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but owing to the low temperature (the lat. being remembered), it does not thrive well. Esculent roots of very many kinds are, however, pleatiful; and the medicinal herb ginseng is sound nowhere but in this country and N. America. The Chinese believe this plant to ic an infallible remedy for every disease, mental and bodily; and it is sought amid incredible fatigues and dangers by parties who are marshalled under officers, almost in the manner of an army. Ginseng, has no reputation with European physicians; but this may arise from their having used the American species only, which the Chinese declare to be greatly inferior to their own. One attempt was made, ". the Jesuit Lourino, to raise the Asiatic plant in Europe; but the result was a complete failure, the seeds, though sown under circumstances of soil and temperature precisely resembling those natural to them, refusing to germinate. Some parts of the soil are swampy and full of wild desert marshes; but sand is almost unknown, and, in general, the ground bears a strong resemblance to the best parts of N. Europe in the thickness and vivid colouring of its grasses, and the variety of its flowering plants. It is a curious fact that the roses, lilies, and other flowers of this part of Asia, excel greatly those of Europe in beauty, but are very deficient in point of odour. The pines and oaks that clothe the mountains are of great size, but diminish o; as they approach the sea. (Du Haido, iv. 5–7. ..a Perouse, iii. 16, 17, 21. 75. &c.; Muller, Bot. Dict. iii. art. Panar.) The three foregoing districts of Asia, though very extensive, are each remarkably uniform in their productions and general physical appearance. It is true they are comparatively little known, and future discoveries may, it is not unlikely, bring to light many and important deviations from this uniformity ; but, at present, whereever surveyed, the variations in different parts of each have been of degree, not of kind; and whatever peculiarity of vegetation marks any one part of any region, appears to mark the whole, and to distinguish it from both its *; neighbours. The case is different on the W. slope the great table-land, the fourth botanical kingdom of Asia. This region is uniform as far W. as the deep depression of the Caspian Sea, but beyond this all becomes changed: the face of the country, the direction of the rivers, the natural productions, every thing constituting the physical geography of a region, É. on a new appearance; and the Caspian seems placed y the hand of nature on the precise spot where it could most decidedly mark the limits of two large districts H."; few things in common. The great plain of artary (the only true W. slope from the table-land) is #. roductive in its |...}}. ; that is, in the countries of Kokhan, Badakshan, and Bokhara. The description of Ebn Haukel, an Arab geographer, is particularly vivid. “The cultivated plains of Bokhara,” he says, “extend above 13 farsang by 12, sarsang ; and the Soghd (the Sogdiana of o: geography) is for 8 days’ journey full of gardens and $o corn fields and runnin streams, reservoirs and fountains, both on the right ...i and the left.” (Ouseley's Trans., 237.) Corm of all kinds and rice are here very prolific; so much so, that, according to Hadgi Khalsa, a field of one or two dunen (acres) is amply sufficient to support a family. (D'Herbelot, 207.) Of fruit, grapes, melons, pears, apples, figs, &c., grow to such perfection, and in such abundance, that they are exrted to Persia, and even to the more fertile region of indostan. The pasture grounds are also extremely luxuriant ; but it may be gathered that timber is scarce, and the whole country deteriorates as it recedes W. and N. The soil of the Kirghiz country N. of the Sihon is chiefly of a saline character; but the pasturage must still be good, since immeuse numbers of animals, wild and domestic, are fed in the extensive steppes. Trees of the hardier kinds, larch, beech, and firs, appear also on the banks of the rivers. (Pallas, i. 618.630. &c.) In journeying W. the country for a time exhibits the extremes of richness and desolation (Burnes, i, 333.); the former, however, gradually diminishing till the whole soil becomes a wretched unproductive sand, except in the immediate neighbourhood of rivers. (Burmes, ii. 1. 10. 16. 46. &c.) There is not, perhaps, in the world a more sterile district than that between the Aral and Caspiau Seas. In the countries W. of the latter, a strange contrast is presented : on the N. slopes of the Caucasus, indeed, a constantly deteriorating country terminates at last in the wretched wastes of Astrakhan; but even here corn fields and rich pasture grounds dispute the soil with the tamarisk, the camel's thorn, the absynthium, and other desert plants: while on the E., W., and S. declivities of the same mountains, magnificent forests of cedars, cypresses, savins, red junipers, beeches, oaks, &c., flourish in great luxuriance; while of fruit, the soil

* The high lands of Persia and Caubul, though directly S. of W. Tartary, appear to belong naturally to the second kingd that, namely, of the central table-land. hey have the same ph | conformation, the same peculiar hydrography and vegetatio . are connected with the Mongolian plateau by a mountain isthmus (the

