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in several districts. This country is, besides, remarkable for the great number of large lakes which are met with over its whole surface. The most remarkable are the Balkash, which is said to extend from 120 to 140 miles from N. to S., the Issekul or Temurti, which is half as long, the Ala-kul, Zaisan, Kijilbash Noðr, Ike-Aral Noðr, Ubra Noðr, and a great number of smaller ones. Except the Zaisan, they have no outlets, and the water of none of them arrives at the sea. Another remarkable circumstance is the occurence of volcanoes, at a distance of about 1,000 miles from the sea. For, besides the volcanoes noticed in the Thian-Shan range, there occur others to the N. of the chain, and one is found on an island in the Lake of Ala-kul. Not far from the S. extremity of the Tartash-i-ling (between 359 and 36° N. lat.) another, mountain-range, running E. and W., is connected with it. This chain is called, by the Chinese geographers, Kuen-luen, or Kulkun. W. know very little of it, except that it stretches over the whole breadth of the great table-land, and nearly in the middle of its extent (about 92° E; long.) divides into two ranges, of which that which declines somewhat to the N. is called Nan-Shan, and is probably connected with the In-shan by the Ala-Shan, a range of mountains off along the banks of the !. where it flows N. he other branch of the Kuen-luen, which declines somewhat to the S., is called the Bayan Kara mountains, and frequently also the Kuen-luen, and unites with the Yun-ling about 33° N. lat. Nothing else is known of these ranges, except that they rise to a great height, and sn many parts are covered with snow all the year round ; whence they frequently are called Siue-mountains (snow-mountains) by the Chinese. The immense tract of country which lies to the N. of this range (on the W. between it and the Thian-Shan, and on the E. between it and the Altai Mountains,) is known by the name of Cobi, or more properly Gobi (the desert in the Mongolic language), or Shamo (Sand-sea in Chinese). But the whole of this tract is not a desert. The W. portion of it, between 72° and 96° E. long., or between the Thian-Shan and Kuen luen, is only from 300 to 400 m. across, and nearly 1,200 m. in length. Here we find a tract of country from 50 to 80 m. across, along the foot of the Thian-S range, fertile in many districts, producing different kinds of grain, cotton, wine, and fruit, or covered with nourishing grass. Through this tract runs the great commercial road, which connects W. Asia with the more eastern countries, and here are situated the commercial towns of Khasghar, Aksu, Kutshë, Karashar, Turfan, and Khamil, or Hami. The W. portion (between 72° and 77° E. long.) is also not a desert. Though the tracts separating the rivers are steppes, i. e. plains without trees, and producing only a coarse grass, the lands bordering the banks of the watercourses are fertile in grain and cotton. Here is the town of Yarkand, and, towards the Kuen-luen, Khotun, through which two places a road runs, which connects N. Asia with India. It is 'pool that the term cotton is derived from the name of the last-mentioned town. The remainder of this region is a desert, and mostly of the worst kind, where the sandy surface, according to a Chinese author, moves like the waves of the sea. This desert is sometimes distinguished }}...". name of Shashin, or the Gobi of Lop Noðr. he Lop Noðr is one of the extensive lakes without an outlet, which §§". are met with in this desert. It receives from the W. the Erghengol, or river of Yarkand, which runs probably not less than 1,000 miles. This part of the Great Tableland is supposed to be between 4,000 and 5,000 ft. above the sea-level. It seems, that under the meridian of Khamil (960 E. long.) the desert is narrowed to about 150 miles across by the fertile districts of Tangut, which skirt the N. declivity of the mountains of Nan-shan, and protrude far northward into the desert. The desert, dividing it from Khamil, and called Gobi of Tangut, is also less level, more o: and better adapted for pasture, than farther E. or W. Hence the Chinese government has extended its N.W. prov. of Kansi, through this desert to the N. side of the Thian-Shan mountains. The Great Desert, Ta-Gobi, extends from the eastern extremity of the Thian-Shan (96° E. long.) to the KhingKhan (120° E. long.), "...# 1,200 miles in length, and its width between the Altai range on the N., and the Nan-Shan, Ala-Shan, and In-Shan, on the S., varies between 500 and 700 miles. Through the middle of this tract extends, in the whole of its length, what is properly called the Shamo (Sand Sea). It is from 150 to 250 miles across; and in it sand almost exclusively covers the surface, which commonly is level, but in some places rises into hills, on which masses of loose stone are met with. Small and shallow lakes are frequent, but their water is either salt or bitter. The vegetation is very scanty, and affords but indifferent pasture. In a few places a small number of stunted trees are met with. This part of the Gobi is about 3,000 ft. above the *
sea-level, but it sinks in some places even to 2,600 ft. In those parts of the Gobi, which lie to the N. and S. of the Shamo, the surface is between 3,000 and 4,000 ft. above the sea. Here it is not, in general, covered with sand, but with gravel and pebbles, and is in many places rocky. The vegetation is much more vigorous, and the pastures consequently richer. It is even thought that, in many districts, agriculture would succeed, if the Nomadic nations inhabiting these countries would attend to it; and in some districts which border on China, millet is grown abundantly, and even wheat and barley, though not to a great extent. Trees are also met with, as well on the N. as on the S. of the Shamo, especially fir, birch, and poplars, but not in large forests. The countries are likewise better provided with water than the Shamo, which could not be traversed, if wells were not dug at certain places where the roads pass. The northern and southern districts have also a less level surface, ridges of stony and ...?. hills traversing it in many places; thcy run commonly from W. to E., and are called the Black Clouds. he few and sluggish rivers, which are met with, are lost in lakes without outlets. Only in the north-eastern angle are the Kerloon and, Khalka-Pira