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A very spirited company at Trieste has been established, within a few years, under the name Loyd's Austriaco. They have had a number of steam boats built at Porto Ré, near Fiume, with which a communication is now kept up between Trieste and Venice, the Dalmatian harbours, Greece, Smyrna, and Alexandria. The tenth steam boat of this company was launched in 1838

The post-office department published, in 1835, the following tariff for passengers by its diligences. The price is per German mile for 1 seat, in kreutzer (30 = 1s.). : Common Dili- Cabriolet. Separate Carriages with

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in Hungary . 184 16 The surnishing of post-horses is throughout the empire a branch of the General Post-office. The traveller is well supplied in every province on the grand lines of communication; and the rate of travelling is as good as in Prussia and France. Tariff for 2 post-horses per post of 2 Germ. *. - or

In Italy - - - - 2 64
Austria,
Styria, Carinthia, - - 1 52
Litorale, Dalmatia

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The manner of o the postage of letters is peculiar to Austria. If the distance do not exceed 6 posts, the charge varies from 6 to 14 kr, for a single letter : 14 kr. is the highest charge made within #. empire, whatever be the distance of the places. The Austrian post-office keeps no .."; account with foreign postoffices. All letters must, therefore, be franked to the frontier. State of Agriculture. - The following tables, which we extract from Becker's Handels-Lericon, printed at Vienna in 1836, (the statements in which, relative to Austria, are stated to be derived from official sources,) give a survey of the agricultural industry of the empire, which will be more fully detailed under the heads of the different provinces. hese official sources appear to be the returns from the collectors of the land-tax, in which the amount of cultivated land is given for all the provinces, excepting Hungary and Transylvania, with the eatest exactness. The amount of produce, however, s considerably underrated, as it is calculated upon the worst description of tillage, and upon low averages, as o with calculations which form the basis of taxon :

Table showing the Amount of Cultivated Land of each Province, reduced to English Acres, from Becker's HandelsLexicon, Vienna, 1836.