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Christ's thorn, ponticum, asolia pontica, laurel, seringa, jessamine, !'; Caucasian rose, and a whole host of others. The bread corns and the most useful roots are also produced in most parts of this mountainous country. (Goldenstadt, Comt. Petrop. xx. 49. 435. 483. &c.; Pallas, ditto, 1779, ii. 274.). With regard to Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and Syria, it is impossible to give within any reasonable limits the slightest sketch of o: numerous productions ; though the two last be partially desert, and their deserts be of the most sterile character, yet their, fertile spots, are scarcely inferior to any on the earth's surface. Rice and to yield a return of 100 fold : the cotton shrub flourishes; and indigo, sugar, and tobacco are among the useful productions. Lemons, oranges, tamarinds, apricots, dates, and grapes are a very few among the fruits of these regions; which produce in great abundance also nearly all the esculent roots, pulses, and grains. Wood is extremely scarce in Mesopotamia (the date palm is the only tree known there); but in Syria the majestic cedar of Lebanon maiutains the fame which it acquired in the days of Jewish greatness ; while majestic s, cypresses, planes, sycamores, savins, olives, , mulberry, trees, pistachios, junipers, and fig trees clothe the sides of the Anatolian and Syrian moun. tains, and spread their arms over plains where slourish almost every species of flowering roots and shrubs. Among the oaks of Asia Minor is the Quercus insectoria, the gall of which is an important article in dyeing. The pistachio is rarely found beyond the neighbourhood of Aleiopo. (Wolney, ii. passim ; Niebuhr, Poy. en Mr. ii. 230. &c.;. Olivier, iv. 26, 134. 197. &c.; Leake, passim ; also in Walpole, ii. 202. &c.; Belon, 79. 165. 166. &c.)

The fifth kingdom of Asiatic botany remains to be noticed. It comprises the S. slope of the central plateau, and contains the three great peninsulas of Arabia, India, and Malaya, together with the extensive territory of China proper, and the S. shore of Persia and Beloo'ssistan. "I'he' W. part of this region is badly watered (see ARABIA, LA RIs TAN, BELoochis ras); and consequently consists chiefly of deserts, or of pasture grounds depending on rain sor their fertility. The vici. nities of the few and small rivers are, however, even here, crowded with vegetation ; and from the Indus eastward (where the hydrography is on a scale of the most profuse luxuriance) a *::::: is comprised unequalled, for the abundance and variety of its productions, by any other part of the world. Nearly every plant of the E. continent is indigenous, or can be raised in some part of S. Asia. The following is an imperfect list of the trees alone; and these are not, in general, confined to particular localities, but, in most cases, spread over the whole region : —

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Many of these trees yield gums, resins, odoriferous blossoms, or are otherwise useful beyond the generalit of their class. There are also several species whic cannot be conveniently classed under, either of the four foregoing heads ; as the champaka, malor, and tanjang, flower-bearing trees; the touki, from the bark of which the Asiatics manufacture a paper ; the faang, which yields a rich red dye ; the tallow tree, which exudes an unctuous matter, whence its name : the upas, the most deadly of vegetable poisons; the cotton tree; and, above all, the tea plant.

The other kinds of vegetation are not less abundant. Grain of every kind, including 27 species of rice ; and some varieties of urrah and barley, scarcely known in other hindoo Koosh), which divides the low levels of Bokhara and the Pun};"| in a manner vory similar to that in which the Atlantic and

acific Oceans are dividid by the mountain ridge of Panama. (See Mongolia, Caesul, is dia, &c.)

