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The followin of each prov.

of all remain as they existed whilst they formed to the close of 1840, has been found, by adding independent states, with the exception of the the surplus of the births over the deaths, to the Italian provinces, whose frontiers and divisions date only from 1815.

table shows the area

and pop.

division, of no less importance

amount found by enumeration in all the provinces, except Hungary, in 1834. The pop. of Hungary and Transylvania—in which countries the nobles and the clergy make no returns to

than the political one, is noticed in the margin; their number, and which are not subject to the showing to what race the mass of the inhab. of military conscription — can only be found by ap

each prov. belongs.

The amount of pop., down proximation.

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In S. Hungary the greater part of several coun. ties, besides Croatia and Slavonia, are inhabited by Slavonians. On the N. side of the Danube, 11 counties of the prov., “on this side the Danube,” and a great part of the prov. “beyond the Theiss,” are Slavonian; the latter prov. containing the Rusniaks, or Red Russians; the former the Slowaks, or Slavonians of Moravian descent. The total number of Slavonians in Hungary is estimated at about 6,000,000, inhabiting 5,789 towns and villages. The Magyars (Hungarians) are 4,600,000 in number, dwelling in 4,739 towns and villages; the Wallachians have 1,024, and the Germans 921 towns and villages. The various races of the inhabitants may be classed under the following divisions: — S1. Avowraws in the N. prov. Bohemia, Silesia, Moravia,

Considerable difficulty attends the determination of the precise rate of increase of the pop. and of mortality in the Austrian empire, owing to the ravages occasioned by the cholera morbus. This disease visited every prov. twice within the last ten years, and caused, for the time, a serious decrease of pop. From the experience, however, of the years in which this epidemic did not prevail, it seems that the increase in the greater number of provs. is very rapid. The following tables have been o expressly for this work, from the annual official returns published in the Vienna Gazette. . No returns are given for Hungary or Transylvania: —

Annual Average of five Years, from 1833 to 1837 inclusive, for the under-mentioned Provinces.

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the density and distribution of its population. In Galicia and Hungary, both agricultural countries with comparatively little trade, the villages are usually very large and *R. but

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Table, showing the Increase of the Population, &c., calculated from the Returns of each Province for two Years, in which there was no Cholera.