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Dr. Bürger estimates, the average produce of these meadows at 8 tons of hay per Eng. acre, which he calculates is equivalent to 24 tons 16 cwt. of grass. It is the produce of these meadows which nourishes the cows that produce the beautiful Parmesan and Strachino cheeses, the preparation of which is attended with no further ...} : so that the author above cited supposes that, with equal care, these descriptions of produce might be raised in Hungary, or in any other country where the climate is mild. The greater part of these meadows are broken up every three years, and crops of wheat and maize taken ; when they are again laid down with rye-grass. The acre yields, on these occasions, on an average taken for the four classes of soil, according to Bürger, — Wheat, 8 bushels; Maize, 11 bushels; but this is, o, too low an average; a crop of 8 bushels of wheat would not pay the expense of labour. These fields are further surrounded with plantations, and sometimes with a kind of hedge of mulberry trees, the leaves of which furnish food for the silkworms ; the rearing of which, on its present extensive scale, is a benefit accruing to his country from the talents and unwearied exertions of the late Count Vincenz Dandolo. The extent to which the cultivation of silk has of late years been carried is shown by the fact that, in 1824, when the exports from Lombardy alone amounted, according to Bürger, to 956,605 lib. pic. : that province produced as much silk as sixteen years previously was raised in all Italy; whereas the average exports of the three years, 1835-6-7, for Lombardy, exhibit an amount of 4,905,850 lib. pic. of spun, raw, and waste silk Bürger reckons to 5 and 4-5ths Vienna lbs. of silk, l loth of eggs, the worms from which consume 794 and 2-5ths lbs. of leaves; the mulberry trees in Lombardy produce between 20 lbs. and 60 lbs. leaves; so that if we estimate them at 40 lbs. all round, it gives nearly 10,000,000 of trees for that province. Although the mulberry tree is cultivated all over the north of Italy, yet it is more especially planted in the dry and stony districts near Verona. i. would appear, too, that a cooler climate is more favourable to the rearing of the silkworm, as the attempts in the north of France have been eminently successful. Near Paris, M. Cam Beaumais produces 170lbs. of cocoons from 1 loth of eggs, whereas the calculation here given is based on a production of only 70 and 2-5ths lbs. In the south of France the production is only 50 lbs. This branch of industry is particularly valuable from the circumstance of, its only occupying the partial labour of 6 weeks to months in o year, which is over before the harvest commences. The production of oranges and lemons is confined chiefly to the neighbournood of the Lago di Garda, where the trees are kept in covered gardens or terraces, against the sides of the hills. Blumenbach gives the number of these trees, in the neighbourhood of Salo alone, at from 15,000 to 16,000, many of which produce 800 fruit annually. The division of agricultural labour is curious in these provinces. Not only a number of persons occupy themselves with silk-growing, who have no land, and are obliged to purchase the leaves from others, but the greater part of the cheese is made by persons who lo or farm the milk of the cows, and whose whole vested property consists in the ans and utensils. It will be supposed that profits are ut small where such divisions exist, and the landowner's interests are those best consulted. Land in these provinces is persectly free from feudal services and contributions, but is most exorbitantly taxed. According to Bürger, the land-tax, which appears to be very unequally divided, amounted, in 1826, for Lombardy alone, to 22,280,480 lire ; the extra expenses of executions on dilatory contributors amounted to 84 per cent. ; for Venice it produced 15,977,011 lire: in the prov. of Venice the county rates amounted to 2,809,764 #. in Lombardy, to 3,793,939 lire. These four sums added together give an impost of 7s. 4}d. per English acre, on 550-2 sq. German miles, that being the estimated annount of cultivated land upon which these rates are levied. The ractice of letting land prevails to a great extent in Lomdy; and the usual rent paid by the farmer (Colone) is large, being half the gross produce of the land. The stock and valuations, however, in such cases, generally belong to the landlord. The statement, given in the Table, of the produce of Hungary, is one of the most moderate amongst the many varying, estimates of the produce of that extraordinary country. If an approximative estimate be sought of what Hungary could produce, were more skill and industry introduced amongst her agricultural population, the statement given is exceedingly below the mark. The two great so on the Upper and Lower Danube present not only an excellent soil, with the finest climate in Europe, to the farmer, but offer facilities for irrigation not inferior to those so admirably used by the Italians in the neighbouring province. The largest plain is 66 German m long, from W. to E., in its greatest length, and nearly 50 in oth from N. to S. ; its area is upwards of 11,000 sq. English miles. In the greater l'art of this