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regions, is grown with little labour to the cultivator, the richness of the earth in '...}} places precluding the necessity and even the possibility of using manure, though 2 crops are produced annually. The leguminous plants now common in Europe came, in most instances, oriso from S. Asia; but, in addition to the peas, beans, entils, &c., there are here a whole host which have never found their way W., as the lotus, moong, murhus, tanna, tour, toll, &c. (See INDIA, ChiNa, &c.) A root called katchill supplies the place of the American potatoe; but this last root, as well as the yam, is abundantly cultivated, especially in China and the E. peninsula of India. This is also the native home of the arrow-root, galanga, jalap, sarsaparilla, datura, anise, opium, and other drugs. The fields abound in flax, hemp, tobacco (a native plant, according to Lord Macartney, ii. '*'. together with flowers of every kind and dye; though it is remarkable that those of powerful scent are confined to the N. parts. The fine, rose that yields, the attar is rarely found S. of 26°, and is chiefly limited to the plains of the Upper Ganges and Penjab. (See Lucknow and CashMERE.) Dye plants are very numerous ; the sugar cane grows luxuriantly ; and among the numerous strongly odoriferous gums, attempts have been made to identify the spikenard, bdellium, malabathrum, sepachra, and other precious ointments of the ancients, but without much success. (Du Halde, i. 14. &c., ii. 64. &c.; Lord Macar , ii. 43. 165. &c.; Crawford, Emb. to Siam, passim ; Russell's Int. to Rorburgh's Plants of Coromandel, 1–66. ; Finlayson's Mission to Siam, passim ; Asiatic Researches, .." Journal qf Asiat. Soc. Beng. passim.) With regard to the number of species in each order of lants, it is to be remarked that Humboldt gives the ryptogamae as 1-15th of the whole vegetation for equinoxial plains; as 1-5th for equinoxial mountains; as § (on an average) for the regions of the temperate zone; an as the sole vegetation of mountains in polar lands. The same authority gives the Monocotyledons (of the old continent) as I-5th for the torrid, 1-4th for the temperate, and 1–3d (on an average) for the frigid zone. (Dict, des Sci. Nat. xviii. 436.) De Candolle, following Persoon, makes the proportions somewhat different : namely (for the whole world), Cryp. 1-6th, Monoc. 1-6th, Dico. 4-6ths of the whole vegetation. (Idem, 395.) From these data, and the various authorities cited throughout this article, the following approximative Table of Asiatic Botany is deduced. But it is necessary to observe, that the absolute number of known species is very uncertain. In 1806, there were but 27,000; Brown's splendid addition of Australian plants increased the amount by nearly 1-6th, and since that time discovery has been o: at work. It may, however, be doubted whether the very love of science has not betrayed some of its followers into too nice distinctions. De Candolle thinks that Persoon's 27,000 species should be increased to 56,000, and that the number of plants yet unknown or unclassified would swell the list to 116,000 or 120,000 (Dict. Sci. Nat. xviii. 420.) Lindley is more moderate; he makes the gross

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iii. Zoology of Asia. – Asia is the native home of all the more useful species of animals; with the exception, perhaps, of the sheep. From some district or other of this continent came, originally, the ox, horse, camel, goat, ass, together with the whole race of domesticpoultry; except the turkey, which is a denizen of the New Contiment. Utility may, indeed, be regarded as the leading characteristic of Asiatic Zoology; for though its carnivorous mammalia be numerous as compared with the whole number of species, the majority are not merely harmless to man, but in a considerable dezree useful to him, consisting of several kinds of seals, and the fur-bearing quadrupeds of the north. Birds of prey are remarkably scarce, when the great extent of mountain land, is taken into consideration; and of those existences which have little but peculiar or anomalous formation to distinguish them Asia is all but destitute. The truth of these remarks will be at once evident from the following tables, constructed, with as much care as posssible, ño. Cupier's Regne Animal; Shaw's Zoology; Pennant's Hist. of Quad., Genera qf Birds, Arctic Zoology, and View of Hindoostan ; Du Balde's China ; La Perouse's Poy

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ficiently long in some other authors; but the French naturalist warns his readers to receive them with extreme caution, as they abound in repetitions of the same species under different names and in transpositions of synonyms (ix. 263.). Similar considerations forbid the attempt to classify the Pisces, Insecta, or Mollusca, a tabular arrangement of which classes would not, indeed, possess much interest. A glance at these tables will exhibit, at one view, the zoological riches of Asia. Of the class Mammalia, more than a third of the whole number of species are found upon its soil, and nearly a fourth (accurately, 7-30ths) are peculiar to it. In the more important species, these K. are considerably increased. H. Asiatic uminantia are nearly two fifths of the whole; those peculiar to the soil, nearly two sevenths. The Pachydermata are in a still higher ratio; the Rodentia and Carnivora, which two orders include the more usesulfurbearing animals, in nearly the same. The strong-winged Cheiroptera are indeed almost equally numerous; but the Quadrumana are reduced to little more than a fourth of the whole, and the anomalous orders of Marsupialia and Edentata can scarcely be said to have a place in Asiatic mammalo But it is not either the actual or relative amount of animal life that constitutes the chief advantage of Asia in this respect; among its numerous species of the more important orders it reckons the most important of the species themselves. Of these, the first in rank, with reference to its locality, is, perhaps, the camel. Other animals are more generally useful to man; but without this patient and intelligent servant, a large, perhaps the largest, part of Asia would be no home for the human race. Foxpressly formed for existence in a desert, it has been domesticated for a period long antecedent to all history, and for countless generations has been the means of connecting districts otherwise ef

