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weather; and at springs, for large vessels , where, previously, those drawing 6 ft. could only reach with a spring tide and favourable wind. But the most important result is, the improved drainage that has been effected. In this new channel the tide ebbs nearly 10 ft. lower than in the old one, immediately opposite the S. Ilolland and N. Level sluices, which are the outlets for the water of about 100,000 acres of fen-land. A new main drain and sluice has been formed, to take the proper advantage of this ; and also several minor drains. The Nene outfall was finished in 1835, at a cost of 200,000l. The drainage of the N. Level, under an act obtained in 1830, cost 150,000l. Following the example of his ancestors, the Duke of Bedford has been the chief supporter of both those undertakings, which have rendered pumping, either by wind or steam, unnecessary in the N. Level ; and proved... that by due skill and exertion, all the waters of this important tract might have an adequate outfall created for them. (Elstobb's Hist. of Bedford Level ; of Culloch's Statistical Acct. of the British Empire ; Smeaton's Tracts ; Penny Cyclopædia.) BED NORE, a town of Hindostan, cap. of a district of Mysore, lat. 13° 50' N. ; long. 750 6' E.; 150 m. N. W. Seringapatam, 360 m. W. N. W. Madras. It is situated on one of the best roads in the W. Ghauts, which leads from Mangalore. When Hyder Ali took it in 1763, it was said to be 8 m. in circ.: it afforded him considerable plunder. ... In 1783 it was taken by the English ; but in the of year the troops in possession were either, destroyed or dislodged by Tippoo. At his death it had but 1,500 houses, – some additions have, however, been made to it since. Its trade is increasing, but it has no manufactures. (Hamilton's E. I. Gaz. i. 156.) BED WIN (GREAT), a bor. and par. of England, co. Wilts, hund. Kindwardstone, 64 m. W. by S. Loud. Area of par., 10,420 acres. Pop. of par. in 1831, 2,191. The town, which is old, stands on an elevated site, on a chalky soil. Its church exhibits specimens of the style of various arras (from the Norman to Henry VIII.), and is a cruciform structure, with a fine er-battled tower rising from the intersection. The market-place (a very old building) is still standing in the principal street; but the market has long been disused. Fairs are held, April 23. and July 26. The place is in the jurisdiction of the county magistrates, being merely a nominal borough, with a portreeve, bailiffs, &c., elected at the manor court leet. It sent 2 mem. to the parliaments of Edward I. ; thence, with some inrerruptions, to 9 Henry V., and thence, continuously, till the Reform Act, by which it was disfranchised. here is a fine relic of Saxon earth-work, called Chisbury Castle, about a mile N.E. of the town ; it encloses an area of about 15 acres. Some Roman remains have also been found about a mile S.W. of the town. The Kennet and Avon Canal sses through the parish, and furnishes coals;. The iving is a vicarage, with the chapel of East Grafton annexed. BEEDER, a considerable prov. of Hindostan ; part of the Deccan ; chiefly between lat. 179 and 20° N., having N. Aurungabad and Berar; E. Hyderabad and Gundwana ; S. Hyderabad and W. Bejapoor and Aurungabad : it is included in the nizam's domin., and divided into 7 districts; viz. Calberga, Naldroog, Akulcotta, Calliany, Beeder, Nandere, and Patree. It is hilly but not mountainous, and watered by o rivers, of which the Manjera and Godavery are the chief, and is enerally fertile. It is but thinly inhabited, the Hinoos being to the Mohammedans as 3 to 1 : before the conquest by the latter, it was comparatively populous. Three languages, the Telinga, Maharatta, and Canarese, are spoken in this prov., and their mutual point of limit is somewhere in the neighbourhood of the principal town, Beeder. The Bhamenee dynasty reigned here after the Moham. conquest, and other small states were subsequently founded, one of which was fixed in Beeder as the capital. The Moguls conquered it at the end of the 17th, and the nizam early in the 18th century, since which it has always been occupied by the successors of the latter. BeedER, a city of Hindostan, cap. of the above rov., in lat. 17° 49' N., long. 77° 46' E.; 73 m. N. W. yderabad, and 325 m. E. S. E. Bombay. It stands in an open plain, except to the E., where it rests on ground having a declivity; is fortified by a stone wall, with many round towers, and a dry ditch; has remains of some good buildings, and was formerly famous for its tutenague ware...[Hamilton's E. I. Gaz; i. 157, 158.) BEER ALSTON, a bor. of England, co. Devon, hund. Roborough, par. Beer-Ferris, 21 1 m. W. S. W. London. Pop. of the par., 1821, 2,198; 1831, 1,876: houses, 344 ; area, 5,850 acres. The village is situated between the Tavy and Tamar, 1 m. from the latter: its market and fair (granted in 1295), have been long discontinued. Silver-lead mines were opened in the reign of Edw. I. contiguous to the place, which owes what im
portance it possessed to them ; they have been worked within the last 20 years, but are now discontinued, though some smaller ones are, or recently were, in work. The bor. claimed by prescription, but did not return mem. to the H. of C. till the reign of Eliz., from which period two were o elected, till the passing of the Reform Act, by which it was disfranchised. The ann, wal. of prop. in 1815, in the entire parish, was 25,550l. In its ancient church are some curious monuments of the old families of Champernowne and Ferrers. BEERBHOOM, or BIR BOOM, (Pirabhumi, the land of heroes,) a distr. of Hindostan, prov. Bengal, chiefly between lat. 23° 25', and 24° 25' N., and long. 86° and 88° E. ; having N. the distr. Bhaugulpore; E. Moorshedabad and Nuddea ; S. Burdwan and the Jungle Mehals; and W. Ramgur. Area, 3,870 sq. m. Pop. (1822) 1,267,065. Much of it is hilly, covered with jungle, and thinly inhabited ; there are no navigable streams, which impedes its cultivation and trade ; but the roads and bridges are kept in good order by government convicts, and its pop. and prosperity are increasing. Good coal and iron ore are found; the latter is worked in numerous native forges, supplied with fuel from extensive forests. The other most important products . are rice, sugar, and silk. The land revenue in the year 1829-30 was 691,876 rup. Highway depredations are frequent, especially by the petty, hill chiefs in the W.; the head-quarters of the judicial establishment are at Soory; the other chief towns are Nagore, Noony, and Serampore. In 1801 the Hindoos were to the Mohammedans as 30 to 1. (Hamilton's E. I. Gaz. i. 246. : Rerts on E. I. Affairs, Append. iii.; Revenue Map, i.