plain the soil 1s of so rich a quality that no manure is required for the choicest crops, and the dung of the cattle is either thrown away into the rivers, or burned as fuel by the peasants. When excessive drought does not burn up the grass, its growth is so luxuriant that the descriptions given of it exceed belief. Owing, however, to the long contest which has been carried on, since the expulsion of the Turks, by the Hungarians against the Austrian emperors, for the support of their privileges, the policy of the Fo has hitherto shut up this valuable portion of Europe; and it is only since the conclusion of the Milan treaty in the last year that the expectations of the country have been roused to a state of confidence. Were the agricultural skill of the Lombards transferred to Hungary, this province would, in time of scarcity, (which in other lands is usually the result of cold and damp seasons,) supply food for all Europe; while the immense amount of produce in ordinary years will ultimately, no doubt, cause a great change in the value of many articles suited to this climate. Of these, wine is a principal object; and more care is annually bestowed both on the culture of the vineyards and the manufacture of the liquor. The king of wines, Tokay, owes its celebrity entirely to the care with which the #. is tilled and the grapes sorted. The process of ressing the vines is performed with as much care and at nearly the same expense that are bestowed on the celebrated vineyard of Johannisberg. Other good kinds are, the wines of Mensch, in the Banat, of Carlotritz and Ness mill, Osen, and Oedenburg. Silk is increasing rapidly in cultivation, and might be raised in every part of the kingdom. For fuller details respecting this we refer to the article Hungary ; and, under the head Trade, we have offered some remarks on the best means of making its riches available to foreign countries. The great obstacle to a flourishing state of agriculture was removed by the Diet of 1836, when a law was passed for fixing the division of land. Down to that period the o only tilled his portion for three years, after which another was allotted to him by his lord, and the share he possessed was either given over to others or turned into grazing land. This arrangement alone must have proved the bane of all improvement; besides which, the unthriftiness habitual of the inhabitants of a highly productive soil exposes them constantly to the distress of famine, even in the year following a very abundant season. Hence the singularly contradictory accounts circulated respecting this highly favoured country. The want of a market for their corn has obliged the Hungarians to prosecute, on a large scale, the raising of sheep and wool. The number of sheep had been estimated by Lichtenstern at 6 millions, in 1805. How much this number must have increased since then is evident from the augmentation stated by Czaplowitz (in Econom. Neurgk.) to have taken place in the amount of wool annually produced, and which he estimates at 400,000 cwt., produced by at least 20 millions of sheep. According to the Šiko reports, the exports of wool from Hungary to the other provinces amounted, in

1832 – 1833, to 24,538,410 flors. 1833 - 1834, to 19,036,140 –

which would give an average of from 180,000 cwt. to

200,000 cwt. annually ; a quantity which we may look to

see yearly augmented: the internal consumption is esti

mated at about as much. Galicia, the second rich source of agricultural produce, has also been compelled to sub

stitute wool-growing for the cultivation of corn. The in

crease in the number of sheep in this province, since 1816, was, in 1837, 728,120; the increase, since 1834, amounted

to 279,791, of which number 90,000 belong to the circles of Zarnow and Breczow with the Bukowina. The remarkably fertile part of this province begins to the E. of the Sau, and follows the course of the IDniester, being part of the great plain extending nearly from the Carpathians to the Black Sea, and embracing Podolia, the Ukraine, and Moldavia. The soil in this part of the o is nearly as rich as that of the great plain of Hungary, and produces the beautiful white Danzic wheat, so much prized in the London market. The cattle returns for 1837, however, show in the 4 circles which embrace this fertile district 492,456 head of sheep; while 63,830 oxen, besides cows and horses, with 156,413 head of sheep, are counted in the Bukowina only. The large portion of the land, which in all the provinces is held in small parcels by the peasants, is, in Galicia, particularly ill cultivated and unproductive. The large estates of the nobility are, however, in general well farmed, and may be classed with those of Bohemia, Moravia, Austria, and the provinces to the south of the Danube. On these estates regular rotations of crops, with artificial grasses, are now universal ; and many of the machines in use in England, such as improved ploughs, sowing and threshing machines, &c. have been introduced. A gentleman. who farms his own estate in a part of Moravia, where the soil is of average quality and the climate has a mean

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temperature, has furnished us with the following details : —

