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Bathsheba, having made him the husband of Semiramis, the strong mind and many accom
who saw, and has minutely described, the city, should not have made the faintest allusion to
plishments of his wife, induced him, on his such extraordinary structures, had they really death, to leave her regent for his son, though existed. The tunnel under the Euphrates was it would appear that she governed in her own an object more worthy of notice, and more likely
name, till her death (Diod. Sic. ii. 20.); and to her was owing most of the grandeur of Babylon. According to Herodotus, the city was built on both sides the Euphrates, the connection between its two divisions being kept up by means of a bridge formed of wooden planks laid on stone piers. The streets are described as having been pool, and the houses from 3 to 4 stories in eight. The city was surrounded by a deep and broad ditch, and by a wall of extraordinary dimensions, flanked with towers, and pierced by 100 gates of brass. The wall was built of bricks, formed from the earth taken out of the ditch, and cemented by a composition formed of heated bitumen and reeds; the former being brought from Is (Hit), on the Euphrates, about 128 m. above Babylon. The temple of Jupiter Belus (most probably the Tower of Babel) occupied a central position in one of the divisions of the city. Herodotus describes it as a square tower of the depth and height of one stadium, upon which, as a foundation, 7 other towers rose in regular succession, the last tower having a large chapel, a magnificent couch, and a table of solid gold. The building was ascended from without by means of a winding-stair. The space in which it was built was enclosed within walls, 8 stadia-in circumference, and consequently occupying above 33 acres. The gates to the temple, which were of brass, and of enormous magnitude, were seen by Herodotus. In the other division of the city stood the royal palace, which seems to have been a sort of internal fortification, and was, no doubt, of vast dimensions. (Clio, 181.) It is exceedingly difficult, or rather, perhaps, impossible, owing to their extremely dilapidated state, to say to which of the ancient buildings the existing ruins are to be ascribed. The principal of these are the Kasr, or palace; the Mujellibe, or the overturned; and the Birs Nemroud, or tower of Nimrod. These are all of great magnitude, and are at very considerable distances from each other. The most considerable, the Birs Nemroud, is a mound of an oblon figure, 762 yards in circumference. On its W. side it rises to an elevation of 198 ft., and on its summit is a solid pile of brick, 37 ft. high. It consists entirely of brick-work, and Niebuhr, Rich, and Mignan, agree in supposing it to be the remnant of the sacred edifice, and identical with the Tower of Babel. (Niebuhr, ii. 236. ; Rich, 38. 49. 54. &c., 2d Mem. pass.; Mignan, 202.) The particulars given above of the ancient state of this famous city are all derived from Herodotus, by whom, as already stated, it was visited after its conquest by Cyrus, and before it had sustained any material injury. But if credit be given to later and less trustworthy authorities, Babylon had to boast of still more extraordinary monuments than any previously mentioned. Among these may be specified a tunnel under the Euphrates; subterranean banqueting rooms of brass; and the famous hanging gardens, containing near 4 acres of land, elevated 300 ft. above the level of the city, and bearing timber trees that would have done no discredit to the Median forests. (Diod. Sic. ii. 7. 9. 10. ; Strabo, xvi. 738. ; Curt. v. 1.) We confess, however, that we are extremely sceptical as to the existence of any one of these structures. How can it be supposed that so careful and curious an observer as Herodotus,
to attract attention, than the bridge, and yet while Herodotus describes the latter, he says not a word about the former' . And to say nothing of the extreme improbability that any such stupendous structures as those of the hanging gardens should have been erected by a people apparently ignorant of the arch, it is not conceivable, had they been constructed, that Herodotus should have omitted to mention them. His silence seems to show clearly that the statements as to these extraordinary fabrics are really as fabulous as they appear to be incredible. Diodorus Siculus and Curtius are writers of little authority, and have, on all occasions, evinced the greatest readiness to give credit to and repeat the most absurd and unfounded statements; and in this instance Strabo seems to have shown quite as little of sound criticism or discernment. The great works of Babylon were all constructed of brick, except the bridge, the stones for which must have been brought from a distance, since none could be found in the alluvial soil of the country. The bricks are of two kinds, sun-dried, and