rivers, which, joining, form the Argoun, the principal branch of the Amur. §h. temperature of the air is extremely low over the whole Góbi, the waters being covered with ice six months of the year. The country, which is included between the two branches of the Kuen-luen range, the Nan-Shan, and Bayan Kara mountains, is called Thoing-Hai, or Khookhoo-noor. The latter name is derived from an extensive lake, in its N.E. district. It is very little known, and seems to exhibit a succession of narrow valleys and very high mountains, whose numerous summits pass far beyond the snow-line. These mountains form very extensive and high masses in the bend of the Hoang-ho. which river has its sources in the W. districts of this region. The whole country, S. of the Kuen-luen mountains, as far S. as the Himalaya range, is comprehended under the name of Tibet. It is, doubtless, the highest part of the great table-land of Eastern Asia, and there are good reasons for assigning it an average absolute elevation of 10,000 ft. above the sea-level, though, towards the east, the valleys of some rivers may be considerably less. A mountain-range runs through it from W. to E. It is connected with the Himalaya range by a level tableland of 14,000 ft. elevation, which surrounds the sacred lakes of Manassa-Rowora and Ravan-Hrad, and on which, or near which, are the sources of three great rivers, the Indus, Ganges, and Yaroo-Zangbo-tsiu. The mountain-chain itself is called Gang-dis-ri on the W., but further E. it bears the name of Zang. Its E. extremity is separated from the Yun-ling by the valley of the Yang-tse-kiang, which here flows from N. to S. Little, or rather nothing, is known of th? range, which robably being placed on so elevated a base, passes with ts summits the line of congelation. Qf the country which lies to the N. of this range very little is known, if we except the most westerly corner, where the Indus river, issuing from a table-land between mountain-ridges, enters the spacious, level, and fertile valley of Leh, or Ladak, and runs in it about 300 miles, till it breaks through the mountain-ranges which o its course, and enters the plain of India. On the W. of this fine, but elevated valley, is the Himalaya range; and on the E. another high chain, the Karakorum mountains, which, extending N.W. and S.E., connect the Kuen-luen chain with the Gang-dis-ri mountains. The country east of the Karakorum mountains, and extending between the Kuen-luen and the Gang-dis-ri ranges, is called Katshe, or Kor Katshe. There occur in it some ranges, but the greatest part extends in wide plains, similar to the steppes, but abundantly provided with good pasture. More is not known of it. Near the Gang-dis-ri range is an extensive lake, called Tengri, and N. of it are the sources of the Yang-tse-kiang, and perhy, also those of the rivers Mackhun and Thaluen. he country between the Gang-dis-ri range and the Himalaya mountains is Tibet Proper, and is somewhat better known, at least as far E. as H'Lassa, its capital. Its surface exhibits only low rocky hills, without any signs of vegetation, rising on extensive arid plains, covered at certain seasons with rich grass, and o: pasture to numerous herds of cattle. The valleys in which the rivers run are considerably depressed below the surface of the !". and in these valleys agriculture is carried on with great care. All kinds of European grains are cultivated, and in some places rice. Most of the fruit-trees of Europe also succeed. But, as the portion of the country which is fit for agriculture is only a small part of the whole, the population, though far from numerous, is ro supplied with corn from the adjacent countries. The climate is very severe, and the rivers covered with ice for some months. . The E. part of Tibet is very little known; it seems to be
traversed high ranges, and not to exhibit the large lains which occur farther W. In Tibet is the lake te, which has a large island in its centre, so that the e has the form of a ring. The Yaroo-Zangbo-tsiu, or Sampu river, runs through this country from W. to E., and after a course of more than 1,000 miles, breaks through the chain of the Himalaya range, about 95° E. long., and joins the Brahmapoutra under the name of Di-hong. The table-land of Yu-man, which forms the most southerly portion of the great table-land of Eastern Asia, has an extremely diversified surface, being a succession of mountains ... in some places rise above the snow-line, and of valleys, which, however, frequently widen to small plains. he climate indicates a considelable elevation above the sea-level, but it is not so high as to preclude agriculture, corn being raised in the valleys and plains, if in some districts rice. Towards the N.W., however, it rises much higher, as there the rearing of cattle forms the principal occupation of the inhabitants, who have herds of chowry-tailed cattle (Bos grunniens,) which are only found in very cold countries. 3. Countries lying to the East of the Table-land of Eastern Asia. – East of the desert of Gobi extends Shing-king, or Mancho.oria (the country of the Manchoos), to the coasts of the Pacific. It is divided from the desert by the Khing-khan mountains, which on the side of the desert are destitute of wood, but towards Manchooria are covered with fine forest-trees, among which oak is frequent. The N. boundary is formed by the Yablonoi Khrebet, or Khing-khan Tugurick. From this range (56° N. lat.) it extends to the neighbourhood of the HoangHai, or Yellow Sea (419 N. lat.); from which it is divided only by a range of hills. But in advancing further E. these ño, rise to a high mountain-chain, the Chang-peShan, or Shan Alin, which attains the snow-line where it runs on the boundary between Manchuria and the peninsula of Corea. It then approaches the coast and runs so close along it as to leave only at some places a very narrow stripe of low country until it terminates at the mouth of the river Amur, opposite the Yablonoi Khrebet. Along this coast the mountain-chain rises with reat steepness to from 4,000 to 5,000 ft. above the sea. The countries enclosed by these mountain-ranges exhibit different characters. The S.W. part of it, N. of the river Sira Muren, or Leao-ho, is a desert, and may be considered as part of the Gobi, which here projects beyond its natural boundary, the Khing-khan range. It has a scanty vegetation, and is only inhabited by nomadic nations. ... of