An estate of mean size contains from 850 to 1,400 Eng. acres of arable land, 140 to 420 acres of meadow land, and 10C0 to 2,500, or more, acres of wood, according to the situation, that is, whether near the mountains or in the plain. The estates conferring the right of *. sentation (landtåtliche Güter), and which are only held by knights or nobles, are of all sizes from a few acres to several German square miles. These estates can, strictly speaking, be held also by a commoner, but only on his paying a portion of the taxes twice over, and on his renouncing the right to all kinds of patronage and judicial authority. The estates of mean size may be estimated at two thirds of the whole. In Moravia about 30 are found to exceed 32 Eng. sq. miles in extent. In purchasing land, a profit of from 4 to 43 per cent. per annum is generally looked for. The size of the peasant's holdings is also very various. In the plains a ant's holding may be about 28 Eng. acres. . In the hilly parts, where the population is thinner, and the soil less productive, it is 3. 40, and in some parts 70 acres. Half holdings, quarter holdings, as well as cottiers with small gardens, are also frequent. . It is, however, supposed that of the peasant families 2-3ds hold land, and ut 1-3d may be considered as mere labourers. The mode of cultivation adopted by the peasants in the low lands is a rotation of three crops, viz., wheat, rye, summer corn, fallow; the fallow being only partially used. In the hilly parts the fallows are more used for potatoes, turnips, flax, &c.; in the mountains tillage is more irreguilar. Oats, potatoes, and flax are grown; and in the more elevated spots oats and buckwheat. On the greater part of the small estates of the nobles a better rotation of crops, with clover, green food, and meadows, prevail, according as the soil or the local advantages of common grazing (which is very extensive everywhere) render it necessary. “I have found the following rotations do very well: — 1. Potatoes, with manure; 2. Bar. ley or oats, with clover; 3. Clover hay.; 4. Clover, as pasture; 5. Rye ; 6. Oats. In heavy soils : — 1. Winter corn, with dung ; 2. Barley, with clover ; 3. Clover ; 4. Wheat ; 5. Green fodder, with manure; 6. Wheat ; 7. Peas and beans ; 8. Rye. In the low lands millet is much sown ; and in the mountains flax. My own ex{...; has given the following produce of various inds of corn: –

| Greatest. Mean. Least.

Per acre Wheat - 59 Bush. 24 Bush 14+ Bush.
- Rye - - 35 21 10
Barley - 46 26 16
- Oats - 49 26 17
- Potatoes - 384 263 184

Table showing the average of Five Years actual Produce of the Austrian Mines between 18

Distilleries and even breweries are commonly established on large farms in the country, and within a lew years sugar manufactories, in which sugar is extracted from beet-root, have become frequent. 21 sugar manufactories are enumerated by Becker as existing, in 1836, in the various provinces.

It is not usual to let land on lease in these parts of theempire. The few cases in which this mode of tenure occurs must rather be considered as exceptions than as a rule, although it is the opinion of competent o: that the incomes of the large landholders would be increased by the introduction of the practice. In Poland villages are often let for short terms, that is, an estate with the . resident labourers upon it, who are bound to labour so many days in the week in lieu of rent for their lands. “ In the management of his holding the o: enjoys the liberty of turning at pleasure vineyards into meadows, of tilling pasture fields, or of converting the tillage fields into pasture; only in the case of woods the landlord reserves a right of inspection, to prevent, and punish, their being dealt with contrary to contract. But the peasant cannot let his land, nor leave it uncultivated, nor sell it in parcels. From the peasants' holdings the lord usually derives 19. All that was stipulated on the original cession of the land, whether in the shape of a rentcharge in money or otherwise. 2dly, The Landemium, or fine, on transfer, whether by sale or inheritance (usually 5 per cent.). 3dly, The Robot, or personal service, the maximum of which has been fixed by law. This consists generally in 3 days’ work, with a waggon and horses, weekly, for the peasant's whole holding ; the half holding § ves 13 days’ work, and the quarter holding 2 or 3 days' hard labour, weekly: cottagers give from 10 to 13 days per annum., 4thly, The right of grazing on uncultivated fallows and stubbles; which however the easant may exercise upon the land of his lord. 5thly,

he great and small tithes, which are often ceded to the church, or have been otherwise transferred. Dominical property (allodial estates) pay, in gener, l, no tithe. The peasant may cede or leave by will his holding to whichever of his sons he pleases; but it is then usually charged with a sum for each of his brothers and sisters. he custom J. of leaving it to the eldest son ; but it is often ceded during the father's life, who retains a certain quantum of the produce for his own use: this generally happens when the father wishes to free his son from liability to the conscription.”