kiln-dried: they are much larger than the bricks now in use, and generally marked with figures or letters. Straw or reeds are mixed with the courses, and bitumen, procured from Is or Hit, is the usual cement, though mortar and slime are also frequently used. Such is the extent of these vast ruins, that nearly all the cities in their neighbourhood are built from the materials found there, and the storehouse seems to be regarded as one which is inexhaustible. From the death of Semiramis, Babylon continued a kind of second capital to Assyria, till the revolt of Arbaces and Beleses against Sardanapalus, 30 generations later. It was subsequently sometimes the capital of the whole country, and sometimes that of the separate kingdom of Babylonia; but always advancing in grandeur and prosperity till the days of Nebuchadnezzar, under whom it may be considered as having reached its zenith. (Joseph. Antiq. x. xi. 1.) In the midst of its glory, however, the voice of the Jewish prophet was raised against it. The Median conquest is threatened full 120 years before its occurrence; and “this glory of kingdoms” is doomed to the fate of Sodom and Gomorrah; to be swept with the besom of destruction; to become a possession for the bittern and pools of water; a lair for the wild beasts of the desert, doleful creatures, owls, and satyrs (Isa. xiii. xiv. et pass.); predictions, the accomplishment of which has been as literal as complete. In the reign of Labynetus, or Belshazzar, son of Nebuchadnezzar" and Nitocris, Cyrus, the “anointed of the Lord” (Isa. xlv. i.), led his army against the city. Trusting to their fortifications, the Babylonians derided his attempt; but cutting a canal, he diverted the course of the Euphrates, leaving its channel through the town sufficiently dry for the passage of his army. The same thing had been done on a former occasion, by Nitocris, to build the bridge; but in this instance an additional work seems to have been performed, in the erection of locks or dams, to preserve the river in its natural course till the very moment of attack, and thus prevent suspicion of his design; for had the Babylonians
been aware of it, says Herodotus, they might easily have enclosed the Persians, as in a trap, and effected their total destruction. Taking advantage, however, of a night of revelry, Cyrus drew off the waters, entered the town by surprise, and captured it almost without resistance. (Xen. Cyr. vii. 5. ; Herod. Clio, 191. ; Dan. v.) The sacred historian gives a vivid account of the manner in which the last Babylonian king spent the night before his ă. and of the awful warning which preceded nis overthrow. Babylon remained subject to the Persian monarchs till the reign of Darius Hystaspes, when it revolted, but was again subdued by stratagem. Darius took away the gates, and otherwise injured the city, so that its declension may be fairly dated from his time. Xerxes is said to have defaced the temple of Belus on his return from Greece; but such were the resources and conveniences of the city, that it remained the winter residence of the Persian monarchs for several generations. It made no resistance to Alexander, who intended making it the capital of his gigantic empire. He contemF. also, the restoration of the temple; but aving employed 10,000 men for two months, in removing the rubbish, the work was o by his death. Seleucus Nicator, who, after that event, became monarch of Babylonia, founded the city of Seleucia, on the banks of the Tigris, and made it his capital. From this time, the decline of Babylon was as rapid as well could be; but the mighty city which required ages to rear, required also ages in which to perish. It was still important, though in ruins, at the commencement of the Christian aera. (Herodotus, Thalia, 159. ; Strabo, xvi. 738. ; Arrian, xvi.; Pliny, vi. 26.) Its subsequent history is unknown. It is said to have been turned into a hunting-park by the Parthian kings, who overthrew the Seleucidian dynasty; and it is probable that the materials of its vast buildings served to construct the newer cities in its neighbourhood. It had shrunk to a mere name in the early days of Arab greatness (Ebn Haukel,70.); and in the 495th Hegira, A.D. 1101, was founded the present town of Hillah. (Abul Feda Irak, art. Babel.) The rest of this once famous district is now, and has been for ages, a desolate void; its buildings masses of shapeless ruins, channelled by the weather, and literally the desolation which the prophet predicted: —“And Babylon shall become heaps, a dwelling place for dragons, an astonishment, a hissing, without an inhabitant.” (Jer. li. 37.; Rich", passim; Mignan, 118–236.; Hende, 92– 105. ; Minnear, 268–282.) BACCARAT, a town of France, dép. Meurthe, cap. cant., on the Meurthe, 16 m. S. E. Luneville. Pop. 3,057. This town is remarkable for its being the seat of the principal manufacture of flint glass, or crystal, in France. It was