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From the extreme strictness of the Austrian prov, administration, these official returns, extending over a population of upwards of 20 millions, form a most valuable contribution to the statistics of European population and mortality. It will be observed, that, in Galicia, where the cheapness of provisions encourages early marriages, not only the increase of É. is greatest, but the number of illegitimate births is remarkably small in proportion. A nearly similar result is given by the Italian provs., in which an unremitting industry and judicious distribution of labour afford a competence even where the prices of provisions are higher. For a comparison of the prices we refer to the head Trade, &c. In the calculation of the proportional longevity in the provs., the same order does not occur which is shown in the increase of the population. The average of six years, for the above-named provinces, gives 338 individuals in 10,000 who attain 80 years and upwards; of which number Dalmatia had the most (during the six years 666), and Galicia the fewest (208). Of 100,000 individuals 82 attained 100 years and upwards: here, again, Dalmatia stands first, with 196 in six years; Galicia and the other Slavonic provinces rank next; Lombardy (21), and Venice (14), show the fewest. Face of the Country.—Mountains.—The Austrian empire exhibits every ..". of surface. Two grand mountain ranges, branchin rom the central group of the Alps, traverse it in different directions, throwing out numerous and extensive dependent branches. The first of these, which has been termed the Hercyno-Carpathian chain, divides the regions of the German Ocean and Baltic from those of the Black Sea and Mediterranean. Leaving the canton of Grisons, in Switzerland, this mountain range traverses Vorarlberg in a N. direction to the lake of Constance: thence it passes through Wirtemberg and Bavaria, separating the regions of the Rhine and Elbe from that of the Danube, and re-enters Austria on the N. E. frontier of Bohemia, where it throws off an extensive branch of the Erz (Ore) mountains, which stretch into that kingdom and into Saxony. Taking a S.E. direction from the sources of the Eyer, this chain runs, under the name of the “Bohemian §: rest,” nearly to the Danube, where it once more diverges to the N.E., and, dividing Moravia from Bohemia, sends out a branch into Prussian Silesia and Lusatia, named the Riesen (Giant) mountains. On the frontiers of Galicia and o it joins the Carpathians, which branch off to the Danube near Presburg. The central Carpathians form the boundary between the above-named provinces, as far as the sources of the Sau and Dniester, where a chain of low heights stretch from them into the Russian territories, separating the region of the Vistula from that of the Dniester. The eastern Carpathians cover the N.E. counties of Hungary, the Bukowina, and Transylvania, as far as the Danube. The second mountain range, which has much more elevated summits, and covers a larger tract of country, divides the region of the Mediterranean from that of the Black Sea : it stretches from the frontiers of Switzerland and Piedmont in three chains, which, through Tyrol, run nearly parallel to each other. . The central chain exhibits the primitive formations of granite and slate: its summits are covered with eternal snow, above the elevation of 8,000 feet. Following the right bank of the Inn, as far as the point of junction of Salzburg and Carinthia, it takes a N.E. direction through Styria into Hungary, and subsides in the Leitha chain near the Danube. The two accompanying chains are of limestone: that on the N. covers northern Tyrol, Salzburg,