Manufactures, Trade, &c. — The subjoined table, which we take from Becker's Handels-Learicon, gives the actual average produce of the mines within the empire during the five years from 1830 to 1834: it is taken from official sources, and is the latest statement of the kind that has been published. The cwt. is that of Vienna = 123-4 lbs. English : —

30 and 1834 inclusive.

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exceedingly small in proportion to the capacities which almost each province possesses, and of the remarkable facility with which the ore is in all produced. A re. markable circumstance is, the indifferent quality of nearly all the metals produced in the mines worked by the o of the government ; a fact which is substantiated by the annual importation, to a great extent, of Russian copeks by the wire-drawers, who are unable to use the produce of the Austrian mines for that purpose. It is a curious fact that although a Russian ukase exists, prohibiting the exportation of coin, yet the Russian mint has officially requested the Austrian wire-drawers to notify to them any deterioration that may occur in the o, of the coin thus exported Surely the capital now so ill employed in o: up forced manufactories, under the shelter of high import duties, and thus contributing to the taxation of the people, without .# the coffers of the state, would be much better employ in ameliorating the system of mining, and in improving the means of transport within the country.—We refer to our articles on Si YRIA, Illy RIA, HUNGARY, and TRANSYLVANIA, for a description of the inexhaustible unining wealth of the Austrian empire.—Iron and native steel are especially found in such |. in Styria and Illyria, that the ore is merely quarried from mountains several thousand feet in height, and which are solid blocks of carbonate of iron ore. Yet it is a fact, although almost incredible, that an advertisement of the New Polish Railroad Com

ny, in the spring of 1838, in the Vienna Gazette, set É. that, “ having proved by official statements, that a sufficient quantity of rails could not be furnished by the mines and sounderies of the empire, they had received permission to import from foreign countries the required supply.” The article of native steel is, worthy of" serious attention from every country in Europe; for though, owing to the bad state of the means of communication, English artificial steel be, at present, sold cheaper at Trieste, yet not only is the quality of the Styrian and Illyrian metal far superior, but it is found in such abundance, that it could supply a demand which would cause a serious fall in the price of artificial steel. The use of this metal for machinery must be very advantageous, and not less so for the chain cables of ships, which might be made much lighter; and perhaps ships of war, and Indiamen would then be able to take two such cables instead of one. The suspension bridge at Vienna, hanging from two main chains instead of four, is a practical illustration of what is here suggested. The prosperity of the provinces of Lombardy and Venice, — where agriculture employs the main attention of the inhabitants, and whose cheese, raw and spun silk, choice fruits, rice, and macaroni, are ex

rted, at a great profit, to all Europe, – furnish another llustration of the natural direction which the trade of Austria would take. And yet how much might even be done, in those provinces, to improve the production of wine ! The range of hills in Lower Austria, Styria, Italy, and Hungary, which, from their southern aspect, are suited to the cultivation of the vine, may be roughly estimated at more than 2,000 English miles in length ; of this the largest portion falls to Hungary, with its dependent lands, Croatia, Slavonia, and the Military. Frontier. What treasures does not Austria possess in this article alone, to say nothing of the immense increase in her produce of corn and cattle that must take place on the adoption of a liberal system of commerce? By abstracting capital from agriculture, the price of the necessaries of life is further so much advanced, that the very aim of manufacturing at home is defeated ; as the statement of the Vienna market prices, which we give below, will prove. Truly, when an Englishman has surveyed the immense resources of the Austrian empire, he is tempted to imitate the exclamation made by his captive countryman in ancient Rome, and to wonder “ that a nation, possessed of such riches, should envy us our cotton factories, and sugar plantations.” In the survey of the Austrian man tures for 1834, given by Becker, we find —

