia, that he made no effort to abolish it and throughout the peninsula there are a great number of black slaves, Africans, or the descendants of Africans, or mixed races, besides a great number of free blacks, the offspring of emancipated negroes. The great slavedealers are the Yemen and Muscat merchants, who annually import fresh supplies from the coast of Africa. In the towns, especially "K" oi die Hedjaz, every man,

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