established so far back as 1764 ; but it did not attain to any very considerable eminence till after the peace of 1815, when a manufacture carried on at Voniche in Belgium was transferred thither. The workmen and their families, to the number of 600, are lodged in the establishment; but the women employed in polishing the crystal live at Baon-l'Etape, 2 leagues distant. The value of the raw material employed in the manufacture is estimated at 400,000 fr. a year, and the salary of the workmen at 450,000 fr. The annual product in rough or uncut crystal is estimated at 1,400,000 or 1,500,000 fr. Exclusive of the work-people already referred to, about 350 are employed in subsidiary departments, in preparing minium or red lead, extracting potash, preparing tools, &c. The machinery employed in the manufacture is all driven by water. (Hugo, France Pittoresque, ii. p. 248.) • * The references to Rich's First Memoir are to the edition of 1815, except when otherwise ex ; those to Rennell's o are made lis," published in 1839; me inte
to “Babylon and P resting corroborative matter will be found in Sir R. K. Porter's Tra
BACHARACH, a decayed town of the Prussian States, prov. Rhine, at the foot of a steep mountain, on the lest bank of the Rhine, 25 m. S.S.E. Coblentz. It is surrounded by old walls, strengthened by l l towers. Bacharach is a translation or corruption of Bacchi ara, or altar of Bacchus, the name given to a rock in the river, usually covered with water, but appearing in very dry seasons, or in those most favourable to the growth of the vine. Hence the Romans are said to have sacrificed on the rock to Bacchus; and its appearance is still hailed as an omen of an excellent vintage. The town is mean and dirty, and the inhab. very poor. “In fact,” says Mr. Barrow,” the principal part of the food of the people, through the whole of the long ravine from Boppart to Bacharach, and as far as Bingen, must be o: to them from a distance, as, from the scarcity of land, wine and fruit are the only articles capable of being cultivated; and how the land which we here see can possibly pay the labour of cultivation is quite a mystery. There is scarcely a patch of half an acre in any one continued space ;, mostly not half a rood. Every little sheltered spot, however small, that posseses the least soil – every little crevice between the naked rocks — is choked up with vines ; in many places the vine is planted in a basket, with adventitious soil, and sunk in the rocky fragments by the side of the hill. The care and the labour bestowed, though not toilsome, is constant ; and the distance is frequently several miles which the poor cultivator has to go from his habitation to his vineyard; we should rather say hers, for they appear to be chiefly women, who bear but little resemblance to those fair and sylph-like damsels with which painters are in the habit of peopling their vineyards, when assembled to gather the purple grape. A jacket and petticoat, a dirty handkerchief tied round the head, the legs and feet naked, the features dark, dull, and unmeaning, furnish the true picture of a female labourer of a Rhenish vineyard; and this was so generally the prevailing feature of the picture, in all places where the chief produce was wine, that we may almost with certainty come to the conclusion, that the culture of the vine is an indication of the poverty of those who perform the manual labour, however profitable it may be to the large proprietor.” BACKERGUNGE, a distr. of Hindostan, prov. Bengal, div. Dacca, including part of the Sunderbunds, and the mouths of both the Ganges and Brahmapoutra; having N. Dacca Jelalpore distr., E. Tipperah and the Bay of Bengal, S.W. Jessore; area 2,780 sq. m.; pop. (1822) 686,640; land revenue (1829-30) 78,1801. It is mostly covered with jungle, abounding with alligators and the largest class of tigers ; but in parts it is very fertile in rice, &c. It has been noted for the frequency of crime, especially of river piracy or dacoity, the country pre- senting great facilities for the shelter of the culprits. It is subject to inundations that are occasionally very destructive. (Hamilton's Hindostan, Rep. and Append. Revenue, and Map.) BACKNANG, a town of Wirtcmberg, circ. Necker, 16 m. N.E. Stuttgardt, in a valley on the Murr. Pop. 3,400. It has fabrics of cloth, and tanneries, and a considerable trade in horses. 3ACQUERILLE, a town of France, dép. Seine Inférieure, cap. cant., 11 m. S. by W. Dieppe. Pop. 2,810. BACS, a town of Hungary, cap. co. of the same name, on the marsh of Mosstonga, 32 m. W. N.W. Peterwardein. Pop. 2,770. It was formerly much more considerable than *P. and has still some fortifications. It is the seat of the chapter of the Greek bishop of Bacs, who resides at Neusatz , and has a considerable transit