62.) BEER-REGIS, a par. and market town of Fngland, co. Dorset, hund. of same name. Pop. of par. 1,183. The town is situated on an affluent of the Piddle, 7 m. N.W. Wareham. It has a good church, with some monuments. Its annual fair, held on Woodbury Hill, 18th Sep. and 3 following days, used to be one of the most important in the co. for the sale of cattle, horses, &c.; and is still very considerable. BEES (ST.) HEAD, a cape of England, being the most westerly point of the co. of Cumberland, about 3 m. S.W. Whitehaven ; lat. 54° 30' 55.” N., long. 3° 37' 24” W. It is composed of abrupt, high, rocky cliffs ; and is surmounted by a lighthouse, exhibiting a fixed light, having the lantern elevated 333 st. above high water
mark. BEESKOW, a town of Prussia, prov. Brandenburg, on the Spree, 18 m. S.W. Frankfort on the Oder. Pop. 3,000. It is the seat of a court of justice, and has manufactures of cloth and linen, with breweries, tanneries, and lime-kilns. BEFORT, or BELFORT, a town of France, dep. Haut-Rhin, cap. arrond., on the Savoureuse, 38 m. S.S. W. Colmar. Pop. 5,687. When this town was ceded by Austria to France, in 1648, it was not fortified ; but §e importance of its position for the defence of the plain to the E. of the Vosges being obvious, works were constructed on a new principle, ". Vauban, which made it a fortress of the second class. It consists of two parts — the high and low town ; is well built; has large barracks, a handsome church, a college, a public library, containing 20,000 volumes, and a tribunal de première instance. Belfort has iron-foundries, with fabrics of iron-wire, printed calicoes, hats, paper, &c.; and is the entrepôt of most part of the trade of France with Alsace, Lorraine, Germany, and Switzerland. (Hugo, art, Haut-Rhin.) BEG (LOUGH), a small lake of Ireland, about 2 m. from the N.W. corner of lough §§ with which it is connected by the river Bann. (See Lough NBAGH.) BEGARD, a town of France, dep. Côtes du Nord, cap. cant., 3 m. N.W. Guingcamp. Pop.3,503. Yoğ. a town of Persia, prov. Fars, on an extensive and fruitful plain, about 3 m. E. from the ruins of the ancient city of Aragian, and 130 m. W. N. W. Shiraz. Mr. Kinneir says that the walls are about 3 m. in circumference, and that he was informed by the overnor that the pop, amounted to about 10,000. It f the residence of a Beglerbeg. (Kinneir's Persia,
.72. p #hnisc's STRAIT, the channel which separates the N.E. corner of Asia from the N.W. corner of America, and which connects the N. Pacific with the Arctic Ocean. It is formed, in its narrowest part, by two remarkable headlands, the extreme points E. and W. of the continents to which they belong; Cape Prince of Wales, on the American coast, in lat. 65° 46' N., long. 168° 15' W.; and East Cape, on the shore of Asia, in lat. 6696. N., long. 160° 38' W. The distance between these points is about 36 m. ; but N. and S. of them, the land on both sides rapidly recedes, and, on the N. especially, it trends so sharply, that the name of Strait is not very applicable to any part beyond the Capes in that direction. It is usual, however, to regard it as extending along Asia from Tchukotskoi Noss, in 64° 13' to Serdre Kumen in 679.3° N., which gives it a length of 400 m. : its
width between Tchukotskoi Noss (173° 24′ W.) and Cape Rodney, on the opposite shore of America (166° 3' W.), is about 250 m. The land on both sides is considerably indented, the Asiatic shore especially exhibiting several extensive and commodious bays, as St. Lawrence, Metchickma, and others; but the o is not of a kind to tempt navigators to its coasts, which are generally steep and rocky, very bare of wood, and not at all abundant in other veetation. The water has an equal, but not great depth. Sook remarks, that, on both sides of the Strait, the soundings are the same, at the same distance from the shore: that near land, he never found more than 23 fathoms; and by his chart it appears that he no where found more than 30. Shoal water appears to be principally confined to the bays and inlets on the American side. There are a few small islands scattered here and there o the Strait ; and one of some size, St. Lawrence or Clerke's Island, lies at a short distance S. from its entrance. The temperature is low ; by the end of August the thermometer sinks to the freezing point, and N. of the two Capes, there is always a store of ice which the heat of summer is quite powerless to disperse. It need scarcely be added, that the Strait is frozen over every winter. Fogs, and hazy weather, are very common, almost indeed perpetual ; for though the summer sun is above the horizon for a very considerable time, yet he seldom shines for more than a few hours, and often is not seen for several days in succession. The animals on both sides the Strait are similar, as might be expected from the proximity of the continents, and the annual freezing of the water; they consist of the common sur bearing tribes and birds of the Arctic regions, but not in great