it, and as far N. as the Amur river, the country is traversed by ridges of mountains and hills, between which, however, spacious valleys extend, whose fertile soil is in some places well cultivated, and yields rich crops. The mountains and hills are partly covered with trees, and partly afford rich pasture-walks for numerous herds of cattle and sheep. The climate of this portion of Manchooria is very temperate. N. of the river Amur the whole country is covered with mountainmasses, intersected by narrow valleys. , Here agriculture ceases, and cattle form the principal riches of the inhabitants, who also apply themselves industriously to the chace of animals affording furs, of which there is a great abundance. The principal river is the Amur, whose upper branch, the Argoun, runs through the N.E. districts o Gobi, and after o the mountains joins the Shilka, when the river is called Amur, or Sakhalien. The whole course of this river does not fall short of 2,000 miles. The peninsula of Corea is separated from Manchooria by the Chang-re-shan, and from this range another branches off to the S., which runs close to the E. shores, towards which it descends with great rapidity, and in these districts the level or cultival)le tracts are of small extent. The numerous offsets to the W., which are less steep and clevated, contain between them large and wellcultivated valleys. But the whole country seems to have a considerable elevation above the sea-level, as its climate is very cold, its N. rivers being covered with ice for : months; yet rice, cotton, and silk, are produced in abunance. China Proper occupies the remainder of the countries lying between the Great Table-land of Eastern Asia and the Pacific. Several mountain-ranges issuing from those that surround it, traverse its interior. Where the InShan and the Khing-Khan meet, stands a high summit, the Petsha, more than 16,000 ft. above the sea-level, and from it a chain runs first S.W., and then S., 400 m., and terminates at the last great bend of the lIoang-ho. It is called Kho-thsing-Sham, and though high, does not rise to the snow-line. Near 34° N. lat. two ranges branch off from the Yun-ling, the Peling (northern range) and the Tapa-ling, and they continue as high mountain-chains as far }. as 111° or 1120 E. long., when they sink down to hills. These ranges contain some snow-capped summits towards the W., and are steep and rugged. From the E. side of the table-land of Yu-man branches off another range, called Nan-ling (southern range), which coustitutes the most extensive mountain-systein in China.
It runs E. as far as 116° E. long, passing about 150 miles to the north of Canton ; it then inclines to the N.E., in which direction it continues with a slight bend to the W. to its termination on the sea, near the harbour of Ningpo, opposite the islands of Chusan. Several summits of this range rise above the snow-line, W. of 110° E. long., and here it extends also to a considerable width. East of 110° E. long, no snow-capped summits occur, though some rise to a great elevation, but every where the descent of the range is steep and rugged. The country o between the Kho-thsing-Shan and the Tapa-ling is full of high and extensive mountain. masses, and intersected by valleys, which are very narrow, except two which are drained by the Wei-ho, a tributary of the Hoang-ho, and by the Kan kiang, a branch of Yang-tse-kiang. These are wide, and lord large tracts for agricultural purposes. The large tract, which extends between the Tapa-ling and the Nan-ling, is traversed by many ridges of mountains and hills, which mostly branch off from the last-mentioned range, but these elevations rise only to a moderate height, and the gentle declivities are mostly cultivated. esides, they are separated from one another by very wide valleys, which frequently are intersected by pretty o: plains, that every where recompense the industry of the careful cultivator. They are, in fact, hardly inferior in fertility to the great Chinese Plain. This great plain occupies the N.E. part of China, extending in length 700 miles from the Great Wall, N. of Peoking, to the confluence of the rivers Yang-tse-kiang and Kan-kiang, near 30° N. lat. Its breadth is various. North of 35° N., where it partly extends to the shores of the Hoang-hai, and partly borders on the W. declivity of the Chang-tung mountains, a low range, occupying the peninsula of that name, the width of the plain varies between 150 and 250 m. 13etween 35° and 34° N. lat. the plain enlarges, and in the parallel of the Hoang-ho it extends more than 300 m. E. and W. Farther S. it grows still wider, and reaches nearly 500 m. inland, in the parallel of the mouth of the river Yang-tse-kiang. This large plain, though the N. districts have mostly a sandy soil, and the E., between the embouchures of the Hoang-ho and Yang-tse-kiang, are partly covered with swamps, is, perhaps, the best cultivated and most populous portion of the globe, producing abundance ol. cotton, wheat, and tobacco, &c. It contains at least 210,000 sq. m., so that it is seven times as large as the most fertile plain of Europe, that of Lombardy. The internal communication of this fertile tract i. rendered easy by the Great or Imperial Canal, which traverses it from S. to N., and whose length exceeds 500 m. in a straight line, but probably its whole length Hs not less than 700 m. It is, also, traversed by the lower courses of the two great rivers of China, the Hoang-ho and the Yang-tse-kiang, which flow through it from W. to E. The ii. runs upward of 2,000, and the Yang-tse-kiang more than 2,900 miles, if their bends be taken into account. 