fectually separated, and has formed the principal wealth of their inhabitants: "The camel has this peculiarity to distinguish it from other domestic animals, that it does not follow its master in his wanderings. The other tribes, with one exception (the rein deer), have become denizens of every corner of the earth, however remote from their native home. It seems, indeed, a law, that the lower animals which herd with man shall follow him, with these two exceptions; but these, though fully as subservient and as useful as any others, have never become naturalized beyond the limits where they were first found. The attempts to establish the camel in Greece, Italy, Jamaica, and Barbadoes, have been signal and decisive failures. Yet the animal can support as great a range of climate as most others, being found in N. Tartary, as far as the shores of Lake Baikal (from 50° to 55° N. lat.), where the average temperature is scarcely, if at all, higher than that of Lapland, and where the winter's cold is frightfully severe, as well as under the scorching sun of intertropical countries. It is true, in these N. lands, its size becomes diminutive; but it preserves its hardy character, murltiplies abundantly, and forms the wealth of the Burat and Mongol not less than of the Arab and Syrian. Marco Paulo, ii. 159. ; Pallas's Spic. Zool., xi. 4. ; Du alde, iii. 483. ; Pennant's Hist. Quad., 120. ; Cuv., iv. 8. &c. Of the ox tribe, the most useful species are Asiatic, as the common ox (Bos Taurus of Linnaeus), the aurochs, the buffalo, and the yaik. Their varieties are almost numberless; but those enumerated are considered by Cuvier (iv. 28–31.) as the only distinct species, with the exception of those not found in Asia, such as the American bison, the Cape buffalo of Africa, and the musk ox: The most striking distinction between the Asiatic and nonAsiatic species of this genus, is, that the former on's are domesticated, or appear capable of domestication. In all other respects they exhibit a general resemblance, amounting almost to identity; their gregarious habits, their food, their internal formation, all are extremely similar ; nay, they breed promiscuously, and the issue of a cross are prolific: but while the Asiatic species have been domesticated as long as society has existed, the others remain to this day as untamed as when they first took possession of their native woods. A natural result of this distinction has been the distribution of the common ox from the Arctic circle to New Zealand, and round the whole world in longitude; while the American and African species appear incapable of multiplying beyond their original i. The buffaloes, or humped, are less dispersed than the straight-backed species, and appear to be less capable of supporting a low temperature; but whereever the climate is at all adapted to them, they, like the others, are found to be naturalized, and thus they have spread from India (apparently their native home) over . Africa and S. Europe; nor can there exist any reasonable doubt but that they would equally thrive in Australia, Polynesia, and Temperate America, were the experiment t

ried.

The auroch and the i....” grunting ox) are onl partially reclaimed, if, sndeed, the former do not still exist in all his original wildness; but Cuvier seems to be mistaken when he limits his locality to the Carpathians and Caucasus. Tartarian travellers describe the breed as existing in a state of semi-domestication on the Plateau of Mongolia, and breeding with the domestic cow, thereby producing a cross much stronger, and more fit for labour than the common ox. (Marco Paulo, ch. lxii. p. 52.; Rubriquis, ch. xviii. |. 57.) This creature is, next to the rhinoceros, the largest of land animals. It has been by some naturalists supposed to be the original specimen of the domestic variety; but Cuvier has

inted out some osteological differences, which plainly refer it to a different species. It has also the grunting voice of the yaik, which might by possibility be regarded as a small variety of the aurochs, were it not for the tail, which in the yaik resembles that of the horse, and is the same which composes the standards of the Turkish officers. The number of cattle fed by the wandering Tartar nations seems almost incredible: every fertile plain, and some plains that are almost sterile, are covered by them ; and some one or other of the species thrive upon the sides and even upon the summits of the wintry mountains of Tibet and Daouria. The domestic ox was unknown in Kamtchatka till introduced there by the Russians; and the musk ox appears to be unknown in Arctic Asia, though remains of the creature, have been occasionally found, especially a scull (not fossil), near the mouth of the Obi, in the latter end of the last century. (Pallas's Nov. Com. Pet. xvii. 6 1. ; Gmelin's N. C. P. v. 33.1, &c.; Du Halde, iv. passim, &c.; Timkouski, ii. 289, &c.; Pennant's Hist. Quad., i. 15–27. ; Cuvier, iv. 28–31.) Nor are sheep less plentiful in Asia than cattle, though it may perhaps be doubted whether this useful creature be not one of the very few treasures which belong originally to Europe; the derivation of the various woolly species is doubtful between the Mouflon of Italy and the Argali of Siberia. (Cuvier, iv. 27.) There is no race of animals, except the dog, so subject to vary; and