numbers. It might be reasonably presumed that a corresponding similarity would have been observed in the human race on each side of the channel ; but this is not the case: the Tchutski (Asiatics) are long-faced, stout, and well mafile; while the Americans are of low stature, with round chubby faces, and high check bones. The Asiatics, also, appear to possess more arts, to be more refined, in short, to be of a superior race. On both shores, the principal occupations appear to be hunting and fishing, for the latter of which the waters are well fitted, being much more abundant in life than the barren land. Whales frequent the Strait, and the walrus (morse) seems to be more abundant here than in any other part of the world. The flesh of the latter creature is fit for food (Cook's Third Joy., ii. p. 457.), and it appears probable that the natives of the coasts feed also upon the whale. In 1728, Vitus Behring, a German in the service of the Empress Catherine, sailed from Kamchatka, in the view of discovering whether Asia were or were not terminated by the sea towards the N.E., He reached the Serdre Kumen, and laid down the Asiatic coast in a manner to call sorth the unqualified *so of Cook. In a second voyage to explore the American shore, he unfortunately perished under circumstances of great misery. Behring may be considered as o: settled the fact of the existence of this strait, an therefore it is most properly called by his name; but the complete discovery was reserved for Cook, who in 1788 surveyed the whole length of both coasts, with a precision and accuracy, which left nothing for after voyagers to perform, and which has made the geography of !. remote and barbarous region as precise as that of our own country. It may, perhaps, be interesting to know, that a very old Japanese map of the world, now in the British Museum, lays down the leading features of this strait with surprising accuracy. (Russian Poyages and Discoveries, p 48. : Cook's Third J’oyage, p. 438.467–475, &c.; iii. p. 242., &c.; Billings, . 239 – 265., &c.) BEH RING's ISI.AND, a small isl. in the Pacific ; lat. 55° N., long. 1654° E., the most W. of the Aleutian chain. It is rocky and desolate, without inhabitants, and only remarkable, as the place where the great navigator, whose name it bears, breathed his last. After suffering great hardships in his attempt to explore the coast of America (see last article), the scurvy broke out among his men, and in the attempt to return to Kamchatka, he was wrecked on this barren rock, where was neither food, except marine animals, nor covering, except fine sand, in which the captain and crew attempted to screen themselves from the effect of an Eastern winter, and in which the former died worn out by disease and disappointment, Dec. 8. 1741. (Ruesian Poy. and Discov., p. 97.) BEILA, or BELA, an inl. town of Beloochistan, cap. rov. Lus, on an elevated rock on the N. bank of the oorally, lat. 26°11' N., long. 66° 36' E., and 50 m. N. of the Indian Ocean. It contains about 2,000 houses, 300 of which belong to Hindoos. The streets are narrow, tout the bazar is meat, and the town generally clean and ", y : on the N.W. it is protected by a tolerably good mud wall; eisewhere it has no external defence. (Pottinger's Travels, p. 19.)
BFI LAN, a town of Syria, near the sea, 9 m. S.E. Iskenderoon ; lat. 36° 29° 30' N., long. 36° 17' E. Pop. uncertain, but, as the town is the residence of many rich o: it cannot be inconsiderable, probably from 4,000 The houses are of stone, with flat roofs, occupy both sides of a mountain gorge, and are so disposed !. thc terraces of the lower buildings serve as streets to those above. A large stream rushes through the middle of the town, and in winter cascades pour down on every side. A considerable number of aqueducts, some of them very ancient, conduct this abundant supply of water to the houses of the inhabitants. Beilan gives name to the mountains among which it stands (an. Amanus), the S.W. termination of the Taurus. The summits of these mountains are usually snow-topped ; hence the winter cold is very severe, but the summer climate delightful, and, at all times, the atmosphere is pure and salubrious. The town was formerly much frequented by the inhabitants (especially Europeans) of Aleppo and Iskenderoon, as a refuge from the burning heats and unwholesome vapours of the plains during the summer. The decline of these places has affected Beilan, but its natural advantages have drawn to it a great many wealthy Turks, who find a further inducement to reside }. in the fact, that, though nominally a part of the o of Aleppo, the town is really governed by a sheikh, elected by the inhabitants from among themselves. In 1832 Beilan was the scene of a decisive battle between Ibrahim and Hussein, pachas. (Polney, ii. 135, 136. ; Robinson, ii.
It is surrounded by walls, flanked with 40 towers, and defended by a castle. It has a cathedral, a rich hospital, a Latin school, a fabric of earthenware and tanneries.