4. Countries lying to the South of the Great Table-land of Eastern Asia. — This region comprises the two penin. sulas, which are known in Europe by the name of India within and without the Ganges. The peninsula without the Ganges is traversed by four mountain-ranges, of which the three sarthest east are connected with, or branch off from, the table-land of Yuman, the most southerly extremity of the Great Table-land. The most easterly, which may be called the Anam range, begins at 22° N. lat., and runs S.E. till it approachest Chinese Sea, near 17° N. lat. ; hence, farther south, it proceeds parallel to the shores of that sea, and terminates at Cape St. James (10° 15'). This range occupies about 100 m. in width ; its elevation has not been ascertained, but it seems to be considerable, though far from rising to the snow-line, except, perhaps, where it is connected with the table-land of Yu-nan. Two other mountain-chains branch off from the S.W. side of the same table-land, between 95° and 97° E. long., and run nearly due S., including the narrow valley of the Thaluen river. The most westerly, which may be called the Birmah range, terminates as a chain of considerable elevation at the mouth of the Thaluen river ; the other, which runs to the E. of that river, and may be called the Shan or Siam range, continues farther S., but gradually declining in height till it disappears entirely N. of the most narrow part of the peninsula of Malacca, the isthmus of Krah (11° 30' N. lat.) : for the low mountains, which occupy the interior of the S. part of that peninsula, are not connected with it. Between the Anam range and the Gulph of Tonkin lies a large plain, that of Tonkin, about 100 m. in length and width: it is low, level, and extremely fertile, especially as far as it can be irrigated. It is surrounded on the N. and W. by very fertile valleys, and traversed by the river Song-ca, which rises on the table land of Yuman, and runs in an E.S.E. direction probably more than 700 m. The plain of Tonkin terminates between 199 and 20° N. lat; farther S. the offsets from the Anam range approach close to the sea, and leave o between them larger or smaller valleys, which commonly are very fertile. , South of Cape Avarella steep rocks occupy nearly the whole of the country. "We know very little of the N. portion of the country occupying the extensive tracts which separate the Anam range from the Shan range. It would seem, that as far S. as 16° N. lat. it exhibits several pretty high moun tain ridges, which include valleys and surround elevated plains. S. of 16° N. lat., however, low plains constitute the general character of the country: for though several ridges occur, they do not seem to rise at any place above the elevation of high hills. These low plains have a greater abundance of water than any other country of Asia. A considerable portion of their surface is covered with permanent lakes : others are formed during the rainy season, by the inundation of the numerous and large rivers; and at that season a great portion of the land is changed into immense swamps. Though the soil is very fertile, and yields very rich crops of rice and every kind of vegetables, cultivated for food between the tropics, civil lisation is less advanced than either in China or Hindostan ; because its inhabitants, being unable to turn this abundance to their advantage, it acts as an incentive to idleness. Three large rivers drain this country. The most easterly is the Sai-gun, which runs along the Anam range, and falls into the sea near Cape St. James: its upper course is entirely unknown, but from its size o, its mouth it is supposed to run from 500 to 600 m. The Mackhaun, or river of Cambodja, is called by the Chinese Lau-tsan-kiang, and rises in the interior of the Great Table-land, so that its whole course probably exceeds 2,000 m. : it falls into the sea, W. of the mouth of the Sai-gun river. The third river is the Menam, or river of Siam, which runs about 700 m., and falls into the Gulph of Siam. The valley, in which the Thaluen runs between the mountain-ranges of Siam and Birmah, is narrow ; its soil is stony, and too much elevated to be irrigated by the water of the river, which rushes with great impetuosity down its confined bed, descending from the Great Tableland, where it is called Loo-kiang, or Noo-kiang. Its whole course probably exceeds 1,500 m. The peninsula of Malacca, which constitutes the most southerly part of the continent of Asia, and terminates with the Capes of Buros and Romania, between which the island and town of Singapore are situated, is connected with the main-land by the isthmus of Krah (between 99 and 11° S. lat.), about 150 m. long, and from 70 to 80 m. wide. It is low, and its soil is formed by alluvium. The peninsula itself contains a mountain-ridge in the interior, which rises to 3,000 or 4,000 ft., and is mostly covered with thick wood, but along the shores extends a level country, which in some districts is very fertile, but mostly not very productive. The most westerly of the four mountain-chains, which traverse the peninsula beyond the Ganges from N. to S. nearly in its whole length, is the Aracan range, dividing Aracan from the Birman empire. It is not connected, like the others, with the table-land of Yu-nan, but with the Himalaya range. The Himalaya mountains are considered to terminate at the sources of the Brahmapoutra (97° 30' E. long., and 28° N. o The moun. tains which surround the upper course of that river are called the Langtan mountains, and many of their summits rise above the snow-line; the highest of those which have been o, the 1) upha Boom, attaining 13.713 ft. above the sea-level: the passes which lead over it do not sink below ll,000 ft. From these mountains, which rather constitute a large mountain-knot than a range, a chain issues, running W. parallel to , the Himalaya range. That portion of the chain, which is immediately connected with the Langtan mountains, is called †. mountains; it seems to be much lower, and more accessible. Farther W. they are called the Naga mountains, which are still lower, and extend to about 93°30' E. long., where they are succeeded by the Garrow hills, which rarely rise to more than 6,000 ft., and terminate opposite the mountain-ridges which surround the enormous pinnacle of the Chamalari in the Fo range. Between this range and the Himalaya mountains extends the valley of Asam, or of the Brahmapoutra, one of the largest in Asia: its length exceeds 400 m., and in width it varies between 30 and 50 m. . Its soil is very fertile, and the climate, such as to bring to perfection nearly all productions cultivated between the tropics; but here also the too great abundance of water retards the rogress of agriculture and the increase of the popuation. “ The Brahmapoutra runs more than 500 m. through the centre of this valley, and is here joined by the Di-hong, which, under the name of Sampu, or Yaroo-Zangbo-tsiu, flows through the plains of Tibet, and has run a course of more than 1,000 m. before it reaches the Brahmapoutra. Issuing from the valley of Asam,
rtion of the valley is hardly more than 100 ft. abore at its western extremity it sinks down to 200 ft.