Silk of mills and manufactories - - 3,990 Woollen and cotton spinning and weaving establishments - - - - 298 Flax and hemp spinning mills, linen, and calico factories - - - - 869 Cloth factories - - - - 165 Leather and leather wares - - - 580 Porcelain and earthenware - - - 165 Glass and plate glass - - - 210 Iron found ries, &c. - - - 700 §. mills, &c. - - - - 185 Steel mills and factories - - - 210 Rosoglio factories and distilleries of spirits and perfumes - - - - - 250 Chemical wares and dyeing stuff factories - 82 Beet-root sugar o - - - 21

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employment to 2,330,000 Individuals : their produce being 1,425 millions of florins. Amongst the most remark

able, and those which are the most rapidly increasing,

are the beet-root sugar factories; of which, according to a statement in André's 1 conomischen Neuigkeiten, 25, besides 3 factories of molasses, were in operation in Bohemia alone, in the year 1835–1836; and 7 additional sugar factories, and l molasses factory, were expected to be at work in 1837. These 28 factories, according to the same authority, though able to make 30,000 cwt. of sugar, only produced 10,000 to 15,000 cwt., for want of a sufficient supply of beet-root. We have already remarked, that the greater number of these factories, together with the country breweries and distilleries, are carried on by the large landed proprietors. It is, however, singular that other branches of manufacture are likewise, to a great extent, carried on by the members of so proud an aristocracy; but who find themselves obliged by so doing to obviate the loss accruing from the system of restrictions on trade and manufacture, which is peculiarly discouraging to small beginners. Thus Count Bucquoy has 5 glass-houses; Count Harrach, l; Prince Schwartzenberg, 3 ; besides others belonging to Counts Desfours, Kinsky, &c. Among the earthenware manufacturers, we find the emperor; and Counts Wrtby and Falkenhayn, Prince Coburg, Counts Salm and Egger, and many others, are large iron foumders; and Counts Wrbna and Prince Windishgrätz manufacture tin plates. The list might be much extended : and it will be supposed that neither the public nor the noble tradesmen are so much benefited by this arrangement as they would be by a more natural one, which would make them, in to: senatorial capacity, the protectors of tradesmen who should work cheaper. The principal seats of the cotton and woollen manufactures are, Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, and Austria. Coarse cloths are o manufactured; and large exports of cotton and woollen wares, especially of inserior shawls and red caps, are annually made to Turkey and the East. Linen is a great article of manufacture ; spinning and weaving forming the principal employment of the peasantry during the winter, especially of the women, in the northern provinces. In Galicia, not only a portion of the rent, but, in many large establishments, a part of the wages of servants is paid in linen.

otwithstanding all that has !. done to facilitate the means of internal communication, large portions of the empire still find themselves isolated from the rest, to a degree highly injurious to internal traffic. Much has been achieved for Hungary by the introduction of steam boats on the Danube; and Galicia will be brought nearer to the capital by the railroad now constructing from Vienna to Bochnia. The subjoined statement of prices will, however, show the different value of marketable produce in the three grand divisions of the empire ; and at the same time illustrate the advantages of employing capital to facilitate the transport of produce, in preference to the forced establishment of manufactures. The prices at Prague and at Gratz are usually the same with those of Vienna.

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Horned cattle - - 70,83 Sheep - - - 93,450 Pigs - - - 197,831

See HUNGARY. It will be seen, on a comparison of the prices in this table, that the fluctuations of the respective markets are, as far as corn is concerned, nearly independent of each other. The high price of meat induces a considerable importation of cattle, which pay a duty of 4 fl. per head. F. rice of manufacturing labour is, in the large towns, from 20 to 24 kr. per diem (84. to 10d.) for men. A master mason, or carpenter, receives 2 fl. per diem, at Vienna, for job-work. Agricultural labour is much lower in price, and varies in the different provinces, to which we refer for details. Balbi has published a statement of the patents taken out since 1811, which shows, From 1811 to 1820 - 92 patents were granted. 1821 to 1832 - 1,893 ditto. 1833 to 1837 - 825 ditto. The last figure gives an average of 165 patents annually, during the last five years. The following official statements, regarding the trade of the empire, are taken from Becker's Handels-Lericon, and are the latest published: –

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Imported.