amid the mustitude of breeds now distributed all over the world, it is Fo useless, to attempt to identify the original. The Argali, found in Siberia and all the mountainous regions of Asia, is, like the European varieties, distinguished by its short-tail. Like other arctic animals, the Argali, also, changes its covering, which is rather fur than wool in the winter. In India the sheep are longtailed; and in Persia, Tartary, China, and Syria, the tail is not . elongated, but loaded with a mass of fat. The power which this creature possesses to accommodate itself to climate seems almost unlimited : in the hot plains of Asia its covering becomes coarse and scanty; while in the frozen regions of Tibet its thick wool has an under lining of the finest kind, forming an important article in manufactures and commerce. (Pallas's Spic. Zool.., xi. 3–31.58–82. ; Gmelin's Reise durch Rupland, iii. 4s6. et seq.; Reise durch Siberien, i. 168. et seq.; Du Halde, iv. pass.; Pennant, 33—46.; Cutier, iv. 25–28.) There can be little doubt but that the §: Egagrus of Gmelin, the Iber Alpium Sibericarum of Pallas, is the original stock whence all the varieties of the goat tribe are derived. It herds in the mountains of Taurus, Tartary, Persia, China, E. Siberia, and Kamtchatka. It inhabits indifferently ali climates, but assumes a very different appearance under different circumstances. he Angora goat of Cappadocia, the Tibet goat, the Bousquetin or ibex, and the domestic species, Capra Hircus, are the most noted varieties. The animal is in a very high degree serviceable to man, especially to the nomadic races of its native country; its coat surnishing an important article of manufacture, its skin the leather of which the wanderer makes his water-bottles and packing-cases: its milk is salutary in many complaints; and, §. young, it affords a nutritious and agreeable food. (Pallas's Spic. Zool., xi. 31–57. 3. Pennant's Hist. Quad., 49–56. ; Cuvier, iv. 23–25.) The rein deer is common to the arctic regions of Asia, Europe, and America. It runs wild in the snowy wastes of Siberia and Kamtchatka, but is likewise domes. ticated, and supplies to the tenants of these dreary regions the place of the horse, cow, sheep, goat, and camel. It is not, however, so extensively domesticated in N. Asia as in Lapland. (Hist. Kamtchatka, 228. ; Bell's Travels, i. 213. ; Cuvier, iv. 9.) The elk is also common to Asia, Burope, and America; it inhabits the cold regions of Siberia and Mongolia, where, though undomesticated, it is of. useful as an animal of chase, the flesh furnishing a good species of food, the tongue ...]." being esteemed a great delicacy; and the skin making a buff leather, capable, according to good authority, of turning a musket I (Pennant's Hist. Quad., i. 93–98. ; Cuvier, iv. 9.). Of other ruminants, Asia has the musk, apparently throughout its whole extent from Siberia to Ceylon (N.C. Pet., iv., 393.; Pallas's Spic. Zool. xiii. 3–45. ; Bell's Travels, i. 249., ii. 88. ; Halde, i. 63. 324; Hamilton's Way. E. Ind., i. 261.), together with a great variety of deers and antelopes ; it is, however, among these, with the llamas of America and the giraffe of Africa, unquestionably the least useful of the order, that the only uminantia wanting in Asia will be found. (Pallas's Spic. Zool., i. 3–44., xii. 3–71. ; Cuvier, iv. 5. 23

In its Pachydermatous tribes, Asia exhibits the same suo over other regions: the elephant, horse, ass, and

og, have their home in its forests and plains ; while the animals of this order absent from its soil are the useless hippopotamus, and the inferior species, Tapir, Peccory, Phaco, Damans, &c. The elephant rarely propagates in a domestic state; but it is an error to suppose that this never takes place: the tame females sometimes escape to the woods in breeding-time, and, after coupling with the wild males, return to the herd, or are brought back, and produce their young at the end of 9 months. The locality of the Asiatic elephant is limited: it does not appear to be sound W. of India or N. of the Himalaya mountains ; but in India, Malaya, Birmah, China, and the islands of the Eastern Archipelago, it is numerous both in its wild and domesticated state ; and, besides its utility as a beast of burden, and the value of its tusks as an article of commerce, it is held in great regard for many occult medicinal properties supposed to exist in its flesh, eyes, bones, &c. (Du Halde, iii. 480. ; Craufurd's Em. Si., 429. 479. ; Pennant's Hist. Quad., 150–161. ; Cuvier, iii. 326.) The horse and ass are both indigenous to Asia, and originally peculiar to that continent. Species of the same genus are indeed found in Africa, but, as in other similar cases, they seem incapable of domestication ; while the Asiatic species, especially the Arabian variety, have supplied the whole world with two of the most useful quadrupeds that wait on man. The Dziggetai, a creature intermediate in size between the horse and ass, still runs wild in the Asiatic deserts; like his congeners, he is gregarious, and, like them too, his numbers seem almost unlimited ; a similar remark will apply to the Koulan or wild ass. (Du Halde, ii. 17. 50., iv. 30. et passim ; Bell, i. 225. ; Pennant, 1–13. ; Cuvier, iii. 340–343.) The hog is so spread over the world that it is difficult to assign its original locality; the fact that "N species now peculiar are all

