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Vienna, one of the finest hospitals in Europe, 8,894 paupers were relieved, and supported, in the year 1837; and similar establishments are found in every provincial town of importance. The 29 hospitals of the “Brothers of Charity,” throughout the various provinces, admitted (in the 6 years 1830-35) 111,086 patients; of whom, according to their own published reports, 101,669 were discharged cured, the deaths having only been in the proportion of 1 to 113 patients. These hospitals are supported by voluntary contributions. Literature and the Fine Arts.-Newspapers and eriodical publications are published in German, talian, Bohemian, Polish, and Hungarian. A periodical, in the Servian dialect, was attempted some time back in Croatia, but was *. by the police, and its types confiscated. In every provincial capital a semi-official newspaper appears, usually in German; but this is accomanied, in the greater part, by another in the fog. of the province. The following statement appeared some time back in the Augsburg Gazette, and was attributed to M. Balbi : —
This extraordinary paucity of journals is accounted for by the fact that the Austrian government is as careless of praise, as it is intolerant of censure. But few foreign papers are admitted to general circulation; and those which are must offer no remarks upon the condition or policy of the empire. The severity of the censorship, which gives to underlings in office the control over the productions of men of genius, is calculated to degrade and stifle the intellectual energies of the country.
The fine arts are also in a languishing state, in part owing to the apathy which prevails both amongst the higher classes and the artists, neither of whom are excited by public praise or blame. The pictures in the splendid Imperial Gallery at Vienna are not open to be copied by artists; and every composition which is publicly exhibited is subjected, like the books, to the censorship, — a board which is unremitting in the enforcement of the political, moral, and religious restrictions which it prescribes to the flights of genius. A statement of Balbi, in the Vienna Gazette, shows the number of works annually exhibited at Milan to amount to about 600. In the exhibition of 1837, of 603 pieces exhibited at that capital, there were 14 statues and 44 busts of marble, 442 paintings of all kinds, the rest being drawings in water-colours and crayons, engravings on stone and copper, miniatures, and medallions. In Vienna, there is an exhibition every third year, in which about the same number of works of art, but with a smaller proportion of
sculpture, are shown. Music is cultivated with more success, and enters largely into the education of all classes in Bohemia and in the German provinces. The Bohemians are particularly remarkable for their skill in instrumental music; and not only is it common to find eminent performers in small villages, but many of these excel on two or three different instruIments. Education. — We borrow the following statements on this important subject from Mr. Macgregor's valuable work, entitled Austria and the Austrians. -- “The foundation of elementary instruction in Austria was first laid in the early part of last century; and, soon after, about one in twenty-five of the inhabitants were taught to read. Joseph II. directed his energies to the instruction of youth; but the clergy, high and low, opposed him, and after his death succeeded in establishing generally their own plan of educating children. The government has, however, taken special care that the priests should not have the control over public instruction, and the law of 1821, consequent to that of 1819, in Prussia, directs that no village in the hereditary dominions shall be without an elementary school – that no male shall enter the marriage state who is not able to read, write, and understand casting up accounts — that no master of any trade shall, without paying a heavy penalty, employ workmen who are not able to read and write—and that small books of moral tendency shall be published and distributed, at the lowest possible price, to all the emperor's subjects. “The provisions of this law appear to me to have been very generally put in force; for I have nowhere in Austria met with any one under thirty years of age who was not able to read and write; and I have found cheap publications, chiefly religious and moral tracts, almanacks, very much like “Poor Richard's,’ containing, with tables of the month, moon's age, sun's rising and setting, the fasts, feasts, holydays, markets and fairs in the empire; and, opposite to the page of each month, appropriate advice relative to husbandry and rural economy, with moral sayings and suitable maxims. “Besides these and several small elementary books and periodicals, the Penny Magazine is now very generally circulated in Austria. M. Fleischer, the intelligent and spirited bookseller of Leipzig, having managed to procure stereo. types of the wooden cuts of the London edition, republishes the work in German, and strikes off about 38,000 copies for Austria only. A Heller magazine, published also at Leipzig, is likewise very generally circulated. The spirit of elementary instruction, if not the most enlightened, inculcates, at every step, morality, the advantage and happiness of a virtuous life, the evils of vice, and the misery consequent on crime. “I have found no difficulty in procuring statistical returns of the colleges and schools of the empire. From these it appears that, in the eight universities established in the archduch of Austria, Bohemia, Galicia, Moravia, Tyrol, Styria, and the Italian provinces, viz. Vienna; Prague, in Bohemia; Lemberg, in Galicia; Qlmutz, in Moravia; Inspruck, in the Tyrol; Grätz, in Styria; and Pavia and Padua, in the Italian states: there are 54 philosophical foundations, with 334 professors, and attended by 7,689 students; 55 theological (Catholic), 326 professors, 6,120 students; 16 medicine, 150 professors, 4,679 students; 1 (Vienna) veteri. nary, 6 professors, with assistants; and 8 jurisprudence, 57 professors, 3,228 pupils.