trade. BADAJ OZ (an. Par Augusta), a city of Spain, cap. Estremadura, near the frontier of Portugal, in an extensive plain in the angle between, and at the point of confluence of, the small river Rivillas with the Guadiana; 198 m. S.W. Madrid, 135 m. E. Lisbon ; lat. 38° 52' N., long. 69 11° W. Pop. 12,088. The castle, situated on a rock joi the confluence of the two rivers, commands them an the town, which is further defended by various very stron fortifications. The Guadiana is here crossed by a goo bridge of 28 arches, erected in 1596, "...P. by a strong téte du pont. Streets narrow and crooked, but they are well paved and clean, and the houses good. It has 5 gates, and a fine promenade along the river. There is a deficiency of springs, and the supply of water is derived from reservoirs, cisterns, &c. It is the seat of a bishopric, and the residence of the captain-general of the prov. ...The cathedral has some good paintings, especially those by Morales, a native of the place; and there are several convents and hospitals. It has manufactories of soap and coarse cloth, with tanneries and dye-works, and is the seat of a pretty active trade (mostly contraband) with Portugal. Badajoz is very ancient, having been a considerable place under the Romans. It has always been regarded as a mili§ post of the greatest importance. During the late war with France, it was taken by the French under Marshal Soult on the 10th of Jan., 1811; the garrison, amounting
to 15,000 men, becoming prisoners of war. In the course of the same year it was twice unsuccessfully besieged by the Anglo-Portuguese army. In the following year the siege was undertaken by the army under the Duke of Wellington ; and, after some of the outworks had been carried, it was taken by storm, after a desperate resistance, on the 6th of April. On this occasion the allied army lost about 5,000 men, killed and wounded. The glory of this brilliant achievement was unhappily tarnished by the excesses committed by the victorious soldiery, despite every effort to prevent them, on the de#!"; inhabitants of the town. (Mińano; Napier, BA DALONA, a town of Spain, Catalonia, within a short distance of the sea, with a castle; 6 m. N. E. Bar. celona. Pop. 4,875. The climate is excellent; and the environs are fertile and beautiful. B.A. DAUM Y, a strong hill fortress of Hindostan, prov. Bejapoor, ol. Bombay, 55 m. N. E. Darwar; lat. 15° 55' N., long. 75° 49' E. Pop. about 2,500. It consists of fortified hills, with a walled town at the bottom, containing an inner fort. It has always been reckoned one of the strongest hill fortresses in India, and successfully resisted a whole Maharatta army. It was taken b storm in 1818, by a division of the army under Sir o Munro. A renarkable chaotic distribution of rocks prevails throughout the country around Badaumy. BADEN (THE GRAND DUCH Y OF), in Germany, is bounded on the S. by the Lake of Constance, with its two arms, the lakes Ueberlingen and Zell, as far as Stein, between which town and Eglisan, however, the territories of the Swiss cantons, Schaffhausen and Zurich, intervene three times between the Rhine and the frontier of Baden. On the W. the Rhine forms the boundary towards Switzerland, France, and Rhenish Bavaria, with the exception of a part of the territory of Basel, which lies upon the right bank of the river. Towards the N. the territory of the grand duchy of Hesse and the kingdom of Bavaria, and towards the E. the kingdom of Wirtemberg and principality of Hohenzollern Sigmaringen form its boundaries. It lies between lat. 47° 32' and 49°47′N. The surface is exceedingly varied, the length of the grand duchy being about 150 m, from N. to S. ; its breadth, in Lower Rhine circle, from the Rhine to the Bavarian frontier, being about 60 m. ; in the Middle Rhine circle, from the Bhine to the frontier of Wirtemberg, about 20 m. ; and in the Lake circle, from the same river to the Yof frontier, extending to nearly 115 m. ; thus forming a long irregular figure, ve narrow in the centre, but stretching out to some o at the N. and S. ends. The eastern half of this tract of country is entirely occupied by a mountainous tract, extending from S. to N., under the denominations of the Black Forest, Odenwald, &c.; while the western half, extending from the fall of these mountains to the Rhine, is partly an undulating, but along the banks of that river, mostly a level country. Mountains. – The Black Forest stretches from the banks of the Rhine, where that river forms the Swiss boundary, in a northern direction through the grand duchy as far as the Neckar, and towards the E. far into the kingdom of Wirtemberg, falling gradually in the latter direction with prolonged offsets, but suddenly and steeply towards the valley of the Rhine. Its main stock, is composed of gneiss and granite, which form, as in the Vosges, dome-like masses, with steep sides, rising in the Feldberg 4,650 ft., in the Belchem, 4,397 ft. (this name is analogous to the Ballans of the Vosges), and in the Herzogen ń. to 4,300 ft., above the level of the sea. On the granite red sandstone is o: and forms extensive plateaux, capable of cultivation to a great height: so that not only extensive forests cover these mountains, but pastures, and even small villages, are found in them at an elevation of 3,5 and 4,000 feet. Deep valleys, with picturesquely precipitous sides, intersect the sandstone layer, and pour rapid streams, for the most part navigable for rafts, into the Valley of the Rhine. In some hills, as the Kniebigs, for instance, the sandstone appears to form compact isolated masses. 