BEJAPOOR, a large prov. of the Deccan, Hindostan, comprised partly in the British dom. and partly in those of the rajah of Sattarah and the Nizam, and containin the Portuguese territ of Goa. It extends from 15° to 1 N. lat., and between 730 and 78° E. long., having N. prov. Aurungabad : E. the same prov, and that of Hyderabad ; S. the Toombuddra and Wurda rivers, and distr. of Canara; and W. the Indian Ocean : length 320 m., by 200 m. average breadth.
Its W. districts are very mountainous, being intersected by the W. Ghauts; and there are numerous strong hill positions on isolated eminences, with perpendicular sides, often crowned by fortresses. The principal rivers are the Krishna or Kistnah, Toombuddra, and Beema. The Krishna is remarkable as forming the boundary between two regions in which distinct languages and species of building prevail; N. of that stream the Maharatta tongue is spoken, and the roofs of the ordinary houses are pitched and thatched ; S. of its banks the Canara language prevails, and the houses are flat-roofed, and covered with mud and clay. The Ramooses, a tribe resembling the lower castes of the Maharattas, with the thievish habits of the Bheels, but more subdued and civilised, inhabit the hills joining the Ghauts in Sattarah, between Poonah on the N., Colapoor S., and Bejapoor E. They are robbers by trade, plundering the country when not kept in subordination ; addicted to hunting, &c., and neither tilling the ground, nor disposed to any fixed or laborious employment. They do not eat beef, but are without caste
After the dissolution of the Bhamenee empire of the Deccan, in 1489, Adil Shah established a dynasty in Bejapoor, which lasted till 1689, and was singular in conferring Hindoo titles of distinction, which, among other Mohammedan governments, were always Arabic. It next became nominally subject to Aurungzebe ; then really subject to the Maharattas: after of all the evils of anarchy from 1804 to 1818, most part of it became, in the latter year, subject to the British ; but portions of it have since that period been again entrusted to the rule of subsidiary native princes. (Hamilton's E. I. Gaz., pp. 159–162.)
BEJApoor (Pojayapura, the o city), the anc. cap. of the above prov. under the Adil Shah dynasty, stands near the right bank of a tributary of the Krishna, 115 m. S. E. Sattarah, lat. 16° 46' N., long. 75° 47' E. In the beginning of the 17th century it was a city of great size and strength ; but at present it consists merely of an immense number of mosques and other public buildings, many of which are in a state of partial decay; and a scanty population scattered among their ruins, and occupying miserable huts. “As the traveller approaches the city from the N., the great dome of Mahomed Shah's tomb is discerned from the village of Kunnoor, 14 m. distant. A nearer vicw gives the idea of a splendid and populous metropolis, from the innumerable domes and | and buildings which meet the eye.” “On entering, the illusion vanishes ; jungle has shot up in the partly obliterated streets, and the visiter may now lose himself in the solitude of ruins, where crowds were formerly the only impediments to a free passage.” It comprises an outer fort, or old city, and an inner fort or citadel, partly enclosed by, and lying E. of, the former: the space between the walls of these two is said to have been sufficient for the encampment, in 1689, of 15,000 of Aurungzebe's cavalry. The walls of the outer fort are 8 m. in circ., and but little dilapidated, though the outworks be in great part destroyed ; the inner fort, on the contrary, is fast crumbling away. The old city (besides a stone bazar, its only frequented spot) contains the mausoleum and mosque of Ibrahim Adil Shah, built on a basement 130 yds. Tong, by 52 yds. broad, covered by an immense dome raised on arches, and so elegant as to bear a favourable comparison with the most celebrated Mogul sepulchres of per Hindostan. This structure, as well as others in Béjapoor, is distinguished by rich overlapping cornices, and small minarets poculiar to this place, and terminating in a globe or pinnacle, instead of the open square turrets common in the N. of India. The inner fort, the S. walls of which bound Bejapoor in that direction, encloses the ruins of the palace, the great mosque, an imposing edifice in good repair, the celebrated mausoleum of Mahomed Shah, and a multitude of other tombs and mosques. Sir James Mackintosh, who visited this city, says, that the elaborate stonework in some of these is exquisite, and not surpassed by that of any cathedral he had ever seen. Here, also, is a low Hindoo temple, the only building of the kind in or about Bejapoor; it is in the earliest and rulest style of art, and ularly thought to have been raised by the Pandoos a mythological race): the military Khajoos (treasury) has massive stone chains cut out of solid blocks susnded from its angles. Excepting the palace, little wood having been used in the construction of the public buildings, they are in tolerable preservation. Two pa: rallel streets (one nearly 3 m. long and 50 ft. wide, paved throughout and regularsy built), intersect the inner city, the most populous part of which adjoins the great mosque. Mud hovels are stuck up here and there among the ruins, but the space within the walls is mostly a wilderness covered with grass and shrubs. There are here some enormous brass o: o belonging to the fort, one of which would require a ball weighin 2,646 lbs. For 5 m. W. of the fort the country is ...i with ruins, chiefly Mohammedan tombs. (Hamilton's fift Gaz., i. 162, 163. ; Mackintosh's Memoirs, 2d edit.