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African and undomesticated, seems, however, to imply that the original stock of the domestic swine is Asiatic ; the more especially as the creature is dispersed over every part of the continent from its S. extremity to the N. shores of Lake Baikal in 55° N. lat. (Bell's Trapels, i. 279. ; Pallas's Spic. Zool., ii. 3.; Crawfurd's Embassu to Siam, 479. ; Curfer, 330–332.) Two species of the rhinoceros are peculiar to Asia and the Indian islands, the latter distinguished by a double horn like the Rh. Africanus. (Du Halde, i. 239. ; Craufurd, 429. 478. ; Pennant's Hist. Quad., i. 138. : Cuvier, iii. 336.) Tropical Asia possesses most of the fiercer Carnivora: lions, tigers, leopards, black panthers, ounces, and tiger cats, of the cat genus ; wolves, hyenas, and jackals, of the dog tribe. They do not, however, all exist in equal numbers, nor equally in every part. The lion is becoming very rare in Asia ; he is now found only in the deserts of Mesopotamia, Persia, and India, and perhaps in some parts of China. He does not appear to be heard of in Siam or Cochin China; to which districts, the wolf, hyena, and jackal, as far as is yet known, are also strangers: (Crawourd's Em. St., 428.) The manul, lynx, and wild cat are most numerous in temperate Asia ; the first extending, however, almost to the arctic regions, the second stretching into both the frigid and torrid zones; but the last (scarcely ever met with beyond, the Caucasian Mountains) appears originally to have been European: The dog and fox, in all their varieties, are common to all the continent; the former, in some parts (as Kamtchatka), supplying the place of a beast of burden, in others being used as an article of food. The Angora and Persian cat are celebrated for the fineness of their fur, as is also the blue cat of Siberia; though the last, if not the two former, seem to have been derived, as well as the domestic cat, from Europe. Formidable as are some of these creatures, they constitute a considerable portion of the wealth of the countries which they inhabit; their skins form an important article of commerce; and what is remarkable, the bones of the tiger are supposed, like those of the elephant, to possess medicinal qualities, and are highly valued accordingly. (Craufurd's Em. St., 428.) . The smaller Carnivora are also found in great abundance, as the different species of martens, among which the ermine and sable stand pre-eminent for their fur; the Asiatic civets, which possess the odour, though, not the glandular excretion of the African species; and the Mangousti or ichneumon, which, attacks and destroys the most dangerous serpents : bears, o: gluttons, sea otters, morses, walrusses, seals, complete the list of Asiatic Carnivora. (Bell, i. 100., ii. 8]. et pass. ; Du Halde, pass.; Pallas's Spic. Zool. xiv. 29. et seq., Crawfurd's Em. Si., 428.478.3 Pennant's View of Hindoostan, i. 193—197. et pass.; Hist, Quad., 219–300. : Cuvier, ii. 23–61.) The Insectivora and Rodentia consist, the first, of hedgehogs, shrew-mice, and moles in their various species; the latter, of the more important animals, beavers, hares, rabbits, lemmings, marmots, squirrels, dormice, porcupines, jerboas, rats, mice, &c. Of these, the Asiatic species are very numerous, and they form, with the smaller Carnivora, the principal wealth of Siberia, since among them are found many that afford some of the richest furs, especially in the winter, when the covering of the creatures becomes thicker in texture, finer in quality, and generally superior in colour. Animals of this order do not ". to be numerous in s. Asia. Crawfurd remarks, that the hare and rabbit are unknown in the lower parts of Siam. The porcupines, on the other hand, are not found in the N. regions; and the jerboas seem peculiar to the wide open plains. (Gmelin's I?cise durch Sib., passim ; Crassus's Em. Si., 428. 478. : Curier, iii. 63–95. ; Pennant's Hist. Quad., 364–469.: Pallas's Stin., pass.; Com. Pet., pass.) Of the Quadruniana the principal Asiatic species are the orang outang and the gibbons; the smaller apes and monkeys are numerous in the S., especially in India, China, and the islands. As a general fact, the Asiatic monkeys are inferior in structure and intolicence to the African, but much superior to those of America. ... (Curier, i. 207– 220.) The Cheiroptera are numerous all over the world : they seem, however, to abound more in, the Asiatic islands than on the continent : some of them, as the Roussette of the Sunda and Molucca isles, are accounted delicate food ; others, as the Timor bat, rather large and destructive; but the more powerful and mischievous species of this order appear to be American, and strangers to the soil of Asia. (Pallas's Spic. Zool., iii. 3–35. ; Ponmant's Hist. Quad., 548–563. ; Cuvier, ii. 4–15.) . The Marsupialia of this continent consist of but 2 species of Phalangers, Phal. Rufus and Phal. Chrysorrhos. (Bofon, xiii. 10.; Temminck, 12.) They are peculiar to the Moluccas, Java, and Celebes, exhibiting thus, at the extremity of Asia, the first indication of the anomalous Mammalogy of Australia. The single Edentata is the short-tailed Manis, which, like the last order, is peculiar to the Indian islands, except some few instances found in Bengal. (Pennant, 505 ) Marsden (Sumatra, p. 18.) seems to imply that the African long-tailed Manis