2. The bed of the Neckar, which divides the Black Forest (Schwarzwald) range from the Odenwald, is also of sandstone, which alternates in the northern arts of the grand duchy with blue limestone and marl. The principal mass of the Odenwald is likewise, according to Koferstein (from whose work we take these details), composed of sandstone, little interrupted by the rise of the granite. The highest summit, the Katzenbüchel, 2,180 ft., lies in Baden; but the greater part of the chain belongs to the grand duchy of Hesse. Like the Black Forest, these heights fall steeply towards the Rhine, and along the foot of the range the Bergstrasse,from Heidelberg to Frankfort, a road celebrated for picturesque mountain sce , uniting with the rich luxuriance of vegetation of the valley, has been carried. 3. The Kaiserstuhl, in the circle of the Upper Rhine, is formed of a clump of heights of volcanic origin, separated from the Black Forest by the Dreisam and the Elz. On the rock, called
the Toddenkopf (death's head), a tradition tells us that Rodolph of Hapsburg held a court of justice, whence the name , of Kaiserstuhl (emperor's chair) is derived. The highest point is 1,763 Paris feet in elevation. 4. A range of steep hills, stretching from the Rhine, near Schaffhausen, along the W. and § shores of the Lake of Constance, is named the Randen. The dominant formation of these hills is limestone; the highest point is 2,527 ft. in height. They run into the Black Forest on the W. and N., and on the N.E. into the hilly district of Nellenburg and Hegan. The last named elevations are composed of Jura limestone, in which the basalt and other isolated volcanic rocks of Hohendwyl, Hohenstoffeln, Hohenhöwen, &c., occur. 5. Finally, the Heilienberg, a rough and sterile tract, rises N.F. of the ake of Constance, and slopes down towards its banks; on its summit, 2,200 ft. high, Prince Fürstenberg has a hunting seat, from which there is a fine view of the lake and the Swiss mountains. Rivers. — The principal river of the grand duchy is the Rhine, which receives all its streams except the Danube. After losing itself in the Lake of Constance, at a distance of 100 miles from its source, it re-appears as a rapid, stream near Stein, where its breadth is 250 ft., and works its way through limestone rocks to Schaffhausen, a little below which place it falls over a precipice from 50 to 60 ft. in height. Near Laufenburg the bed narrows to a width of only 50 feet, forming a rapid scarcely inferior sn grandeur of effect to the celebrated fall at Schaffhausen. At Rheinfelden the rocky ravines in its bed form a violent eddy, and all these obstacles preclude the possibility of rendering the stream navigable above Basel, from which city onward it takes a northerly and tranquil course. Its breadth at Basel is 750 st. ; but its depth is by no means proportionate to this extent of surface, the stream being in many spots no more than 3 ft. deep, while its greatest average depth between Basel and Strasburg, does not exceed 10 to 12 ft. At Mannheim the bed of the river is 1,000 ft. in breadth; but its average depth between Strasburg and Mayence varies between 5 ft. and 24 ft. . The fall of the Rhine between Stein and Basel is stated by Hennitsch to be 703 Paris st., and between Basel and Mannheim 494 st. The navigation on the Rhine is the most important of all the inland water carriage of Germany. Between Basel and Strasburg boats of 25 to 30 tons are used, and between the latter city and Mainz barges of 120 tons burden. Steam-boats now go up to Basel, notwithstanding the islands and banks formed by the shifting of the river's bed, and the uncertainty of its depth, which varies after every flood. The Rhine is traversed by two bridges of boats at Kehl and at Mannheim, besides several flying bridges. The greater number of the streams falling into the Rhine on its right bank descend from the Black Forest with so rapid a fall that but few of them are navigable even for forest rafts. The most considerable are the Wiebach, which, during part of its course forms the frontier of the canton of Schaffhausen; the Wiesen, which falls into the Rhine below Basel, the Elz, the Kinzig, which joins the Rhine near Kehl, and the Murg. The two last named streams, on which the greatest o of timber and firewood is floated down, have a fall of nearly 3,000 ft., in a course not exceeding 60 English miles. The largest accession which the Rhine receives during its course through the §§ duchy is the Neckar, which has its source, in Wirtemberg in the Black Forest, and after traversing that kingdom, enters Baden at Heinsheim. It is navigable for boats from Cannstadt near Stuttgart, below which place it is joined by the Rems, the Kocher, and the Jax on its right, and the Enz on its left bank; it falls into the Rhine near Mannheim. 