BEJAR, a town of Spain, prov. Salamanca, 48 m. S. anca. Pop. 4,700. It is distinguished by its woollen manufactures, which have been much improved and extended since 1824. A large fair is held here on the 25th of Sept. and the two following days. (Milano.) Bošišk. a town of Russia in Europe, gov. Twer, cap. district, on a lake near the Mologa, 62 m. N. N.E.
Twer. Pop. 3,000. It is an old town, de triste, apparence, with 13 churches and 2 convents. Schnitzler, La Russie, &c.)
BEIRA, a prov. of Portugal, which see.
BEIT-EL-FAKIH (vulg. Beetlofackie), a town of Arabia, cap. of, and giving name to, one of the 6 depts. of the Tehama of Yemen Proper, about 100 m. E.S.E. Loheia, and 90 m. N. Mocha : lat. 14° 31', N., long; 43° 23, E. A large and strong citadel (the residence, of the dola), and a mosque, are the only public buildings. A few of the houses are of stone; but the majority are mere huts of wicker-work or clay. It is unwalled. There is no account of the pop. ; but it may, perhaps, be estimated at from 7,000 to 8,000. It is the great centre of the coffee trade of Yemen ; the berries are brought from the neighbouring mountains half a day's journey distant; the best in May, but the general o is almost constant throughout the year. The ports of Loheia, Hodeida, and Mocha, are supplied from hence (the last taking annually about 22,000 tons); in addition to which, caravans from ElHedjaz, Oman, Persia, Syria, Egypt, &c. resort to the town, in which merchants of almost every trading nation are settled. All purchases are made for ready
# al-Fakih (that is, house of a saint), derives its origin and name from a famous sheikh, whose tomb in this neighbourhood became an object of veneration; and to whose memory an annual festival of three days is observed, during which miracles are sometimes said to be performed. he town, which rose in consequence of pilgrimages to the tomb, gradually drew...to itself the !. trade, which before had centred in Zebid, a town about 20 m. to the S. (Niebuhr, Descr. de l'Ar. 197, 198.; Woy. en Ar. i. 253–256.)
ors. a par. and town of Scotland; the latter is situated in the Co. of Ayr, 9 m. S. W. Paisley, but the par. extends into Renfrew. Pop. of par. 5,113, of which about two-thirds belong to the town. The latter, which is leasantly situated on a rising ground, has grown into mportance since the earlier part of last century. It was at one time famous for its manufacture of linen ; it was afterwards no less eminent in the department of silk gauze; but cotton has of late constituted its staple manu
facture. In this respect it may almost be regarded as a suburb of Glasgow. It has also two flax and three corn mills. A great number of the female inhab. are engaged in tambouring and flowering muslin for the markets of Paisley and Glasgow. ... The line of the Glasgow, Paisley, Kilmarnock, and Ayr Railway, which is now (1839) being constructed, passes close by Beith; a circumstance which will give a great impulse to the prosperity of the place. The limestone, freestone, ironstone, and coal, with which the neighbourhood abounds, will, when the railway is open, become more available, and find a ready market. he parish of Beith, which borders on that of Dunlop, is famous for its dairies; and the one parish produces as much of what is called Dunlop cheese as the other. Beith has a town house, built by subscription, a parish church, and two dissenting chapels, two branch banks, and a subscription library. Bl: KES, a town of #ingary, cap. of an extensive co. of the same name, at the confluence of the Black and White Koros, 40 m. S.W. Grosswardein ; lat.46° 46' 16” N., long. 210 7733” E. Pop. 20,000. It has 3 churches, and a considerable trade in cattle, corn, and wine, the roduce of the surrounding country. It was formerly ortified. BELALCAZAR, a town of Spain, prov. Cordova, 48 m. N. N.W. Cordova. Pop. 2,800. BELA SPOOR, an inl. town of N. Hindostan, cap. of the Cahlore rajah, on the left bank of the Sutleje, 1,465 ft. above the level of the sea; 180 m. N. Delhi, 300 m. N.N. W. Agra; lat. 319 19 N., long. 76° 45' E. In 1810, it contained 3,000 houses: it is regularly built; the houses of stone, cemented with mortar, and the streets roughly paved. The Sutleje is here about 100 yards broad, when its waters are lowest. In 1822, this town, with the rest of the Cahlore territory, devolved to the British government, on the death of its previous sovereign. (Hamilton's E. I. Gaz. i. 164.) BELBEIS, a town of Lower Egypt, on the most W. arm of the Nile, 29 m. N. E. Cairo. o: was occupied in 1798 by Napoleon, who repaired its fortifications; but they are now of little importance, the walls consistin chiefly of mud. It is ill built, has several mosques, ...i its }}}. has been estimated at 5,000. It is supposed by D'Anville to occupy the site of the ancient Pharbatus; but the preferable opinion seems to be that the site of Pharbætus is identical with Horbegt. Belbeis is a place of considerable importance, from its situation on the road to Syria. BELCASTRO, a town of Naples, prov. Calabria U1tra, 15 m. N.E. Catanzaro. Pop. 3,400. It is situated on a rock, is the seat of a bishopric, has a cathedral, a diocesan seminary, and a mont de piété. Large quantities of cattle are bred in its vicinity. BELEM, a suburb of Lisbon, which see.