“Taking the population of the Austrian dominions, exclusive of Hungary and Transylvania, at 22,500,000, I find that there are 25,121 national elementary schools, divided into first and second classes of primary schools, with 10,280 ecclesiastical, and 22,082 lay teachers. In these schools 2,313,420 children are instructed in reading, writing, and accounts; that is, rather more than one in ten of the whole population. Besides these, there are numerous private schools and institutions. Cannabich gives, for 1835, the following statement: — ‘Exclusive of mine universities (including Pesth), there are 23 Catholic lyceums and academies; 1 Illyrian lyceum, 4 Lutheran lyceums and colleges, 7 reformed colleges, 1 Unitarian college, 20 Catholic theological, 1 Protestant theological, and 15 high philosophical foundations; 230 preo (vorberertenden) gymnasia (of which 6 are high gymnasia in Hungary), besides special common schools (volkschulen) in the classes of primary, secondary, and practical schools: also burgher schools, and the military and forest institutes; blind and deaf and dumb institutes at Vienna, Prague, Linz, Waitzen, &c.; schools of hydrography and trades; the polytechnic institutes at Vienna and Prague; the medical and chirurgical academy at Vienna; to which has been added the optical museum of M. Reichenbach, 14 normal high schools, 57 special institutions for female education, and 4 communities of instruction; besides numerous scientific societies at Vienna, Pesth, Prague, Milan,’ &c. “The inhabitants of Lombardo-Venetia and Lower Austria are the most generally educated. Among them, I think, one in eight must be receiving instruction. “The universities of Vienna and Padua rank first among those of the empire. The salaries of the professors are, at the former, and I believe at all the universities, paid by government, and the professors are not allowed to take fees on their own account, nor to deliver lectures, except in their respective colleges. The theological, surgical, and veterinary courses are free to the students; but a fee is exacted for attending lectures on philosophy, medicine, and jurisprudence. These fees are appropriated towards the maintenance of indigent students. The whole course of lectures are read in the German language, excepting some deviations in respect to theology and physic.” (Vol. ii. pp. 21.1— 216.) Education in Hungary is not in so flourishing a condition as in the German provinces of the monarchy; but even there it is in a much more advanced state than is generally supposed in this country. A statement, published in the Vienna Gazette, shows that, at an average of ten years, ending with 1834, 20,527 pupils have annually attended the universities and gymnasiums of that kingdom. The university of Pesth is by far the wealthiest institution of the kind in Europe. It has a host of professors; and is open to pupils of all religious persuasions. In 1835 it was attended by 1172 Catholics, 253 Protestants, 261 Jews, and 84 Greeks, in all 1770. Besides maintaining a great number of indigent scholars, and a preparatory ecclesiastical seminary, it aids or supports an archi-gymnasium of six classes, and about 3,600 district grammar and elementary schoolmasters. The great defect of Austrian education does not consist in the want of elementary instruction, for that is very widely diffused, but in the jealousy entertained by the government of every
thing like freedom of inquiry or discussion as to matters connected with the principles of politics, public law, political economy, and even philosophy. These important branches are not taught, at least so as to be made available or useful, and are but little studied in Austria. The board of education (Studienhof.commission) has the appointment of all professors at univer sities and colleges, and of all teachers at schools; it likewise publishes the books used in instruction, and controls the minutest details relating to schools. It prescribes the course and distribution of the hours of study, from which not the slightest deviation is permitted; and the scholars of the few private schools are forced to attend the examinations of the sc institutions, to ensure their off taught according to the prescribed system. he effects of this jealous plan of education on political and moral studies, are no less perceptible, and but little less injurious than those of the censorship already alluded to. Army. — The army is raised in all the provinces, with the exception of Hungary and Transylvania, by conscription, from which, however, the families of the nobility and gentry (Kleiner Adel) are exempted. The whole country is divided into districts for each regiment, which are thus apportioned: –