* The eastern the sea-level,
the Brahmapoutra runs 360 m. farther through the plain, of Bengal. The country which extends along the mountain-chains constituting the S. boundary of the valley of Asam, and advances as far S. as 24° N. lat., seems to be considerably elevated above the sea, the plain on which the town of Moonipore, is built having an elevation of nearly 2,500 ft. . But the plains are commonly not of great extent, and the valleys are narrow, though the mountains which cover the greater |. of the urface do not rise to a great elevation. As far as is known (for the eastern portion of this region has not been visited by European travellers) these ranges run S. and N., and form right angles, or nearly so, with the range from which they issue. One of these ranges, extending along the meridian of 91° E. long., is called the Khiebunda mountains, between Moonipore and Katshar, but farther S. the Aracan mountains. This chain, whose length rather exceeds 700 m., attains, towards the S., only a mean elevation of about 3,000 ft. above the level of the sea, though some of its summits rise to 5,000 ft. and upwards. its o * may be 50 miles: it terminates at Cape egrals. Between the Aracan mountains and the Birmah range lies the greatest part of the Birman .. A small portion of its surface consists of rich custivable lands: these lie in the wide valley of the Irawaddi, and in two large plains; one, situated between 22° and 23° N. lat., along the N. side of the great bend of that river, and the 9ther between 16° and iso N. lat..: the latter comprehends the large delta of the Irawaddi and the adjacent low country as far E. as the Birinah mountains, and may have a surface of nearly 100,000 sq. m. ... But its agriculture suffers from excess of water. The country E. of the Irawaddi, and S. of its great bend, is a high couno from 1,500 to 2,000 ft. above the level of the sea; whose hilly surface suffers from want of water, the soil being sandy and dry. The Irawaddi, which drains the Birman empire, rises in that unknown region E. of the Langtan mountain-knot, and runs upwards of 1,200 miles, if its bends be taken into account. Aracan, or the country lying east of the Aracan mountains, is hilly, and even mountainous in its northern districts, the table-mountain (near 21° N. lat.) rising to 8,340 ft. above the sea; but its middle parts are occupied by the rather wide valley of the Huritung, or Aracan river, and this is continued farther S. to 19° N. lat., being separated from the sea to the S.of the mouth of the river, by a ridge of broken hills, which rise to between 500 and 700 feet. The rains during the south-west monsoon being extremely heavy, and of long-continuance, agriculture is here also retarded by the abundance of water. Hindostan, or the peninsula within or on this side the Ganges, is not connected either with the table-land of Eastern or that of Western Asia, being separated from each by a wide plain, extending first from the mouth of the anges along the southern declivity of the Himalaya range to the shores of the river Indus, in a W.N.W. direction, and thence along the mountains, formin the boundary of the table-land of Iran, in a S.S.W. direction to the mouth of the Indus. Thus this plain has the form of a right angle ; and is, on account of its different character in the eastern and western district, with propriety divided into the plain of the Ganges and that of the Indus. The plain of the Ganges may be compared with the great plain of China, in respect of fertility and extent, though not of population. . Its length is upwards of 1,000 m., and its width varies between 120 and 350 m. : it covers an area of more than 200,000 j, In . From the mouth of the Ganges it rises imperceptibly towards the N.W.; but, even at a distance of 200 m. from the sea, its surface is not 1,000 ft. above it. The country between the W. mouth of the Ganges, the o, and that of the Brahmapoutra, to a distance of nearly 100 m. from the sea, is extremely low, and frequently inundated by high tides. It is called the Sunderbunds, and is nearly uninhabited on account of its unhealthiness, being covered with large forest-trees, and frequented by tigers and other beasts of prey. The country which lies ... of the Sunderbunds, to an extent of 200 m. and upwards, is subject to the annual inundations of the Ganges; by whose deposit it is fertilised, so as to give the most abundant crops of rice. It is cultivated with the greatest care, and nourishes a very numerous population. N. of 25° N. lat. the annual inundations of the river cease; and where no artificial means are employed to effect an irrigation for the culture of rice, the country produces wheat and other grains. But the natural fertility of the soil decreases as we advance higher up the river. It becomes more sandy, and N. of Delhi the tracts along the rivers can only be cultivated. At 30° N. lat. it is a complete desert. Between this plain and the lowest range of the Himalaya mountains extends the Tariyama, a narrow stripe of land from 12 to 20 m. wide, covered with immense forests, and frequented by a great number of elephants, tigers, and other animals. It is uninhabited, on account of its unhealthiness, the surface in the rainy season being converted into an immense swamp ; but between November and March it may be visited without danger. The people inhabiting its borders are disfigured by goitres. The river which drains this E. the Ganges, rises in the highest and most northerly range of the Himalaya mountains, bordering on the table-land of the sacred lakes of Manassa, Rowarra, and of Hrawan Hrad. Its several sources unite before it issues from the mountains at Hurdwar. It soon begins to change its W. into a S. and south-easterly course. In the latter direction it traverses the upper part of the plain. But from its junction with the Jumna it runs E. to the neighbourhood of Rajamahal, where it again turns to the S. E., and soon after begins to form its extensive delta, dividing in a great number of branches, of which the most easterly and principal falls, into the Bay of Bengal, a few miles W. of the mouth of the Brahmapoutra; but the western mouth, called the Hooghly, is in a straight line 180 m. distant from it. All rivers descending from the Himalaya mountains, between 789 and 90° E. long., increase its waters, and most of them inundating the lands contiguous to their banks during the rainy