BELFAST, a seaport town and parl, bor. of Ireland, cos. Antrim and Down, prov. Ulster, at the confluence of the Lagan with Carrickfergus Bay, 102 m. N. Dublin; lat. 54°36'8'5"N., long. 5° 55' 53.7" W. . At a very early period it was known as a fortified station, and on the arrival of the English it was further secured by the erection of a castle, of which, however, no trace now exists. It owes its present importance to its commerce and manufactures, which have raised it to the first rank among the great marts of Ireland. The town comprises an area of 1872 stat. acres, whereof 1296 are in Antrim, and 576 in Down; but the municipal limits comprise only 1572 acres. Pop. in 1821, 37,277, in 1831, 58,287, and in 1841, 75,308, whereof 70,447 were within, and 4,861 without the principal bor., 68,611 being then, also, in Antrim, and 6,697. in the suburb of Ballymacarret, in Down. Pop. of parl. bor. at same period, 63,625. According to a census taken in 1834, there were 16,388 adherents of estab. church ; 19,712 R. Catholics; 23,576 Presbyterians; and 1,137 persons belonging to other persuasions. Inhab. houses in 1841, 10,906, giving, at an average, 6.9 persons to a house.
Though lying low, a great portion of the town not being more than 6 feet above high water mark, it is very healthy. The Lagan, by which the suburb of Ballymacarret is separated from the rest of the town, is crossed by 3 bridges; one, the oldest, consisting of 21 small arches, the others of modern construction.
The town has a cheerful and lively appearance. The houses, mostly of modern construction, are of brick; the streets are wide, airy, well aved and flagged, clean, and lighted with gas. Y. ecclesiastical buildings, the parochial church, with a tower of the Ionic order; St. George's Church, or chapel of ease, with a very fine portico, and Christ Church : it has in all 7 places of worship for the adherents of the estaillished church; 3 Rom. Cath. chapels; 20 Presbyterian places of worship, one of very elegant architecture; 3 meeting-houses for Seceders, 2 for Covenanters, 6 for Methodists, 1 for Independents, and 1 for Quakers; exclusive of 5 places of worship in Ballymacarret. Of the educational establishments, the principal is the Royal Academical Institution, which originated in a subscription of the inhabitants in 1807, by whom a fund of above 25,000l., was raised for the erection of the buildings, and the endowment of professors and teachers. It was afterwards incorporated by act of parliament, and receives an annual parliamentary grant of 1,900l. It consists of a collegiate or higher, and of a subordinate or elementary department. In the first, the professors of natural philosophy, moral philosophy, logic and belles-lettres, anatomy and physiology, mathematics, church history, Hebrew, and Greek and Latin, receive annual salaries of 150l., besides students’ fees; 2 professors of divinity receive 100l. each, with fees; while the professors of chemistry, midwifery, materia medica, surgery, botany, and biblical criticism, are left to depend on fees only ; in the school department there are classes for Latin and Greek, mathematics, English, French, &c. The number of pupils in both divisions amounts to about 400. The institution is conducted by boards of managers and visiters, elected by and from among the subscribers. The building, which is of plain appearance, is surrounded by a large enclosed area. The Belfast academy, founded in 1786, comprises an assemblage of highly efficient classical, mathematical, and other schools. There is also an extensive Lancastrian school. And, exclusive of the above, there were, in 1842, 18 national schools in the town and its vicinity, attended by 3,392 pupils, with numerous private seminaries. Among other literary and scientific institutions, supported by the contributions of the members, are the Society for Promotin Knowledge, founded in 1788, with a library o about 10,000 vols.; the Literary Society, for the discussion of subjects of general literature, science, and art, founded in 1801 ; and the Natural
. History Society, founded in 1821: the meet
ings of this institution are held in a handsome building, erected at the cost of the subscribers, who have also formed a large botanic garden near the town. Belfast has four public news rooms, and seven newspapers, some of which are * conducted. The poor house, for the reception of aged and infirm paupers and destitute children, a large building, in an elevated situation, at the N. extremity of the town, maintains about 500 inmates, of whom those capable of work are employed in useful manufactures, or in its domestic arrangements: attached to it are useful medical and surgical hospitals. The funds amount at an average to about 2,500l. per ann. The House of fndustry is now superseded by the union workhouse, established under the new poor law. The Fever Hospital, with a dispensary attached to it, has accommodation for 220 patients, and an annual income of about 1,000l. A lying-in hospital is maintained by public sub
cription. The district lunatic asylum, for the cos. of Antrim and Down, and the town of Carrickfergus, situate about 1 m. from the town, in an enclosed area of 33 acres, has accommodation for 250 inmates: the number of patients on the 31st March 1839 was 205, 107 being males and 98 females: the total expense of the establishment, including salaries, during the year ending as above, was 3,7221., the average cost of each patient being 19t. 1s. 6d. The new Deaf and Dumb Asylum is an elegant building. There are also 2 female penitentiaries. The only places of amusement are a theatre, occasionally opened for dramatic performances, and a suite of rooms in the Commercial Buildings for balls, assemblies, and concerts. The Exchange, erected by one of the Marquises of Donegal, is now used only for the election of magistrates and other corporate§". Adjoining the town are barracks for infantry and artillery.