and great part of the Archduchy of Austria, and is intersected by the numerous streams which flow from the central chain to the Danube. The S. parallel chain sends its ramifications from S. Tyrol into the kingdom of Lombardy; and, passing through Illyria and the Croatian frontier district, unites with the Balkhan on the borders of Bosnia. Three important branches strike off from this chain, one of which stretches between the rivers Raab and Drave, under the name of the Bakony Forest, into o a second divides the region of {{.. Drave from the valley of the Save ; and the third, stretching along the Adriatic through Dalmatia, is called ly the natives, from its dark colour, Monte Nero, or Negro. he length of the different mountain chains in the empire, when added together, exceeds 3,000 miles. he principal valleys, in Austria, are situated in the southern provinces, and run parallel with the Alps, in the direction of W. to E. They are found in Tyrol, Salzburg, Styria, and Illyria. Croatia belongs, for the greater part, to the valley of the Save ; and Slavonia to the fertile vale of the Drave. Large plains are also found within the empire; they follow, for the most part, the course of the principal rivers. Of the plain of the Po, between the Adriatic Sea and the ...]". the Apennines, the northern part belongs to Austria. The plain or basin of Vienna, which ...: from the Leitha mountains to the heights of Moravia, is traversed by the Danube and the March. In Hungary there are two very extensive plains ; one in Upper Hungary, situated between the Carpathians and the Bakony forest; the second, extending from the E. fall of the last-named forest and the Matra hills to the rise of the Transylvanian mountains, and from the central Carpathian chain on the north, to the mountains of Slavonia on the south. This, the largest plain in cen tral Europe, is traversed by the Danube, Theiss, Maros, Drave, and their tributaries. The plain of the Vistula and the Sau, in Galicia, is o of the great level which stretches from the fall of the Carpathians on the north to the Baltic Sea. Rivers, Lakes, &c. – The Austrian empire belongs to the regions of the Rhine, Danube, Flbe, Oder, Wistula, Dniester, and Po. The Rhine forms part of the frontier of Vorarlberg, towards Switzerland from near Feldkirch, until it falls into the Lake of Constance. The Danube enters the Austrian territories at Engelhardt's Zell, near Passau, where its depth is 17 feet, and its breadth 650 feet: in its course through the rovinces of Upper and Lower Austria and Hungary, t receives all the waters falling from the two grand mountain ranges, described above; the chief amongst which are, on its l. bank, the March, Waag, Gran, Theiss, &c.; on its r. bank, the Traun, Ens, Raab, Drave, Save, &c. All of these rivers, with many of their tributaries, are navigable, and with the gradual development of the resources of this vast empire, must afford facilities for commercial communication of the easiest kind, and on a gigantic scale. The Elbe has its source in Bohemia, which it traverses in a direction from N. to S., being navigable for barges from Prague after its junction with the Moldau, which is navigated from Budweis. Besides the Moldau, it receives the Adler, Sapawa, Wattawa, Eger, and other streams of inferior note, before it crosses the frontier of Saxony. The Oder has its source in the chain of hills which connects the Silesian Mountains with the Carpathians; it leaves the Austrian states without assuming the importance of a navigable river. The Vistula is formed by the junction of two mountain streams, which fall from the Carpathians, near Jablunka. It is navigable nearly along the whole of its course from Oswieczin to Zaw {{..."; distance of upwards of 200 miles, in which it forms the Austrian frontier. It receives the Dunajec, the Wisloka, and the Sau, the last of which is navigable from Przemysl, along its course of 120 miles. The Dniester, which rises at the N. side of the Carpathians, where they branch off towards the Danube, through Transylvania, is navigable from the little town of Koniuszki, 38 miles S. W. of Lem. berg. In its course through Galicia, it receives 14 streams upon its left, and 6 mountain-brooks upon its right bank. The sources of the Sau, which falls into the Vistula, are situated farther to the E. in the Carpathians than those of the Dniester ; and where these two rivers are large enough to be navigated by boats, they are almost connected by a series of lakes or ponds stretching through the sandy plain which extends from Przemysl and Jaroslow to Jaworow and Komarno, thus offering a natural communication between the Black Sea and the Baltic. The Pruth rises in the same chain of hills, but soon enters to Moldavia. The main channel of communication for Lombardy is afforded by the Po, which, in its course through and along the borders of the Austrian territories, receives from the Alps the Ticino, Adda, Oglio, and Mincio, besides smaller streams. The Adige, the Tagliamento, and the Lisonzo, traverse the provinces of Venice and Illyria to the Adriatic.