At present the infantry consists of about 196,000 men, all regiments having two battalions of 1,200 men each, and 12 companies. A third battalion is provided for every regiment, but is only called out on emergencies; it is called the ion. and this augmentation in time of war raises the number of the infantry to 651,000 men. The cavalry peace establishment is 45,000 men; that of the artillery 17,800; and of engineers, including garrison and frontier artillery corps, sappers and miners, and a battalion of pontoniers, and one of tschaikistes § the gun-boats on the Danube and the Save), 13,000; making a grand total of 271,800 men. Since the accession of the present emperor, a number of improvements have been introduced into the military department. The short breeches and light gaiters of the infantry have disappeared, as well as the jack-boots which formerly encumbered the artillery, and have been replaced by trousers and shoes. The infantry are dressed in white coats, of coarse but comfortable cloth, with light blue trousers, the Hungarian regiments being distinguished by their national light pantaloons. The cavalry wear the national dresses peculiar to their several descriptions of arms. Hungary furnishes the hussars, and Galicia the lancer regiments; the Italian, Slavonic, and German cavalry regiments wear white uniforms with helmets. The men are usually taken from the provinces in which each regiment has its conscription depot; but the officers are mixed throughout the army, and their promotion is seldom confined to one regiment. The finest men of each infantry regiment are selected to form the nadier companies, usually in rrison at &. Milan, Pesth, or Prague; these companies form a corps of 20 battalions, which (for their number) are perhaps the finest men in Europe. The troops are well clothed and fed; and though the annual drain of the strongest and healthiest of the population must be § by the community at large, there is no reason for supposing that the conscription is regarded as a hardship by the poorer classes. In #. the case is different; the regiments of that country are raised by recruiting, and the men are usually seduced by the promise of bein placed in the nussar regiments: but in genera the Hungarian peasants are decidedly averse from the service, though they make excellent soldiers. It is permitted to those who can do so, to find a substitute; but the conscription too often includes persons of education who, being unable to purchase their exemption, are cut off from all hopes of advancement, as no promotion, except in the artillery, is made from the ranks. The colonelin-chief of each regiment names and promotes the officers up to the rank of captain. The field officers are nominated by the emperor, and usually advance according to seniority. The word of command is given throughout the army in German; and it is probably to assist the memory of the numbers who do not understand its meaning, that the “Flügelmann” is still retained. foot, are in general severe, and flogging is of almost daily repetition, especially in the Hungarian regiments. The term of service is, for the men raised by conscription, 14 years, but is expected shortly to be reduced to 10 years. At the expiration of this term, however, the men may re-enlist at their option. The service in the artillery is usually for life. Austria's contingent to the confederate German army is 94,822 men, forming the first, second, and third divisions. Exclusive of various foraging allowances, the army is supposed to cost annually about 45,000,000 fl., or 4,500,000l. The fortification of the avenues by which the French armies in the last war penetrated to the capital has drawn much attention. Linz (see Linz) has been rendered very strong, as the key to the valley of the Danube; and the passage from Italy through the Tyrol has been protected by the erection of a citadel and strong works at #. The principal fortresses besides these in the Austrian empire, are, Mantua, Pizzighitone, Legnano, Fuentes, Malaghera, Asopo, and Palmanuova, in Italy; Zara, Ragusa, and Cattaro, in Dalmatia; Peterwardein, Broodt, Comorn, Buda, Leopoldstadt, Grätz, Szigeth, and Temeswar, in o Carlstadt, in Croatia; Essegg, in Slavonia; Alt Gradisca, in the Military Frontier of Croatia; Theresienstadt and Josephstadt, in Bohemia; and Olmutz, in Moravia. The whole of Galicia lies open towards Russia without a single fortress. Other fortresses of minor importance are scattered through the different provinces: besides the castles of Brunn, Kufstein, Milan, Trieste, Linz, Brixen, Buda, Munkaes, &c., Austria has likewise the right of arrisoning Commachio and Ferrara in the #. States, and Placenza in the grand duchy of Parma. Mayence, in the grand duchy of Darmstadt, is half garrisoned with Austrian and half with Prussian troops, as stipulated by the treaty of Vienna. The Austrian navy is said to consist of 8 ships of the line laid up in ordinary at Venice, 8 frigates, 4 corvettes, 6 brigs, and 7 schooners or galliots, besides guardships and revenue crui
sers: only the smaller vessels, however, are at sea. The flag is red with a white stripe. The marines consist of one battalion of infantry, a corps of marine artillery, and a corps of marine engineers. The arsenal is at Venice, where there is a marine college for cadets. The dockyard at Venice contains 32 covered stocks for building ships of the line, 54 for vessels of a smaller size, 4 large wet docks, 5 cannon foundries, with a covered rope-walk 910 ft. long, 70 ft. broad, and 32 ft. high. The uniform of the navy is dark blue with light blue facings and white breeches, that of the marines is light blue with red facings... Naval matters are directed by a branch of the War-office at Vienna. Form of Government.