2. The Maine forms the frontier towards Bavaria but for a short distance, and receives the Tauber at Wertheim. Its depth is not great, but is regular ; and its gentle fall, . which is assisted by the numerous windings of its bed, renders its current well adapted to navigation. 3. The Danube, whose sources are in the grand duchy, leaves the territory before it assumes any greater importance than that of a mountain stream. Its most westerly source is that of the Brege, between the Rossuk and Briglein, in the Black Forest, a few miles N.W. Furtwangen. It is joined a little above Donaneschingen by the Brizach, and into their united streams, which from that point bear the name of Danube, the waters fall, which, issuing from the springs in the Castle-yard of this town, claim the honour of being the original sources of the great river. After traversing a small district of Wirtemberg, the Danube once more enters the territory of Baden, and finally leaves it at Gutenstein on the frontiers of Sigmaringen. The natural facilities for internal navigation in the grand duchy bend for the most part towa the W. and N., and merge into one grand channel, the Rhine. With the exception of some cuts to regulate the course of this river between Kehl and Mannheim, the execution of which is regulated by a treaty with Bavaria, according to which those on the left bank are managed by Baden, and those on the right bank by the Bavarians, no navigable canals exist in the grand duchy. The Lake of Constance is an important feature in the natural facilities for water communication. Part of its northern bank, from Immenstadt to Mersburg, together with the whole shore of its northern branch, the WeberLingen See, and the north shore of the Zeller See, with the city of Constance on its southern shore, belong to Baden. A considerable trade with Switzerland is carried on across it, and the introduction of steam-boats, which keep up a daily communication between Constance, Lindau, and Rohrschach, in Switzerland, has made it a convenient passage for travellers. The whole lake with its branches, contains, according to Hennitsch, an area of 94 German square miles, and its deepest part, between Constance and Lindau, is 85+ Paris st. Its level above the sea is 1,255 ft., but at the period of the melting of the snow its waters rise as much as 10 ft. A sudden swell, which takes place at other times, and which is termed the Ruhss, is not easily accounted for. The lake is not unfrequently frozen over in winter, and in 1830 horsemen and carriages passed over it. The limen See, near Pfullendorf, in #. Lake circle, and the Möking See, are rather fish-ponds than lakes; and the various meres in the Black Forest, which are found at considerable elevations, the largest of which are the Feldsee at 3,401 ft., the Tittisee 2,598 ft., the Mummelsee , 3,130ft., the Nonnenmattweiher 2,845 ft., and the Eichmer See 1,494 Paris fl. above the sea, are neither interesting for their extent, nor for picturesque scenery. The last-mentioned lake dries up occasionally, so that corn is sown in its bed; and in the Nonnenmatt a floating island of turf rises and falls with the water which supports it. Climate. — Berghaus gives the following details concerning the climate of the Valley of the it. in the grand duchy, one of the warmest in Germany.
manganese is dug near Willingen; salt in two chief beds at Rappenau in the circle of Lower Rhine, and at Durrheim, in the Lake circle. Coals in the neighbourhood of Offenburg ; besides alum, vitriol, and sulphur, form the principal mineral productions. Upwards of 60 mineral springs are counted in the grand duchy. The thermal springs of Baden are those w;. are the best known and the most used for medicinal purposes. The grand duchy is divided into four circles, and contained, according to the census of 1834, 241,520 families, or 1,231,319 inhabitants.” . Berghaus estimates the population in the year 1838 at 1,263,100.
Thus the proportion to 1,000 inhabitants is, of births 38, of deaths 34, of marriages 8; and the illegitimate births are to the legitimate as 1 to 5:4. The annual increase in the 22 years from 1811 to 1833 averages only 10,600, and for the years 1831, 1832, and 1833, was only 2,538. e proportion of male to female births was, in the year 1834, as 1:06 to 1; of births of legitimate children to marriages as 4-1 to 1. Hennitsch, in his detailed statistical description of Baden, gives the following tables, showing the religious distinctions of the inhabitants in 1833.