Lakes, i. — The Lake of Constance may be counted amongst the Austrial, lakes, although only a portion of its E. shore belongs to Austria. On the S. side of the Alps, the Lakes Maggiore, Lugano, Como, Iseo, and Garda, are the most considerable. On the N. side of the same mountains, the largest lakes are those of Atter, Gmünden, or Traun, Hallstadt, and Augsee, which are connected together by the Traun, and the lakes of St. Gilgen and Monel e. The lake of Zirknitz, with others in the limestone hills of Illyria, although remarkable as natural curiosities, are of trifling extent. The Neusiedler and Balaton lakes, in Upper Hungary, are the largest in the empire; the water of the former is saltish. Climate. — Four distinct climates are found within the limits of this extensive empire. The most southerly part of Dalmatia produces the palm-tree, and at Ragusa, the mean elevation of the thermometer is stated o Blumenbach to be + 1 128’ R., or 57°3′ Fahr. : upon a line drawn along the S. foot of the Alps, the mean temperature at Milan is + 99 4'; at Temeswar, +9° 2'. On the N. side of that chain, in Linz, it is +7°6’; in Vienna, +8° 5', (nearly the climate of Strasburg) ; Buda, 8° 8' : in Klausenburg, +8° 3’. In Prague, the mean heat is +7° 9’; in Olmutz, +7° 3”; in Troppau, +7° 3’; in Lemberg +6° 1' R. Wine and Indian corn do not thrive to the N. of the last drawn line, except in unusually favourable situations ; but corn of all other descriptions, flax, hemp, and hardy fruits, attain perfection. The observations, at the observatory of Vienna, for 1837, give for the mean temperature only +7° 2' R.; 26 days in that year were clear, 172 cloudy, with sunshine; 166 cloudy. Itainy days were 144, snow 58; and there were 139 fogs, 26 thunder storms, and 17 storms. In the northern provinces, the air is mostly clear and salubrious. he greatest quantity of rain falls in the kingdom of Lombardy, the o: quantity in the central districts of Hungary and in Dalmatia, which often suffer from excessive drought. In this last province, the fall of rain averages 12 inches: at Vienna the average was, for 1836, 15-99 inches; for 1837, 15-86. Tyrol has many varieties of climate, resulting from the elevation of its mountains in a southerly situation. The classification given by Francini for Switzerland has been found to suit Tyrol with equal precision.—1. The region of the vine, from 700 ft. to 1,700 ft. above the level of the sea. – 2. The region of the oak, from 1,700 ft. to 2,800 st.—3. The region of the beech, 2,800 st. to 4,100 ft. ; the walnut only reaches 3,500 ft.; the plum-tree, 3,720 ft. ; pear and apple-trees, 4,100: but little wheat is grown in this region ; but the meadows are excellent. — 4. The region of fir, from 4,100 to 5,500 ft. – 5. The lower Alpine o famous for its pastures, 5,500 ft. to 6,500 ft.—6. The Upper Alpine region, 6,500 ft. to 8,200 ft., above which is the region of eternal sint ow. Natural Productions, Minerals, &c. — A statement of the produce of the mines in the Austrian empire is given under the head manufactures. We may here remark, that the amount produced is very far below the capacities of a country so highly endowed with mineral riches, that the extent of this source of wealth and industry is very imperfectly explored, and that what is worked neither attracts the amount of capital nor the degree of skill necessary to a successful result. In that statement, the amount of iron is not distinguished from the quantity of native steel obtained in Styria and Illyria; the only part of Europe in which the carbonated iron ore occurs, and where it is found in masses that require rather to be uarried than excavated. Platina is not found in ustria. Of the rarer metals, titan is found near Roese, in Hungary, uran in the Sudesen in Bohemia, tellurium in o, and Transylvania. Besides the opals of Hungary, the most beautiful that are known, an inferior kind is found in Moravia; carnelian, beryl, chalcedon, topaz, garnet, and amethyst, in Bohemia and Hungary, of superior quality." Beds of coal have been found in nearly every province, but the cheapness and abundance of ...? |. hitherto prevented much search from being made after them. Upwards of 100 descriptions of marble, quartz for the manufacture of glass, clays for porcelain and mineral dies of all kinds, are also found in abundance. Of mineral springs, no country has so great a number ; upwards of 100 are annually frequented, for the purposes of bathing and drinking the waters; amongst which Carlsbad, Toeplitz, Marienbad, Ischl, Gastein, Baden, Pistyan, Treutchin, Mehadia, and Roquero, attract visiters from all parts of the world. Animals. – All the domestic animals found in England are met with in the Austrian empire. Exclusive of these the brown bear is indigenous in the Alps and the Carthians, the wolf in both these mountain chains, and the x is found in all the provinces. The chamois, red and £i. deer, roebucks, wild boars, all descriptions of game