season, contribute to increase the fertility of the plain. The course of the Ganges exceeds 1,300 m: The plain of the Indus is somewhat less in extent, and greatly inferior in fertility. It extends in length about 600 m., and in width 300 at an average. Its surface may cover an area of 180,000 o m. Its N. part is called the Penj-ab (country of five rivers), from being watered by five large rivers, which afterwards join the Indus. This tract is commonly very fertile along the watercourses, and there are even, between the rivers, districts whose soil recompenses the labour of the husbandman ; but in general they have a light soil, which frequently passes into sterile sand or clay. This description also applies for the most part to the tract of land which lies on the right of the river, between it and the ranges which separate it from the table-land of Iran. But on the left of the Indus extends an immense sandy desert, which in the N. is called Maroost'hali, or the Great Desert, and to the S. Thur, or the Little Desert. It extends over the delta of the Indus, and occupies nearly half the whole plain. At its southern extremity is the Runn, an ex" tensive salt morass, connected with the Gulph of Cutch. In the desert also occur smaller lakes and marshes, in which salt is produced. It is only inhabited in a few places, where rocks protrude through the sand, having their surface covered with scanty grass. The Indus, which drains this plain, has its sources near those of the Ganges; ... through the spacious valley of Leh or Ladak; it breaks through the mountains at the north-western extremity of the Himalaya range. Its whole course amounts to upwards of 1,500 m. Where the two plains of the Ganges and Indus meet, in the parallel of Delhi, between 76° and 77° E. long., begin the mountainous countries of Hindostan, which extend to its most southern extremity, Cape Comorin (near 8° S. lat.). This immense tract may be divided into two triangles, connected at their bases at the Vindhya mountains, which extend between 22° and 239 from §. Bay of Cambay, to the plain of the Ganges, N. W. of Calcutta. This chain is of moderate elevation, its highest summits probably not exceeding 3,000 ft. above the sea, and the most frequented of its mountain-passes, that of Jaum, only rising to 2,328 ft. At its western extremity, about 30 m. from the Bay of Cambay, it is connected with another chain, the Aravulli range, which first runs N., in broken masses, up to the .# of 24° N. lat., but farther N. forms a continuous range, running N. N. E. It descends westward, with a steep declivity, to the desert of Maroost'hali, and prevents the sand of that district from encroaching on the fertile country lying farther E. Its average elevation probably does not exceed 3,000 ft., though some summits rise higher, and the Aboo or Aboda Peak (between 249 and 25°), even to more than 5,000 ft. These two chains, the Windhya mountains and the Aravulli range, constitute two sides of the northern triangle, and from them the country gradually lowers, until it meets the plain of the Ganges, not far from the banks of the Jumna. Contiguous to the mountains are two considerable plains ; the table-land of Malwa, well known by its extensive plantations of opium, skirts the northern declivity of the Vindhya mountains for about 300 m., and has an average breadth of 50 m. Near the mountains its elevation is between 1,800 and 1,900 ft. above the sea level; but towards the N., it imperceptibly lowers to less than 1,300 ft. The table-land of Mawar extends along the Aravulli range ; it is between 150 and 180 m. long, from S. to N., and from 70 to 100 m. wide. Its clevation near the mountains is about 2,000 ft. above the sea, but on its eastern border it sinks to 1,400 ft. In fertility it is much inferior to the plain of Malwa ; it produces different kinds of grain, but little rice. The
tracts of country which separate these plains and extend to the plain of the Ganges, have a very broken surface, which on the E., in Harraoutee, rises in steep and rugged hills, but farther W., in Bundlecund, presents more gentle acclivities, and wider, as well as more fertile, valleys. The rivers which drain these countries fall into the Jumna, a tributary of the Ganges. The peninsula of Gujerat, lying opposite the mouth of the rivers Nerbudda and Tapty, is united to the continent of Hindostan by an isthmus more than 50 m. long, between the southern part of the salt morass called the Runn and the Bay of Cambay. This isthmus is so low that, in the rainy season, the waters of both gulphs unite and convert o peninsula into an island. #. districts contiguous to this isthmus, as well as those bordering on the gulphs of Cambay and Cutch, have an undulating surface, and contain extensive tracts of fertile and well cultivated land. The lands along the western coast are rather level, but their surface is stony, covered with little earth, and not fertile. The interior of the peninsula, and all the districts along the southern coast, have a very broken surface, and are mostly covered with bare rocks, but contain a number of fertile valleys. The mountains in the centre of the peninsula attain a moderate elevation. The whole is well supplied with o: water, except the north western extremity, but is destitute of wood, except on the hills along the southern coast. Contiguous to the eastern extremity of the Vindhya mountains, but S. of them (between 819 and 83° E. long., and 22° and 23° N. lat.), the country rises to a considerable elevation, probably to more than 5,000 ft. It is overtopped by numerous summits which rise 2,000 ft. higher. This rugged country, which seems to constitute a mountain-knot, from which ridges and rivers run out in all directions, is called Omen kuntuk. The most considerable of these rivers is the Nerbudda, which runs westward in a deep valley, overhung on the N. by the steep acclivities of the Windhya mountains, and bounded on the S. by another range, the S. Sautpoora mountains. This valley, which is wide, except at its eastern extremity, and of considerable fertility, is considered as the boundary line between Hindostan Proper, lying N., and the 19eccan, extending S. to Cape omorin. The length of the valley, and of the river, is about 600 m. Similar is the valley in which the Tapty runs along the southern declivity of the Sautpoora mountains, parallel to the Nerbud but its course does not much exceed 300 