—The empire of Austria being a collection of different states, with different rights and privileges, the form of government necessarily differs in each ; but in none is the emperor either absolute or despotical. With the exception of Hungary, Transylvania, and the Tyrol, the powers of the states or provincial parliaments, that meet annually in each of the other provinces, are indeed very limited. They have no deliberative voice in legislative or financial matters. The amount of the taxes for the year, which vary accordin to the exigencies of the state, is communicate to them, and the distribution of the taxes amongst the contributors takes place under their inspection. They have likewise the permission of addressing humble petitions on the subject of grievances to the throne, of which they but rarely avail themselves. The estates of Lower Austria are invariably convoked at Vienna in September, which is one month previously to the assembling of the provincial estates, which meet in October. The Hungarian Diet possesses very different privileges, and has been able to maintain them notwithstanding the vast influence of the crown. They have a full deliberative voice in legislation, and nothing can be decreed by the sovereign without their concurrence;— hence the country is not subject to the heavy taxation, nor legally, to the police and censorship or. dinances which prevail in other parts of the empire. Passports are not usual in the kingdom; and the Hungarians do not consider their liberty to travel in foreign countries as depending on the will of the sovereign. With these valuable privileges they have, however, preserved a number of faulty laws and cumbrous observances. But the exertions of the more enlightened members of both houses have of late years succeeded in obtaining considerable alterations in these, without sacrificing any of their rights; and the country is rapidly improving through their laudable efforts. It is not, however, to be denied, that the freedom of Hungary has hitherto been merely the freedom of the nobles and clergy. The great bulk of the people have long been and still continue to be substantially in the state of adscripti glebae. Their condition has however been in, some respects materially improved, and limits set to the lords' demands opo their services, through the interference of the government, and principally of Maria Theresa and Joseph II., in their behalf; but there can be no doubt that the power and privileges of the other classes, however advantageous in some respects, have hitherto been decidedl injurious to the peasantry, that is, to the bul of the population. The fair presumption is, that but for these privileges o peasantry of Hungary would now have been as free, and have enjoyed the same privileges as those of the German provinces of the empire. In the provinces, the members of the provincial diets meet in one chamber, and are composed of prelates, nobles, knights, and burghers, the free peasants being only represented in Tyrol. In Hungary the prelates and magnates, with the Obergespanne (lord-lieutenants) of the counties, form the Chamber of Magnates (Tabula ercelsa Procerum); the deputies of the cathedral chapters, of the counties, of the free royal towns, and of absent magnates, form the Chamber of the States (Tabula incluorum Statuum et Ordinum). Transylvania has a separate Diet, but sends members to that of Hungary, as do also Croatia and Slavonia. In the Tyrol there is a Chamber of Peasants, and no new tax can be levied without the consent of the states. Qfices of Government and Administration. — The arrangement of the different branches of the administration in Austria attained its perfection under the late Emperor Francis I., and is admirably calculated to admit of the personal interference of the monarch in every department. 1. The ministry of state, which long consisted of three members, received a fourth in the person of a distinguished general, on the prospect of a disturbance of the peace of Europe after the French revolution of 1830. This board may be called the emperor's cabinet. The minister for foreign affairs, with the title of imperial chancellor, is its president, and is prime minister. 2. The council of state may be compared to a privy council, and is composed of three sections, embracing 7 departments; viz., justice, army, police, exchequer or crown-office, finances, board of health, and board of studies. A councillor is named for each department, and a refendary is attached to each in the person of a member of some one of the different administrative offices charged with the execution of the imperial decrees, that is, with the entire administration of the empire. The council of state exercises in a great measure the legislative functions; but the drawing up of laws is consided to a commission specially appointed for the purpose. As the legislative power in Hungary belongs to the Diet, two councillors manage the affairs of that country and of Transylvania, in as far as they come under its cognizance. The 11 administrative offices embrace the functions of the different departments of the secretaries of state in England, together with those of courts of appeal and of the commander-in-chief. They consist of, 1. The united chancery for the German, Slavonic, and Italian provinces; 2. The Hungarian chamcery; 3. The Transylvanian chancery; 4. The exchequer and finance board; 5. The mint; 6. The board of justice, or highest court of appeal for all provinces ‘...."; Hungary and Transylvania; 7. The board of police and censorship; 8. The war-office, of which the navy board is a branch; 9. The book-keeper eneral's office, in which the accounts of every epartment, excepting those of the police and the ministry of foreign affairs, are inspected; 10. The board of education; 11. The legislative commission. Under these different boards, which have all their seats at Vienna, the political, administrative, financial, military, police, clerical, and educational authorities of the provinces are placed, who communicate with the respective departments through the medium of the Gubernium of each province. Judicial appeals go direct from the provinces to the board of justice, with the