* Graphite, or black lead, occurs in Bohemia and in Lower Austria. Sulphur, vitriol, saltpetre, the latter especially, in Hungary, are extensively obtained.

known in England, with the exception of grouse, and several kinds of birds unknown in our islands, are objects of chase. The urus and elk are sometimes found in the E. Carpathians, but only as stragglers. The ibex is nearly exterminated. ii. of wild horses of a diminutive size range the o and even where the improvement of the br is attended to, they are allowed to rove almost in a state of nature. The golden eagle inhabits Slavonia, and other large species are found in the Rhetian and Noric Alps. Herons of various kinds, some of the choicest plumage, abound in the morasses of Hungary; and there also the land tortoise is found in great numbers. The same morasses furnish an abundant supply of leeches, whence . are regularly transport-d by means of a series of inds, that serve as so many stations, to Paris and the W. of Europe. Wax is an inportant product of the Bukowine and other S. provinces. Cantharides are found in several parts of ungary; cochineal in Galicia; and pearls of a beautiful water are annually fished in the Moldau. Products ( Pegetable). — These comprise the different sorts of corn and of cultivated grasses found in Europe, with vines, flax and hemp, tobacco, hops, saffron, wead, some species of indigo, yellow woad or rhus cofinus, galls, and an immense variety of fruits, &c. The forests are of vast extent, and will, no doubt, come to be of great value. The mountain chains of the northern rovinces and of the Alps are covered with fir, pine, |...}. larch, &c. The low grounds, including the vast forest of Bukony in Hungary, with others in Transylvania, the Bukowine, Galicia, Slavonia, &c., produce oaks of a gigantic size, with beech, ash, alder, elm, &c. Every prov. is well supplied with wood, with the exception of Low. Austria, (into which large quantities are imported from Tyrol and Up. Austria, to meet the great consumption of the capital,) Lombardy Proper, and Hungary, where, from neglect of management and bad economy, the stock has in many parts been alarmingly reduced. In the other provs. the forests are well managed ; and care is taken to supply the annual consumption by sowing and planting in proportion to the quantity selled. The proprietors of estates are obliged, in Austria, as all over Germany, to employ foresters, who have been educated in forest schools, and who have passed the necessary examination. Their business is to calculate exactly the quantity of timber that may be felled without diminishing the stock. The simple means at their command in back ranges of mountains are generally applied with great ingenuity to forward the felled trees to the common channels of communication. A kind of hollow railroad of timber (Riesen), sloping down the side of a mountain, often several thousand yards in leng”h. and down which the trunks of trees are precipitated, is one means of transport. The trunks are raised from a valley to the summit of a neighbouring chain, over which they ...'. be transported, by means of ropes and pulleys, worked by a rude water-wheel temporarily erected by the woodman on a little brook (Holzanofoug); and the springs, near the summits being led into a temporary reservoir on the ridge of the hills, the burden thus raised is received by it in order to be precipitated into the hollow on the other side, when the sluices confining the waters are opened (Klause). But while this ingenuity is shown in the management of the mountain foresttracts of fir, the far richer wooded districts of Slavonia. the military frontier, and . Hungary, in which the more valuable forest trees attain a size unusual in Europe, are neglected, and but little known. The carri , lostrument, and cabinet-makers of Vienna (who furnish the cheapest goods of the kind in Europe), are supplied from the better known, and rather more accessible forests of Illyria and Lombardy; but the want of capital is equally visible in this branch of trade as in the mines, and but little management is displayed either in economising the stock or in seasoning the supply brought to market. The forests cover more than a third part of the productive soil of the empire, and are distributed in the following proportions, according to the statement of Becker (Haridel's Lericon, Vienna, 1837), who, we have been assured, had access to official sources of information : –