Belfast was incorporated by James I. in 1613. Under the late act, it is governed by a mayor, 9 aldermen, and 30 councillors. The borough returned 2 m. to the Irish parl. : at the Union it obtained leave to send 1 m. to the H. of C., and in 1832 the Reform Act again conferred on it the privilege of returning 2 m. The right of election, which had been previously confined to the members of the corporation, was at the same time given to the 101. householders, and a new and somewhat more extended boundary was laid down for elective puroses. Parl. constit., in 1844, 7,577. General sessions or the co. are held here 4 times a year; there is also a court of record for pleas of debt to the amount of 20l. : a manor court, a court leet, and a petty sessions court twice a week (at which last the sovereign presides). The town is a constabulary station, and is the residence of the stipendiary magistrate for the co., who holds a court of petty sessions twice a week. Persons committed for graver offences are sent to the co. gaol in Carrickfergus ; those on lighter charges to the house of correction, where the o: are employed chiefly in breaking stone for the roads. This building being inadequate for its purpose, a new and improved Bridewell is now (1845) in course of being erected. The paving, lighting, and cleaning of the town is superintended by a board of police, empowered to levy a local rate for these purposes, the annual average amount of which is about 9,000/. The linen manufacture has been the chief source of the present prosperous state of Belfast. To accommodate the trade of which it is the centre, the White Linen Hall, a large quadrangular building enclosing a spacious area, was erected by subscription in 1785 ; and about the same period, the Brown Linen Hall, an uncovered area of smaller dimensions, was opened for the sale of unbleached limens. There were, in 1841, in the town and its vicinity, 21 mills for spinning linen yarn, which employ in all nearly 7,000 hands: and there are several factories for the weaving of linen cloths, employing about 1,000 hands. The cotton manufacture, introduced in 1777, is carried on in four factories, which §§ about 1,100 hands; but the business is declining, and the probability seems to be, that at no very distant period it will be entirely abandoned. Four large and several smaller foundries are employed, chiefly in making the machinery and implements for the linen and cotton works. There are two vitriol works. The tanning ot leather, formerly one of the chief trades, is on the decline ; but the manufacture of ropes, canvass, and sailcloth is carried on with much vigour. There are two large ship-yards, in which vessels of all dimensions, up to 400 or 500 tons, are built. There are 2 distilleries, 12 breweries, several large flour and corn mills, with numerous manufactories for minor articles of consumption, such as soap, candles, starch, &c., and a paper mill. In 1838, 50 steam engines, of the power of 1,274 horses, were employed in Belfast and its immediate neighbourhood. The increase of trade and commerce has kept pace with that of manufactures. The situation of the town— at the bottom of Carrickfergus Bay – has made it the chief mart for the circulation of o produce through the most o and wealthy portion of Ulster. To improve this advantage, a line of inland navigation was commenced in 1787, to connect the town with Lough Neagh, partly by still water and partly in the bed of the river; but the unavoidable casualties attending this latter mode of conveyance have so retarded the progress of the vessels employed in it as to render it comparatively useless and the inland trade is mostly carried on by the roads, which are kept in an excellent state of repair. A railroad has been formed, for the conveyance of stone from the quarries at Cavehill to the quays; the Ulster railway, by which the communication of the town with the interior has been greatly facilitated, is nearly completed ; and various other railways are at present (1845) projected and in progress. There are two fairs; one on the 1st and 2d August, the other on the 28th and 29th October. Charter market-day Friday, but well-supplied markets are held every day. There are three native of establishments; the Northern, Belfast, and Ulster; eac of which has branches in the country, and branches of the Bank of Ireland, and of the Provincial Bank, have also been established here. The Savings Bank, commenced in 1811, was one of the first institutions of the kind in Ireland: its affairs are now transacted in a building erected in 1830 out of the accumulations of the fund. The deposits amounted, on the 20th November, 1843, to 106,049t.
Previously to 1637 Belfast was a creek of the port of Carricksergus ; but the privileges of the latter having been purchased in that year by the crown, the custom-house was transferred to Belfast. The bay is
culiarly favourable to the Pupo. of commerce, |. safe and easy of access. arge vessels lie at the Pool of Garmoyle, about 4 m. from the town ; those of smaller draught discharge at the quays, which, are numerous and convenient. Within the last few ears several docks have been opened, one of which, ,200 ft. in length by 300 in breadth, admits vessels adapted for the timber trade. The superintendence of the harbour is vested in the Ballast Corporation, established under an act passed in 1831, which gives it large powers towards the improvement of the quays and harbour. A plan is in contemplation of carrying out embankments or quays to the Pool of Garmoyle, so as to facilitate the loading and discharge of large vessels. The Chamber of Commerce, a voluntary association of merchants, founded in 1783, was revived in 1802. Mercantile transactions were formerly carried on in the Exchange, but latterly in the Commercial Buildings, a fine range of apartments erected in 1823, at an expense of 20,000l., by a joint-stock company of 200 shareholders: the buildings, as already stated, contain, besides the portion appropriated to commercial purposes, an hotel, newsroom, and assembly-rooms.