exception of Hungary and Tra; sylvania, in the last of which the gubernium is the highest authority under the emperor. Under the gubernium are the captains of circles, and the magistracy of the towns; with this difference, that the former unite the functious of administration and police, whereas the police in towns is entrusted to a special board, independent of the magistracy. In Hungary the “Statthalterei,” whose president is the palatine, is the chief administrative body, and, like the gubernium of Transylvania, communicates with the sovereign direct through the medium of. a special chancery at Vienna. The statthalterei is composed of 22 councillors, two of whom are prelates, and has its seat at Ofen (Buda). Under this board the Obergespann (lord-lieutenant) of each county, who is named by the emperor (the charge is often hereditary), and the Vicegespann, his deputy, who is chosen by the nobles, with all authorities excepting the courts of justice, stand in a subordinate degree. Hungary has a peculiar court of appeal in the Septemviral Tapel. Public business in every department is carried on in writing. The personal influence of the emperor may be powerfully exerted even in the extensive and wellorganized system of public offices here described. Though the councillors of state have each a peculiar department, they must not consider themselves as exclusively bound to it only. According to the will of the emperor, or of any of the ministers, the duty of investigating and reporting on any subject may be given to any member of the board, or, in case of need, a member of an inferior office may be charged with the temporary functions of councillor. Innumerable commissions of inquiry and control are annually appointed; and every check that can be devised is adopted in order to supply the place of the most effectual of all, the free expression of public opinion through the press. Appeals and representations to the emperor in person may be made by every individual, of whatever rank, upon the most trifling as well as the gravest subjects; and these appeals frequently occasion a revision of the decisions of the public boards either through another councillor or a special commission. The immense load of business which thus devolves upon the emperor, obliges him to keep a private cabinet, which communicates at pleasure with every office or functionary in the empire, and consequently may be said to represent the omnipresence of the sovereign. From a decree issued through this cabinet, there is no appeal; such decree (Handbillet) supersedes all law. As sovereign of many territories, which were formerly considered fiefs of the empire, the Emperor of Austria is a member of the Germanic Confederation, and his minister plenipotentiary is at present the president of its Diet at Frankfort. The states which are included in the Confederation are the archduchy of Austria, the kingdom of Bohemia, with Moravia and Silesia, and the duchies of Ozwieczim and Zalor in Galicia, the county of Tyrol, and the duchies of Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, with the town and territory of Trieste. In the ordinary sittings of the Diet, Austria has one vote; in the plenary assemblies, 4 votes: the emperor's contingent to the confederate army is 94,822 men. Temper and Spirit of the Government. — Dalpozzo says of the Austrian government, that “it has fundamental laws, usages, and precedents, from which it does not deviate. The right of private property is held sacred. The emperor
makes general laws for his subjects, but no special or exceptionable ones for particular persons or cases. There is equality before the law, and no odious privilege of caste is now admitted. There is no abusive.influence of either aristocracy or clergy. The judiciary power is held independent, and not interfered with by rescripts from the sovereign. No special commissions are appointed to try particular cases; no arbitrary penalties are inflicted. All those who were condemned for political offences in 1820-21 were regularly tried; several were condemned to death, but not one was executed. The proceedings in the civil courts are neither dilatory nor expensive." The conveyance of property has been rendered, by a wise system of registration, as easy and safe as any commercial transaction. With the exception of political cases, the penal code is very mild. The punishment of death is awarded in very few instances. Few countries in Europe enjoy so much material prosperity as the Austrian monarchy.” The accession of the reigning emperor to the throne has been marked by a tendency on the part of the Austrian cabinet to an enlightened course of domestic and foreign policy, the steady prosecution of which must prove of incalculable advantage for the empire and for Europe. The deceased Emperor Francis belonged to that school of policy in which the Richelieus and the Mazarins were masters, and which acknowledged no means of preserving unity, but the extermination of one of the jarring elements of discord. Under his reign the empire would