m. To the S. and S. E. of Omerkuntuk, between the lower part of the plain of the Ganges, and as far S. as the course of the river Godavery, extends a tract of country whose elevation above the sea has not been determined ; but the comparatively low temperature of the air, and the healthiness of the climate, seem to indicate that it must be between 3,000 and 4,000 ft. Its surface is broken ; the hills rise to 2,000 ft. above it, but they are separated from each other by wide valleys, and freuently by plains of moderate extent and indifferent ertility, except along the foot of the ridges, where the soil commonly is rich. The eastern border of this rugged table-land is formed by a chain of mountains, which does not seem to rise considerably above it, but they are so steep as to be almost impassable for horse or wheeled carriages. Their distance from the sea varies between 60 and 80 m. The narrow tract lying between them and the sea is called the Circars. It is not a level, but commonly a succession of hills and dales; thoughthere occur some levels of considerable extent. Its soil along the sea-coast is generally sandy, but it improves §: dually towards the mountains ; and produces abundant crops of cotton, tobacco, and grain ; including rice, when artificially irrigated. On the mountain-knot of Omerkuntuk rises the river Mahanuddy, which traverses this broken country in an E. S. E. direction nearly in the middle. It salls into the Bay of Bengal, after a course of more than 500 m., and forms at its mouth an extensive delta. South of the mouth of the river o, and nearly in its parallel, rises suddenly from the plain a continuous mountain range called the Ghauts, extending southward as far as the river Ponany (119 S. lat.), through 10° of lat. In some parts it is 30 or even 40 m. distant from the sca; in others it constitutes its very shores. It rises abruptly with a steep ascent from the low coast, and attains a mean elevation of from 4,000 to 5,000 ft. ; but some of its summits rise much highor. The highest portion are the Neilgherry hills (11° S. lat.), which are more than 9,000 ft. above the sea ; the Liliandumale (12° N. lat.) is above 5,500 ft. ; and the Subramuni (12° 30') above 5,400 ft. In many points, the range sinks down to less than 2,000 st., and over these depressions lead the ghauts or mountain-passes; whose name has been transferred to the range itself. The narrow tract of country which intervenes between this range and the sea-coast is called Malabar. It is mostly occupied by the short offsets of the Ghauts, which
preserve their character of steepness, but include small valleys which o a vigorous vegetation. The narrow tract of level land along the sea, which seldom exceeds 3 m. in width, and is in general much less, is separated from the sea by low downs ; this gives them the advantage of irrigation during the rainy season. The fresh wator descending from the mountains has no vent, and must therefore stagnate until it evaporates : hence these tracts produce much rice, though their soil is poor, consisting chiefly of sand. The Neilgherry hills constitute the S. extremity of the Ghauts, which are called the W. Gnauts, to distinguish them from another chain of mountains, called the E. Ghauts. The last-mentioned mountains begin on the banks of the river Cavery to 1920' N. lat.) and extend thence, first in a N. E. direction, as far as 13° N. lat., where, opposite the town of Madras, they turn to the N., and continue so to the banks of the river Kistna (near 17° N. lat.). Between this river and the Godavery are a range of hills, which connects them with the mountains which separate the Circars from the elevated country lying further, W. . The E. Ghauts do not form an uninterrupted chain, being at several places broken by the rivers which rise on the E. declivities of the W. Ghauts, and descend to the Bay of Bengal. They also do not form one mass : but are frequently divided in several ridges, by longitudinal valleys. These mountains do not rise to the elevation of the W. Ghauts ; yet to the W. of Madras, the Nalla Malla mountains attain 3,000 ft. and more, and farther S. (near 12°) the Sherwahary mountains rise to 4,935 ft. The extensive country enclosed between the two ridges of the Ghauts is an elevated table-land. . Its surface extends nearly in a level, which is only here, and there broken by short ridges or groups of hills, rising a few hundred it. above it. Its elevation above the level of the sea, where it is contiguous to the W. Ghauts, varies between 2,000 and 3,000 ft., and thus it may continue to the middle of the table-land; but it sinks in approaching the E. Ghauts, where, in most places, it has barely 1,000 ft. or less of elevation. Its soil is rather sertile, and well adapted to the culture of rice, where it can be irrigated, and where not, it produces abundance of wheat and other grain. The S. part is called the table-land of Mysore, and the N. that of Balaghaut. The Eastern Ghauts are at a distance of about 150 m. from the sea, or coast of Coromandel. The surface of the intervening country extends mostly in wide plains, which here and there are interspersed by hills of no great elevation. The soil is dry, light and sandy, but nevertheless it gives rich crops, wherever it is irrigated, which is rendered easy by the great number of rivers descending from the Western Ghauts, or originating in the Eastern Ghauts. The coast is low, sandy, and without harbours, surrounded by shoals, and exposed to a very heavy swell, which renders it extremely dangerons during the north-eastern monsoon. Europeans have, however, preferred it to other parts of India, having formed here more settlements than any where else. Three large rivers descend from the eastern declivity of the Western Ghauts through the table-land of Mysore and Balaghaut, to this coast, and fall into the Bay of Bengal. The most southerly is the Cavery, which runs about 450 miles. Farther N. is the Kistna, or Krisha, and the Godavery, the former flowing about 600 the latter 700 miles. These rivers, though in many parts very valuable for irrigating the contiguous lands, are only navigable in the low plain of the Carnatic. On the table-land they in general have little water, and where they break through the Eastern Ghauts, they are broken by numerous rapids and Cataracts. On the to of the embouchure of the Cavery river, (11° N. lat.), the peninsula may be