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We may remark, that André, a competent judge, esti: mates the annual produce (of 1 joch = 1.4 acres) of well managed forest, as averaging 3 cubic Vienna fathoms of timber and fire-wood. Becker does not give the probable annual produce of the Hungarian forests; and we do not think it necessary to supply the deficiency from other authors, without access to authentic information. Some idea of the extent of the oak forests may however be formed, from the fact that nearly 200,000 bushels of gallapples are annually exported, besides what is used in the country. The distribution of the forests is however very irregular ; and, while in the mountainous tracts they are of immeasurable extent, the want of fire-wood is so great in the plains, that dried dung is a common substitute for faggots. In Transylvania, especially, and the military frontier, the forests are both of great extent, and filled with trees of the finest quality, equally adapted for the use of the builder and the naval architect. Facilities for Internal Communication and for Co merce. — We have already alluded to the laudable attention paid by the Austrian government to the means of communication throughout the empire. From Pavia, on the S.W. frontier, an uninterrupted Macadamized road conducts the traveller through fine provinces to Czernowitz in the Bukowina, a distance of upwards of 1,120 m. From Milan to Vienna there are three lines of road, and through Galicia the line is double. Three grand high-roads from Venice, and two from Trieste, lead to Tyrol and Germany, and double lines run from each of these cities to the capital. Prague is connected with Vienna by numerous lines of communication, which are continued to the frontiers of Bavaria, Saxony, and Prussian Silesia. Materials for making roads abound in every province ; and the art is well understood in Austria, where the roads are equal to those of Prussia. Upwards of 60 mountain passes, through the most extensive ranges of mountains that any single state possesses, have been made not only practicable, but commodious for travelling and commercial purposes. The lowest of these, as measured from the level of the sea, is perhaps the road along the Danube from Drenkova to Orsova, in the Transylvanian military frontier. The most elevated is that of the Stelvio or Wörmser Joch, in S. Tyrol. In length these passes vary from 10 to 70 miles. On the roads across the Alps from Tyrol and Illyria the greatest sums have been expended ; their importance in a military point of view, and the necessity of facilitating the communication with a powerful and not very well affected province, rendering them o; The roads across the Splügen, the pass of Finstermünz, and the Wörmser Joch to the Lake of Como, must be classed amongst the greatest undertakings of the kind. The road over the Wörmser Joch passes over an elevation of 8,400 feet above the level of the sea, and is protected in dangerous parts by covered ways of solid stone, which receive the fall of the avalanches, and cause them to glide into the depths below. This undertaking has surassed the passages of the Simplon and Mount Cenis, 9th in boldness and splendour of execution. But the exertions of private industry have not remained far behind those of the state. In Hungary many nobles still consider it a privilege not to be obliged to contribute to the cost of making roads which tend so much to enhance the value of landed property. Individuals, however, have at no time been wanting amongst that respectable body who were sufficiently enlightened to set a laudable example on this point. A joint-stock company, chiefly composed of Hungarian nobles, undertook the execution of a road between Carlstadt in Croatia, and Fiume on the Adriatic Sea; it was carried over part of the Julian Alps in a very splendid manner. On that part, known by the name of the Karst, the porous nature of the rocks made it necessary to construct cisterns to catch the rain-water; and stout parapets have been added, which protect travellers and carriages against the furious blasts of the Bora, which, without this check, would sweep away every thing in its course. This road was commenced in 1803, and named after the Archduchess Maria Louisa. Two other lines, one between the same oints, the other running from Carlstadt to Zeng and Sarlopago, across the same mountain range, each of which was scarcely less expensive, although not so serviceable as the “ Louisenstrasse,” had been erected by, and called after, the emperors Charles VI. and Joseph #. The iron railway between Budweis in Bohemia, and Linz in Upper Austria, finished in 1829, was executed at the aost of a private company, and has since been extended on the S. side of the Danube as far as Gmunden. It is 75 m. in length, but consists of one line only, and the carriages are drawn by horses. The line from Budweis to Linz was rendered unnecessarily expensive by illjudged economy in the first instance, as it became necessary to exchange the original wooden rails, covered with metal plates, for others of cast-iron. The traffic, has chiefly consisted hitherto in the salt conveyed from the mines of Upper Austria, to be consumed in Bohemia.