is sometimes found in that island. Lastly, the Cetacea consists of dolphins, manati, porpoises, sea unicorns, and whales, of which some one or other species is found on all the coasts of Asia. (Pennant, 536—545, ; Cuvier, iv. 430–443.) A single glance at the table will exhibit the fact, that the Ornithology of Asia is less rich than its Mammalogy : the former containing considerably less than a fourth of all the known species, while the satter possesses very much more than one third: the continent maintaining, however, in this respect, as in the former, the peculiar character of utility in its possessions: for of the {. unquestionably the most useful order to man, the number of its species is between a third and a half of the whole, and o a third of the whole is peculiar to its soil. Among these species are reckoned the original stocks of all the domestic poultry, except the turkey, which is American ; the pheasants, partridges, peacocks. and whole flights of pigeons. The species in which it is most deficient are among the grouse, quails, and pintados; but there is scarcely a genus of this useful order of which Asia is wholly destitute. Of other birds, the order Grallae surnishes the ostrich, crane, heron, stork, bittern, plover, spoonbill, ibis, &c., many of which are highly useful in tropical climates as destroyers of serpents and other dangerous reptiles: the Scansores consist of those climbing birds, parrots, parroquets, woodpeckers, macaws, &c., the beautiful plumage of which add so much to the splendour of equinoxial forests; and the Syndactyles (the smaller order of bright plumages), of beeeaters, kingfishers, and hornbills; o, last, from their greater size and peculiar habits, have far less resemblance to the other genera of the order than they have to each other. In all these orders, it will be observed that Asia is relatively rich, except with regard to the Scansores, which, having little but their beauty to recommend them, are the least useful of any yet enumerated. In the others the proportion becomes still lower; and though among the palmipede, petrels, albatrosses, pelicans, gulls, geese, ducks, swans, &c., Asia has some which the natives have turned to account, as the great cormorant, taught by the Chinese to fish : yet the great home of this order of birds lies in other quarters; America, Africa, Australia, and even Europe. Of birds of prey (Accipitres) Asia has its eagles, vultures, falcons, owls, and hawks; but here. again, the number of species is comparatively small, though in some cases the individuals of a species are ... numerous: and in the 4 remaining orders, consisting of all the tribes of graniverous and insectiverous birds, shrikes, pies, thrushes, crows, swallows, goatsuckers, birds of Paradise, and the various songsters, the Asiatic woods are very poor; their chief tenants, of these orders, being generally such as are distinguished for beauty of plumage. Song birds are very scarce. (Pallas's Spic. Zool., iv. v., vi. ; Gmelin, i. 48–76. 152., ii. 163–193., iii. 86–106. 249–25l. 364. 378, &c.; Pennant's Gen. Birds, pass, ; Craufurd's Em. St., 432– 480. ; Dr Halde, pass.; Cuvier, vi-viii.) In Reptiles, as in birds, Asia is less abundant than some other regions. Of the Chelonia it has several fine species of edible turtle, and others that are chiefly valuable for their shell. Lizards are very numerous #, individuals, though not in genera, and o. not in species ; among these, 2 or 3 kinds of alligators are very destructive in the rivers of India. Gof serpents, the most dangerous is the Indian Python (improperly confounded with the boa constrictor); but there are many others highly venomous, and some which are extremely beautiful and quite harmless. Frogs and toads abound in all marshy places, but it seems doubtful whether they be of many different kinds. (Pallas's Spic. Zool., vii.; Gmclin, iii. 58, &c.; Pennant's Piew of Hindoostan, pass.; Du Halde, [..." ; Curier, ix.) The seas and rivers appear to possess every known kind of fish, and some that are soul. (Pallas, vii. viii.): and the insect tribe are numerous throughout the whole