traversed without passing any mountain. Here exists a great depression in the Western Ghauts, called the Gap of Coimbatore. The narrowest passage is at the fortress of Animally (779 E. long.), where the level low country between two mountain-ranges presents a valley about 12 miles wide. The elevation of the highest part of this gap is only 400 ft. above the sea level. he whole country in this district is covered with large forest-trees, especially with teak ; but during the rainy season it is converted into a swamp. To the S. of the Gap of Coimbatore the Ghauts rise again with a very abrupt ascent : , they attain also a great elevation. The Permaul Peak, situated W. of Dindigul, nearly in the middle between both seas, is 7,367 ft. above the sea level,and according to the statements of the natives the mountains farther W. rise to the snow line. The chain lies here farther from the sea, leaving a low tract from 30 to 40 m. across between them, and runs S. S.W. towards Cape Comorin, terminating abruptly at a distance of about 20 En. m. from the Cape with a §: mass of granite, 2,000 feet high : a low rocky ridge extends to the Cape. The mountains are here covered with thick sorests. The country W. of these Southern Ghauts is wonder
fully intersected by inlets of the sea, which often run for great length parallel to the coast, receiving the various mountain streams, and communicating with the ocean by different shallow and narrow openings. Between Cochin and Quilon these lakes form a continual series, being united to one another by short channels, and affording an easy means of communication. The low country, which extends for some miles inland from these lakes, has a good soil, and, being abundantly watered, gives very rich crops of rice and other tropical productions. Still more vigorous is the vegetation in the valleys which are enclosed by the ossets of the mountains, but they are not cultivated with equal care. The low coast is here exposed to a continual and very heavy swell from the ocean, and can only be visited by vessels during the north-east monsoon (from Oct. to May). The plain and nearly level country, which on the E. of the Southern Ghauts extends to an average width of of between 70 and 80 m., is partly covered with extensive forests and partly with cultivated fields, yielding rich crops of rice: their irrigation is rendered easy by the numerous small rivers. Along the shores of the Gulph of Manaar and of the Palk Strait are a great number of salt swamps and lagunes, which mostly communicate with one another. Between them and the sea are sand downs, which in some places extend to several miles across. |. ognating water renders these places very unhealthy. ion, being placed between two seas and the conflict of the monsoons, is always cooled by sea breezes. Its surface being sormed by a series of terraces, and lying within the tropics, enjoys all the advantages of tropical countries, wo of their disadvantages. On the sultry, coast the luxuriance of vegetation is dislayed in the cocoa-palm, the mango-tree, the cinnamonaurel, and the pine-apple ; it thence passes through forests of teak-trees to the table-land of Mysore and of Balaghaut, and still higher, on the cool summit of the mountains, it offers the fruit-trees and corn-fields of Europe, flax plantations, and rich meadows. 5. The Hindoo-Coosh.-The N.W. extremity of the plain of the Indus is only about 300 m. distant from the plains drained by the Daría Amu, which form the southern districts of the level country that extends S. of the great depression, in which the Caspian Sea and the Lake of Aral are placed. This tract, between the S. and N. plains, is occupied by a mountain system, called the HindooCoosh, which, like an isthmus, connects the great tableland of Eastern Asia with Iran, the most easterly of the table-lands of Western Asia. The whole tract is occupied by high and steep ranges, running in every direction, but the principal of them runs E. and W., and seems to be a prolongation of that high chain which is called on the §. table-land of Eastern Asia, the Kuen-luen range. Many summits in this range rise far beyond the line of congelation. One of them, the Son Tchookesur, N. E. of the town of Peshawer, is at least 22,500 ft. high ; but that snow-capped enormous mass, which properly is called the Hindoo-Coosh, seems to attain a much greater elevation. The valleys of this mountain region are but narrow, except that in which the river of Caubul flows, which is of considerable breadth. The mountains present mostly naked rocks on their steep declivities, but afford pasture ground where the o are more gentle. Some parts of them are well wooded. Western Asia, or the countries lying west of the plain of the lindus, the Hindoo-Coosh mountains, and the lains of Bokhara, is, like Eastern Asia, an elevated tableand, but each differs considerably from the other. Whilst in Eastern Asia the table-land forms one mass, extending in all directions, that of Western Asia has nearly in its middle and in the direction of its greatest extent, from S. E. to N. W., a deep depression, which at its south-eastern extremity, where it is occupied by the Gulph of Persia, varies between 30 and 200 m. in width, but farther to the N. W. extends over the basin of the river Euphrates and the adjacent, desert, so as to be from 200 to 500 m. across. The whole length of this depression, from Cape Ras el Had (Sat), the southeastern point of Arabia, to Romkala, where the Euphrates issues from the mountains and enters the plain, does not fall short of 1,500 m. in a straight line. On the N. E. of this depression is the table-land of Iran, the mountain-region of Armenia, and the table-land of Asia Minor ; the latter projects far beyond the depression. On the S. W. of it is the table-land of Arabia, which 'latter is connected with the table-land of Asia Minor, by the mountain-range of Soristan (Syria), whose mountains separate the north-western part of the lowlands from the Mediterranean Sea. Besides, the table-lands of Western Asia do not rise to so high an elevation as the southern portion of the table-land of Eastern Asia: they attain only the height of the northern region, but being placed farther to the S., and nearer the sea, they enjoy a better climate and are more adapted to agricultural purposes. It is also to be observed that the table-lands of Western Asia descend almost every where with a steep