Rain falls 146, snow 26, and fogs occur on 12 days. The mean direction of the winds is, in Carlsruhe S. 889 W. or nearly W., in Mannheim N. 65° W. Thunderstorms in Carlsruhe occur on 26, at Manheim on 21 days in the year. Productions.—Before the accession of the grand duchy to the Germanic Customs' League, the attention of the inhabitants of the valleys of the Rhine and Neckar was almost exclusively devoted to agriculture, for which the soil and climate of those districts is admirably adapted. Corn is grown with great success; the average return given for the whole state by Berghaus, being, for barley 8 to 9 fold, wheat 9 fold, maize 340 to 350 fold, potatoes 28 to 30 fold. The slopes of the hills are every where covered with vineyards, in which excellent wine is grown, although only the N. shore of the e of Constance and part of the vale of the Rhine have a S. declivity; and here the vicinity of the Alps, the Jura, and the Black Forest, diminish the warmth. Between the vines, the walnut, chestnut, peach, apricot, plum, and cherry trees produce abundantly the choicest fruit; and the valleys above mentioned resemble one beautiful garden. obacco, o: of a very fine description, and flax, are extensively cu tivated ; and the forests send annually a large quantity of excellent fir and oak timber down the Rhine. Mining is also carried on with partial success. Silver is found at St. Anton, in the valley of the Kinzig : copper at Kork and Neustadt; iron is produced at Kandern, near Waldshut, near Hansen, and in other parts of the Black Forest;
Of the Cerealia, wheat is grown, but in a small proportion, not exceeding 1-30th of the whole. Spelt is the grain of which bread is principally made. Maize is extensively cultivated, but chiefly as green food for cattle, being sown thick, and allowed to run up to a great height. Artificial grasses and turnips are in universal use in the vale of the Rhine, in which agriculture, on the whole, is carried on upon the best scale, and far exceeding the cultivation of any other o of Germany. The meadows are irrigated in the Italian style, which the numerous mountain rills assist, while the corn-fields are interspersed with countless fruit-trees, and even the beds are surrounded with plants of hemp, sown singly, which attain a remarkable height and thickness. The best descriptions of wine are those of the Ortenau and of the valleys of the Maine and Neckar. The Klingenberger and Wertheimer growths are those most admired. #. produce of timber and firewood is estimated at 978,000 cubic fathoms, of which a large portion is sent down the Rhine to the ship-builders of Holland, and is known by the name of Holländerholz. Masts of 150 feet in length, and oaks of the choicest growth, are yearly felled in great numbers for exportation to the mouth of the Rhine.
The number of head of cattle in the grand duchy is stated to be, 73,183 horses; 480,404 horned cattle; 188,706 sheep; 22,275 goats; 302,800 pigs.
Of the sheep 16,856 are designated as Spanish meri
* Wiz., 500,334 males, and 631,085 females.
noes, and 110,057 as improved breeds. The number of beehives is stated at 14,030. An agricultural association at Carlsruhe has branches in several other towns, and prizes are annually distributed to encourage improvealents. Mining and Manufactures. – Gold-washing was formerly a principal object of industry along the Rhine, from Basel to Mannheim; it is now confined to the district between Philipsburg and Wittenweier. The mines of Teufelsgrund yielded in 1835-6, 7943 mks. of silver. In the year 1836-7 the same mine produced 1,052 mks. of silver. The mines of St. Anthony in the valley of the Kinzig produced, under the management of the same company to which those of Teufelsgrund belong, in 1836–7, 420 mks. of silver, and 900 cwt. of cobalt ore. The salt springs are the next most productive mineral branches, #. two principal ones yielding 300,000 cwts. annually. Since the accession of Baden to the Prussian Customs' League the number of factories has very much increased. In 1829 the grand duchy numbered 161 fabrics, with 2,756 workmen, and a capital registered for taxation of 1,777,055 fls. At the end of 1837 the number of fabrics was 294, with 9,281 workmen, and a capital of 2,488,352 fls. The additional manufacturing undertakings are cotton spinning and weaving establishments, riband, and beet-root sugar fabrics, of which last description 8 have been opened within a few years. From the following survey of the employments of the P. given by M. Hennitsch, it will be evident that this increased activity, although it may have received a uliar direction by means of the protecting duties, which amount almost to rohibitions ...F. articles of colonial produce, was yet, n most respects, the natural result of the peculiar circumstances under which the population have been laced. The forest and mountain tracts, which occupy alf the country, scarcely supply food for their scanty inhabitants, whose manufactures of clocks, wooden toys, straw hats, lace, and embroidery, have been sent, from a long date, into all parts of Europe. Crome states the number of wooden clocks annually exported to amount to 187,000, besides musical snuff-boxes, barrel-organs, and other articles for which the forests furnish the mate