continent; the ravages of some, as the locust, in Arabia,

Syria, and Persia, being far more dreaded than the attacks of carnivorous animals. (Pallas, ix. x. ; Cuvier, ix. xiv. xv.) 1W. RAces or People AND LANGUAgrs. Not only the majority of the human race in number, but .. the greatest variety in the species, is found within the limits of Asia. The subject, as well from extent, nature, and, in many respects, deficiency of information, is one of great difficulty; but we shall, nevertheless, offer some observations upon it, founded on the physical form, intellectual character, and genius of the language of the races. Some of these families or races consist of many millions, while others embrace but a few thousands; a circumstance which has naturally arisen from the favourable or unfavourable position in which they have been located on their original distribution, and perhaps also from an intrinsic difference in the capacity of the races themselves,—causes which have multiplied some into numerous, powerful, and civilised nations, and kept others in the condition of petty and rude tribes. We begin our classification from the west. The first family, which may be called the Caucasian, comprises all the aboriginal inhabitants of the mountainous region lying between the Black Sea and the Caspian, from about the 38th to the 42d degree of N. lat. It includes the mountaineers of the valleys of the Caucasus – such as the Abasians, Ossetes or Iron, Lesghians, and Kisti ; and, in the more level country, or wider valleys lying to the south of the Caucasus, the Georgians, Mingrelians, and Armenians. In personal form this family may be described as European, but in mind Asiatic. The face is of an oval form; the forehead high, and expanded; the nose elevated, with a slight convexity; the mouth small; the lips moderate in size, and the chin full and round. The complexion is fair, without, however, the clearness of the European; the eyes are generally dark, and the hair of the head rarely of any other colour than black, or brown ; and, indeed, it may here be once for all observed, that the great variety in the colour of this tegument. with which we are familiar, is confined to Europe, – black being nearly universal in every other part cf the .. The hair on other parts of the body, with the Caucasian family, is abundant; the stature is nearly equal to that of the European, and the form of the whole person is symmetrical and handsome. The personal beauty of this race has induced Blumenbach and some other eminent naturalists, to assume its form as the type of the European, or first of off. great varieties into which they have, fancifully enough, divided the whole of mankind. They have even gone the length of fancying that the entire #. family sprung from the mountaineers of the Caucasus; an hypothesis for which it is almost unnecessary to say that there is not a tittle of historical, philological, or any other evidence. Notwithstanding undoubted advantages of physical form, no nation of this family has ever made any eminent advance in civilisation. . Many of them, with a country not unlike Switzerland, though with a better soil and climate, are, at the present day, not more advanced in civilisation than the Swiss or Germans, as described by Caesar near 2000 years ago. The Armenians alone of the whole family have made a considerable, though far from a distinguished progress. About five centuries before the Christian aera they constituted an extensive society, and even exercised some influence in the political events of Western Asia: they alone of all the nations and tribes o the Caucasian family, possess a national literature; but even their invention of alphabetic writing dates only from A. D. 406, for previously to that time they used the characters of the Greeks and Persians: always acting a secondary and subordinate part, they have been successively subdued by Persians, Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Turks, and Russians. Language, it should here be observed, considered as the test of unity of race, must be viewed, as respects its genius and the general character of its formation, and not by the identity or dissimilarity of individual words, which, through the accidents of conquest, settlement, religion, and commerce, often find

their way even into languages of very opposite genius. As happens in rude and early stages of society, in every part of the world without exception, the number of languages spoken by the nations of the Caucasian family is very great. The tribes inhabiting the valleys and mountains of the Caucasus are said to speak seven distinct languages, besides many dialects; a number, however, which falls far short of those spoken within a similar extent of territory in many parts of America as well as of the islands of the Indian Ocean. The only language of the Caucasian family, of which Europeans have any critical knowledge, is the Armenian, of which we possess dictionaries and grammars: those who have examined it consider it as quite peculiar and distinct from all other known tongues; it abounds in rough consonants: its structure is exceedingly complex: it has an article at the end of nouns: its nouns and adjectives have each ten inflections in the singular and as many in the plural, and the verb is agreeably varied by corresponding changes. All this, which applies, however, more especially to the ancient language, implies that the Armenian is a primitive and original tongue, which, like the Sanscrit, Arabic, Greek, the Latin generally, and for the most part the German, has suffered little change in structure from the commixture of foreign nations and their languages. The modern Armenian has been simplified in its grammatical structure by the mixture of the people with foreign nations, especially the Persians and Turks; changes similar to, but not so extensive as, the Latin language, has undergone in its conversion into Italian, Spanish, French, &c. &c. From this account of the Armenian language, taken together, with differences in the physical form and montal qualities of this people, it is not improbable but that, on a better acquaintance with both, it may be found a family entitled to be classed separately from the inhabitants of the Caucasus. The second Asiatic family has been called by philologists and naturalists the Arabian or §. the last name being given to it on the hypothesis that the whole is derived from the eldest son of Noah : it embraces all the aboriginal inhabitants of Palestine, Asia Minor, Syria, and Arabia from the east coast of the Mediterranean and Red Sea, u to the west coast of the Persian Gulph. o brunette complexion; more or less intense black or dark brown eyes; long, lank, and almost always biack crinal hair; bushy large beards, generally black, but sometimes of a reddish tinge; an oval face in bold and distinct relief, with a nose always elevated, and not unfrequently aquiline; high forehead, and stature nearly of the European mean; — are among the most prominent characteristics of this family, as we occasionally see it exhibited in one of its handsomest forms, the Jewish: we say occasionally, for the differences existing between the Jews settled in different foreign nations show plainly enough, that they have more or less mixed their blood with the people among whom they have established themselves; for they are fair in Germany, brown in Poland, and nearly black in India. Compared with the European, the whole form of the Arabian is spare, slender, and of small bulk and weight. The wrists are comparatively slender, the hand small, and the fibre throughout soft and flexible. These last characters, however, it is to be observed, belong more or less to the inhabitants of all warm climates. In intellectual power and energy, the N rabian family stands un4

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