The trade of Belfast is greater than that of any other port of Ireland. The value of its imports and exports (foreign and coastwise), in 1835, amounted to 8,037,232d., while the value of the imports and exports of Dublin, during the same year, was only 6,958,8641. Of the exports from Belfast, in 1835, amounting to 4,341,794l., the principal articles were —
Corn, Meal, and Flour x5 cwts. - - el 48,957 Provisions - - - - 7 Linen Yarn - - - - 40,560 Feathers, Flax, and Tow #2 - - - 186,884 Cotton M.nufactures - 7,565 pack. - - 146,260 Linen do. - 55,881,000 y - - 2,694,000 Horses - - - 2,374 - - 55,580
- - - - 2,850,0 - - 5,930 The imports, amounting, for the same year, to
3,695.4381., consisted principally of linen yarn (960,000l.) cotton and woollen manufactures, and raw cotton ; tea, sugar, and other colonial products, haberdashery, coals, iron, &c. (Railway Report, B. 73.)
The most important branch of commerce is the cross channel trade, which, since the introduction of steam navigation, has increased in an extraordinary degree.
Numerous steam-boats ply regularly between Belfast and the principal British ports. The passage to Liver:
ol, Glasgow, and Dublin, is made by them in about 14
ours, and to London in 140 hours. There is an ex
tensive trade with the U. States and the British colonies in N. America, and with the W. Indies, Mediterranean, Baltic, and Archangel. In 1843 there belonged to the port 122 sailing vessels of under 50 tons, and 233 do. of 50 tons and upwards, the aggregate burden of both classes being 48,533 tons: there, then, also belonged to the port 6 steamers of the total burden of 1,017 tons. Exclusive of the coasting trade, there entered the port in 1843, 175 ships of the burden of 37,867 tons, engaged in the colonial and foreign trades. The customs duties, including those of Larne and Donaghadee, in the undernamed years, were —
In the appearance of the town, and in the habits of the people, the character of Belfast is almost exclusively commercial and manufacturing. There are in it few of the landed aristocracy; its higher classes are formed chiefly of those who have attained an elevated position in society by their personal exertions, or those of their immediate progenitors. There is, therefore, little of external show, but much of internal comfort, in their domestic arrangements. The middling classes enjoy all the comforts, and many of the luxuries, of civilisation; the working classes have suffered less from the pressure of distress, arising from temporary stoppages of trade, or manufacturing employment, than those of most of the other great towns o circumstanced : on the whole, there is to be seen here little of the aspect of destitution which marks the suburbs of most other Irish towns. The official and other documents, which have supplied the data already given, show, by a review of its condition at different periods, that it is steadily and rapidly advancing in manufacturing, commercial, and literary improvement. (Private Corresp.) BElf Ast, a sea-port town of the †. States, Maine, on the N. W. angle of Penobscot Bay, 224 m. N. E. Boston. Pop. 3,077. It has an excellent harbour, and is a thriving town. B ELFORD, a market town and par. of England, co. Northumberland, Bainborough ward. The par. contains 9,380 acres, and 2,030 inhab. of which the town has 1,354. The latter is timely situated on the great road from York to Edinburgh, and has a considerable cornmarket. BELGARD, a town of Prussia, prov. Pomerania, cap. circle, 16 m. S.S.W. Coeslin. Pop. 3,000. It is situated at the confluence of the Leitznitz with the Persante, and is almost entirely surrounded by water. It has an old castle, 3 churches, 2 hospitals, and fabrics of cloth. BELGAUM, an inl. town of Hindostan, prov. Bejapoor, presid. Bombay, distr. Darwar, in a small subdivision of which it is the capital, 105 m. S.W. Bejapoor, 55 m. N.W. Darwar; lat. 15° 52' N., long. 740 42° E. Pop. (1820) 7,650. It is strongly fortified, with massive and solid walls, ramparts flanked by bastions, a broad and deep ditch, and is surrounded by an esplanade. Its interior is extensive, but covered with ruins of native buildings, amongst which are two ancient temples. This town is well supplied with water, and held out against the British longer than any other garrisoned by the peishwa's forces: it was, however, taken in 1818. The subdivision of Belgaum has a healthy climate; but all external trade is stopped for six months a year by the violence of the rains. A third part of the inhab. are Maharattas, and about one sixth Mohammedans, one eighth Jains, and one ninth Brahmins. (Hamilton's E.I. Gaz, i. 165.) BELGERN, a town of Prussia prov. Saxony, on the Elbe, 7 m. S.E. Torgau. Pop. 2,800. It is very ancient, has an hospital, and a town-house, before which is a triumphal column. It has some trade in corn. BELGIOJOSO, a town of Austrian Italy. prov. Pavia, cap. distr., 9 m. E. Pavia, and 23 m. S.S.E. Milan. Pop. 3,000, It is situated in a fruitful plain, between the Po and the Olona; it is well built, has a magnificent aqueduct, and a fine castle, in which ...i. spent the night subsequent to the battle of Pavia. BELGIUM (KING DOM OF) is situated between France and Holland, and has been established since the separation of its provinces from those of Holland by the revolution of 1830. Its territory is small as compared with the great European states, being only about one eighth of that of Great Britain, while its population but little exceeds four millions. However, the important position which this country has occupied in the political, military, commercial, and agricultural history of Europe —its former celebrity in manufactures and the fine arts—and its present rapid progress in every industrious pursuit and social improvement, give it a peculiar interest. Ertent, Boundaries, Area, &c.—Belgium extends from 49927 to 510 31° N. lat. and from 22 37' to 6° E. long. On the N. the boundary line is formed by Holland, along a line of 380,000 metres*; on the E. by Prussia.
* A metre-5-281 English feet.