Moral Condition of the People. – The restraints upon the obtaining a settlement in a distant parish, which in all German states depends upon the possession of a livelihood rather than of the power to gain it, with the impediments thrown in the way of marriage, tend, it is said, to weaken the stimulus to excrtion, and to promote immorality. These must be regarded as the true causes o; the lower classes in this state do not stand upon an equal footing with their Swiss neighbours, notwithstanding the freedom of the political institutions and the high rank which the upper classes of the grand duchy assume amongst the enlightened nations of Europe. The constitution of Baden
is the one which allows the most Pool. influence to the representatives of the nation of all the German governments, and the law establishing the liberty of the Y. has only been suspended by the decrees of the rankfort diet of the year 1832. The legislative functions are exercised in Baden by the sovereign and two chambers. In the upper chamber, besides he members of the royal family, the heads of mediatized princely houses, the bishop of Freiburg as head of the Catholic church, and the chief of the Lutheran consistory, the representatives of the universities of Heidelberg and Freiburg, 8 representatives of the lesser nobility, and 8 members named at pleasure by the grand duke, – the heads of families possessing entailed estates of the value of 300,000 florins (capital) may claim the hereditary rage. The second chambér consists of 22 deputies of towns, and 41 deputies from as many districts of the country. The members of the upper chamber must have completed their 25th, those of the lower chamber their 30th year. The latter must prove the possession of an income of 1,500 fl. per an. without any limitation as to the source whence it is derived : they are chosen for 8 years. The chambers meet every second year, and their sittings are public. The parliamentary history of Baden since 1830, when the legislative bodies commenced their career of activity, is that of the present improved and flourishing state of the institutions and finances of the grand duchy. In the session of 1831 the budget was fully controlled for the first time, and the responsibility of the minister established. The annually increasing revenue has occasioned some alleviation of the public burdens, and in 1836, when a reduction of taxes was made, the benefit was allowed to accrue principally to the poorer classes, although the principle of equal taxation of all classes is that upon which the financial system is sounded. Financial System. – The direct taxes are levied as follows: — The land tar upon the estimated value of all lands, calculated according to sales of landed property in each district at two periods; viz., between the years 1780-90 and 1800-9, half the average price of the district in the one period being added to half the price in the second, and all lands being classed, according to their quality, in several classes. The rent and revenue tax is levied upon all dues payable by landholders to their lords, whether as rent or service dues. The capital taxed is calculated at 25 years' purchase for tithes, and 18 years' purchase for other dues; and the cost of collection is deducted. The house tax is rated according to a scale of the value of each tenement, between the years 1800 and 1809. The registered amount of the value of all these descriptions of property, in the estimate for the budget of 1837 and 1838, was 601,530,080 fl., (50,120,000l.); and the tax levied was 19 kreutzers on 100 florins, or 8 per cent. on a revenue of 4 per cent. from the capital. The industry tar is levied in a particular manner. The personal labour of every tradesman and manufacturer is estimated by a capital sum, varying according to the description of employment. All trades are embraced in 10 classes, and the capital so found is increased by a proportional additional sum for every apprentice or labourer employed. The capital sum re. for this tax in 1837 amounted to 100,864,925 fl., (8,405,000l.), and the rate was 23 krs. per 100 florins, or nearly 3-5ths per cent. Another series of 15 classes embraces the capital employed in tools, stock in trade, &c. The personal industry tax is the one which was modified in 1836, when 300 florins were struck off from the registered capital of each individual ; by means of which a large proportion of the poor were relieved from this burden. All persons in the service of the state pay a tax upon the salaries they receive, according to a scale of 9 classes: In the first, the income being below 1,000 florins, is rated at 14 per cent ; but in the last class, which includes the apanages of the members of the royal family, and revenues exceeding 80,000 fl. per ann. (6,000l.), it amounts to lo per cent. Of the indirect taxes the most important are the excise on beer, wine, and spirits; the slaughtering tax, the stamp duty, and the salt o The last-named branch of service supplies the inhabitants at 5 fl. 50 kr. per cwt. (10s.), while the price at which the salines surnish salt for exportation is 3 fl. 30 kr., or 6s. The estimate of the budget for 1837 to 1838 was 13,026,559 fl. a year, of which the direct taxes yielded 2,651,168 fl., the excise 1,495,593 fl., the share received from the Prussian Customs' League 1,495,593. The military force of the grand duchy amounts nominally to 10,000 men, which form part of the 2d division of the 8th corps of the confederate army. The troops are raised by annual conscription; but after the exercising months are over, the greater part are disbanded, and the whole department is managed with the strictest economy. The cost, including pensions, does not excced 1,500, florins annually. In the session of 1838 the second chamber passed a motion for reducing the number of the cavalry.