probably have separated into several independent states, had not the violent but indispensable reforms, carried through with such energy by the Emperor Joseph, anticipated the necessity of the people's rising to, effect them, and learning their own power. Thus, while the Emperor Francis attributed the submission he met with in the greater part of the provinces to the firmness with which he persevered in his repressive measures, it was really brought about by the tempora. ry satisfaction inspired by what had been granted by his predecessor. Had the severity with which Galicia was treated between 1833 and 1836 been shown to that province at an earlier period, there can be no doubt but that the revolt of 1830 would have extended to Austrian Poland. What result the harsh treatment of the Italian provinces would have led to, has been adroitly veiled by the amnesty of 1838,-a measure of great importance for the future prosperity of Austria. The treaties of commerce, concluded at the same time with England and the Porte, are also measures of great interest to her well-being. Their importance lies in the avowed determination of the government to furnish IHungary with a débouché for her abundant produce, and consequently in the virtual abandonment of the jealous policy hitherto observed towards that province. The conciliatory effect of these measures will most likely occasion an increase of power to the Austrian government, which it is not improbable may, for the first time since the days of Charles V., give it a preponderating influence in the affairs of Europe. Their first effect will probably be a rise in the credit of the state, and of all kinds of property; and should they be followed up by an émancipation of the system of education from the restraints under which it languishes, and by some relaxation of the restrictions on the press, the inhabitants would be conciliated, their best
* But this is certainly not the case with criminal proceedings. See ante, p. 245.
interests promoted, and the government rendered more secure. Importance of Austria to Europe. — The central and western European states have from time immemorial felt the importance of having a powerful ally as a barrier towards Asia on the east. The might of these Moguls, who in the 13th century overwhelmed the rising Muscovite state, broke on the well-organized resistance opposed by the united power of the Bohemian king and the Margrave of Austria. At a later period, when the victorious Turks threatened to carry their arms into the heart of Christendom, it was Austria that bore the brunt of the fight, and gained time for the advance of Sobieski and his army. Under the present conjuncture of circumstances in Europe, the importance of Austria in a political, no less than in a commercial point of view, is evident; and as that importance depends altogether upon her power and the judicious developement of her resources, the western states are deeply interested in her prosperity. From the nature of the various states united under the imperial sceptre, it is clear that Austria divides the rule over the Slavonic nations of Europe with Russia; it must consequently be for her interest to attach to her sway so numerous a portion of her subjects, who have a strong band of sympathy with a growing and very powerful rival. A mild government and a sincere attention to the material as well as moral condition of her subjects, will prove the best means of linking together provinces differing so much from each other, and each of which is too powerful to be long retained by any other than gentle means. The conduct of the cabinet of Vienna justifies the expectation that its leading members are aware of the part which they are called upon to play, and of the true sources of their own influence and of that of the nation in European politics. If unity at home be promoted, and the material and moral condition of the people be improved, the power of Austria will be such that she need fear nothing even if she had to contend single-handed with Russia or France. The variety, however, of her population, and the dif. ferent, or supposed different interests, of her various provinces, are sufficient guarantees to the rest of Europe that the power of Austria will not be abused. The pacific policy which her cabinet has generally observed is dictated by the peculiar composition of the state, and cannot safely be departed from. While Austria may thus be looked upon as a most useful ally by the other states of Europe, and as their grand bulwark against the power and ambition of Russia, her friendship will be courted in proportion to her increase of power. Her worst enemies are those, who, by ostering disunion at home, or keeping her people in ignorance of their true interests, weaken her influence, and prevent her from attaining a position to command the respect of her neighbours without exciting their apprehensions. Rise and Increase of the Empire. — The House of Austria derives its origin and the foundations of its power from Rodolph, count of Hapsburg, in Switzerland. Rodolph, who was one of É. ablest princes of his age, having extended his authority over the #. part of Switzerland, and distinguished himself by his ability and o was raised in 1273 to the imperial throne. is elevation was owing principally to the wish of the electors to have an emperor of undoubted ability, capable of putting down the anarchy that had long prevailed in the