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This left a profit to be divided amongst the new shareholders, to whom the first proceeds are guaranteed to a certain amount, beyond which the shareholders in general are to participate. The length of this line is 32 miles ; and the cost, inclusive of magazines, station-houses, 45 carriages, and 230 waggons, did not exceed 65,000l. The charge for transport of goods is 3 kr. (1+d.) per cwt. A second railway, upon a similar plan, was commenced about the same time between Prague and Pilsen in Bohemia, but was abandoned for want of funds, when only 39 miles of the distance had been completed. Prince C. E. o purchased it subsequently of the company, and let it to an enterprising individual, who keeps it in repair, and is said to derive some advantage from it. The railroad, now constructing by a joint-stock company, from Vienna to Bochnia in Galicia, for steamcarriages, will have a length of nearly 400 m. It follows the valley of the March or Morava, through Moravia, as far as Napagedl, with side branches; one to Presburg, along the Danube, another along the Thaya to Brünn, and a third following the March to Olmutz. From Napagedl the line follows the Beczwa, a tributary of the March, to Prerau, where it crosses over the heights near Weisskirchen, into the valley of the Oder, passing the †. European water-shed, with a rise of Ift. in 400ft. branch here follows the Oder and the Oppa to Troppau, where it is to unite with the Prussian §o !. way: while the main line crosses the heights near Seibersdorf into the valley of the Vistula, and throwing off another short branch to Bielitz and Biala, follows that river to Cracow, whence, with a gentle undulation, it reaches Bochnia, leaving Wieliczka a little to the S. This railroad is to be for steam-carriages; and the total estimate of its cost, with station houses, &c., amounts to 20,000l., per German mile, – which was subscribed in 12,000 shares, of 1,000 fl. each. Of the probable importance of this, spirited undertaking, not only for the internal, but also for the foreign trade of the empire, we shall have an opportunity of speaking under the head Trade, &c. The sanction of the government was obtained, in the year 1838, for a railway between Vienna and Raab in Hungary ; as, however, in granting the privilege, a reserve was made in favour of any compan undertaking the establishment of a railroad from the capital to Trieste, there are grounds for supposing that "t is in contemplation to give every possible aid to such an enterprise whenever it is undertaken. The face of the country through which a railroad from the Danube to Trieste has to pass, presents the greatest difficulties that have as yet been encountered by a railroad company; but when we consider the means at the command of the Austrian government, the circumstance that the materials lie of the track itself, and the probable immense gain upon a line which should unite two such provinces as Galicia and Hungary with the sea, it is rather matter of surprise that it has not as yet been attempted, than that the difficulties should discourage from the undertaking. Between Venice and Milan the works have been alr begun o a railway, intended to be carried to. Padua, Vicenza, Verona, Peschiera, on the Lake of Garda, Brescia, and Treviglio, to Milan. The length of this railway will be 300 kilometres, and the estimate of the outlay gives 1,8001. per kilometre, including the cost of buildings and carriages. We have seen that the river system of Austria is upon a grand scale, and it is likewise, to a great extent, made available for the purposes of internal navigation. In order to give an idea of the facilities for commerce which this immense empire possesses, we subjoin a rough estimate of the length of the navigable rivers, lakes, and canals; measured on the beautiful map drawn up from actual survey by the Imperial Engineer Corps, and published in 1832. The sength of each river is measured by straight lines, following the principal bends. but not the windings of the stream; and the result is, for

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No allowance is made in this calculation (which is intended only to draw attention to so important a feature of these o: countries, and is offered in the absence of an authenticated statistical statement,) for the double beds or arms of the Danube, the Theiss, and other rivers in Hungary. If these be taken into account, the length of the navigable (or rather of the navigated) rivers might perhaps be trebled. It is remarkable that §§ the Danube and the Dniester are interrupted in their course to the Black Sea by rocky prominences in their beds, which impede their free navigation. It has however been proved, that although a difficult and expensive undertaking, it is by no means impracticable to free the bed of both rivers from rocks. The hint thus given by nature seems scarcely to have been required to point out the superior advantages of a communication with the Adriatic in the present state of Euroean trade ; and which is likewise nearly accomplished n a natural way by means of the little river Kulpa, a tributary of the Save, which, when its water is high. may be navigated to the heart of Croatia, to within 70 miles of Fiume, and which might with ease be transformed into a regular canal. A better line of communication might perhaps also be established between Carlstadt and the Adriatic near the fall of the Villebit Mountains to the S. of Carlopago, for which a part of the Josephine road might be used ; but Astaria, instead of Carlopago, might be chosen for a point from which coasters could keep up a communication with some of the numerous harbours on the Austrian coast. Another grand private undertaking was the introduction of steam boats on the Danube by a company at Pesth, under the direction of Count Stephen Szicheny, which has proved most successful; and companies have since been formed in Austria and Bavaria, who have established a steam communication from Ratisbon to Vienna, and thence to Trebisond, Constantinople, and Smyrna. In 1838 these companies had 10 vessels plying on the Danube between Linz and Constantinople, two of which were used for towing ships of burden, one between . Presburg and Drenkova, the other between Orsova and Brailoff on the