Articles. Exported. rtorins. Florins. Iron - - - 118, 190 5,585,810 Gold - - 1,567,120 silver - - - 911,550 Silver, wrought - - 24, 1 Quicksilver - - evels - - - 91,..., no Tobacco - - 281,760 Cattle - - - 5,710, stro Corn - - - 5,182,040 Wine and Spirits - - 2,088, loo Wax and Honey - - ,875,850 Fish, fruits, cheese, &c. - 4,157,120 2,805,700 Timber and wooden wares - 1,074,270 2,472,270 Cotton, linen, and woollen yarn - - - 8,762,780 770,500 - 5,520,100 946,190

Furs - -
Raw and thrown flax and
hemp light linen wares

5,157,590 Fine linens - 2,790

Silk, raw, spun, 5tc. - 1,254,100 manufactured - - 10,900 Cotton wool - warea - Wool - - Woollen wares - coffee - - Pepper - Sugar, raw - refined - - - 40 Dye stuffs - - 105,780 Osive oil - - 5,560 Potashes - - 582,890 • Salt - - - 679,650

The usual coins in circulation are the ducat of Holland = 4 fl. 30 kr. ; the sovereign = o fl. ; the florin of 20 = 1 fine mark, divided into 60 kr.; st. sterling, at par =9 fl. 31 kr. Bank notes, of 5 fl. and upwards, circulate, as well as the notes belonging to the depreciated currency, of which 5 fl. = 1 fl. in silver, and 1 fl. = 24 kr. This is denominated Pienna value ; the silver value is called that of the Convention. Pieces of 20 kr., silver, 3 of which form a florin, with smaller pieces of 10, 5, and 3 kr., form the silver coinage. The 20 kr. piece is termed, in Italy, lire Austriaco. The lire di Milano was introduced § the French = 1 franc = 22.8 kr. The suado = 2 fl. 20 kr., in silver.

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It will not excite surprise to find, that with these duties, which further impose the necessity of giving permits with many of the articles specified on thé. .# transported from place to place, the regular importation is but trifling, while the quantity smuggled is said to be enor. mous. If we add the immense cost of covering a frontier of the extent of that of Austria with custom-house guards, the chances of bribery, &c., there is reason to believe that the gain of the state cannot be much in this department, whereas the loss to the country must be evident, the inhabitants being compelled to buy dear and inferior articles, without being able to export their produce on favourable terms.

How much the trade of the empire * be increased by a treaty of commerce with England, in which concessions are made on both sides, must be evident from our remarks on the extent and produce of the Austrian forests, on the corn that may be grown, and on the state of the wine and silk production. The town of Stry, near the Dniester, in Galicia, is as near Carlstadt, in Croatia, as it is to Danzig; and from the plain which the Dniester waters, the finest wheat is drawn, which supplies the Danzig market. How easy, therefore, would it not be for Austria to draw a large share of this, carrying trade through its own territory instead of sending it to the Baltic l and to do so nothing is requisite but perseverance on the part of the government in the improvement of the means of communication, and some relaxation in the strict measures in force ...}". Hungary. To this the whole of the produce of Moldavia, Waslachia, Servia, Bosnia, and Bulgaria, may be added ; which, by the aid of towing steamers, might be brought up the Save to Sissek, and by the Kulpa to Carlstadt, within 70 miles of the Adriatic ; so that, even as matters now stand, England, on an emergency, is in a great measure independent of Russia and the Baltic ports, as long as she is on friendly terms with Austria. On the o hand, by importing silk direct from the Mediterranean, England has it in her power to do without supplies from France; while Austria, as is evident from the o: of exportations, could almost starve the Lyons market. It appears, from these, that the importation of raw and spun silk into France Rose. 50,000,000 fr. ; conse

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