tinople is now performed in 12 days, including a day of
rest at Pesth, and two days for disembarkation at Dren-
kova, and re-embarking at Orsova, where the rocks of
the Eisernen Thor impede the steam navigation. This
passage, which formerly was altogether impracticable,
was opened for vessels of light draught in 1834,
by a corps of engineers and miners, under the guidance
of Count Szicheny: 1000 miners were employed for some
time between Lyupkawa and Szviniza, and removed
upwards of 1,000 cubic fathoms of rock, after which the
first barge floated in triumph down the stream. A close
investigation of the spot (the result of which was pub-
lished in the Vienna Gazette) showed that a renewal of
those exertions would effect, without any extravagant
. the opening of the stream for navigation by all
vessels downwards. But, until this can be effected, a road
along the river has been constructed, which must be
used for heavy goods brought up the river, even if the
passage were improved, on account of the rapidity of the
stream in this part." Of the numerous rivers in Hun-
gary, the Theiss and the Maros are the most extensively
navigated. They carry barges of 300 to 400 tons ; and
50,000 tons of salt alone are conveyed upon them from
the Transylvanian mines to different parts of Hungary.
Steam boats are likewise building for the navigation of
the principal lakes ;...that intended for the picturesque
lake of Gmünden will commence running in 1839. On
the Lakes Maggiore, Como, and Garda, steam boats have
been established for some time, and a steam boat com-
munication is kept up between Venice and Turin on the
Po. In the summer of 1838, a steam vessel, belonging to
the Dresden, Company, ascended the Elbe as far as
Teschen in Bohemia, and demonstrated the possibility of
|. this species of navigation with vessels of
light draught upon that river. Nearly at the same time
the first attempt with a steamer was made upon the Save,
which ascended from Semlin to Szissek in Croatia (at the
mouth of the Kulpa) in 57 hours. In a few years we may
therefore expect to find in Austria a most extensive and
well-arranged system of internal steam navigation.
Ports and Harbours. — The principal commercial
port belonging to Austria is Trieste upon the Adriatic,
which has been declared a free port, and is accordingl
shut out of the customs line as well as Venice, o
has the same privilege; so that the duty on imported
oods, instead of being paid on the landing of the wares,
s not demanded until they are sent into the interior.
Venice is the seat of the Admiralty, and has splendid
dock-yards and naval arsenals; which, however, have
long been left in unprofitable repose. Fiume is the port
of Hungary : and though not a good place for vessels to
lie at, is likely to attract a great deal of the attention of
English traders, in consequence of the treaty recently con-
cluded between England and Austria. Polá, in Istria, has
one of the finest harbours on the Mediterranean; but it
is so unhealthy from the prevalence of malaria, that it
is almost io. Schenico, Cattaro, and Ragusa in
Dalmatia are all good harbours. The merchant shippin
of Austria in 1834, is stated by Becker, from oi

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profits of the boats on the Danube amounted, in 1837, to 58,080 fl. : the proceeds of two vessels having left a loss, the

Penses amounted to double the above-mentioned sum. The bruteo receipts of three vessels, runni een Constantinople, Smyrna,

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