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BRIE - COMTE*- ROBERT, a town of France, dep, Seine et Marne, cap. cant., near the Yères, 10 m. N.N.W. Melun. Pop. 2,725. It was built by Robert of France, count of Dreux, to whom his brother Louis VII. ave the lordship of Brie. Its old feudal castle has been emolished. he parish church, founded in the 13th century, is remarkable for the height of its tower. The Hôtel Dieu is nearly of the same age as the church. (Hugo, art. Seine et Marne.) BRIEG, a fortified town of the Prussian states, prov. Silesia, cap: circ., on the Oder, about half way between Iłreslau and Oppeln. Pop. 11,500. It is situated on an elevated bank of the river, over which it has a wooden bridge, and is well built and thriving. . Principal public buildings, a gymnasium, formerly a university, to which is attached a good library, a lunatic asylum, with several churches and hospitals. It has extensive manufactures of linens, woollens, cottons, hats, &c., and carries on a considerable trade. 13 RIEL or BRIELLE, a fortified sea-port town of the Netherlands, prov. S. Holland, cap. arrond., on the N. shore of the island of Voorn, near the mouth of the Maese, 13 m. W. Rotterdam ; lat. 51°54′ 11” N., long. 4° 0' 51" E. Pop. 4,200. It is a handsome well-built town ; is strongly fortified ; has a good harbour, a tribunal of primary jurisdiction, and sends a deputy to the states of the province. The Briel is remarkable in Dutch history for being the place where the first foundation of the republic may be said to have been laid. The exiles from the Netherlands, who had taken refuge in England from the persecutions of the Duke of Alva, were ordered by Queen Elizabeth, in consequence of the urgent representations of Alva, to leave this kingdom. Being thus driven to despair, they assembled a small fleet at Dover, under the command of William de Lumney, Count de la Marck, and resolved, if possible, to get possession of some place of strength in their native country. Their original intention was to make an attempt on Enchuysen: but the wind being unfavourable, they cast anchor before Briel, of which they took possession on the 1st of April, 1572. Thus was struck the first blow in that apparently most unequal and long-continued struggle between H. and Spain, that ended in the independence of the former ; a struggle which, whether we consider the sacrifices and perseverance of the weaker party, or the beneficial consequences of their success, is, perhaps, the most extraordinary and important of which history has preserved any account. (For an account of the capture of Briel, see Watson's Philip II.. i. p. 427. 8vo. ed.) iii!'... the birth-place of the heroic Admiral Van Tromp, who fell in an engagement with the English, under Blake, off the Texel, on the 8th of Aug., 1653. BRIENNE-LE-CHATEAU, a town of France, dép. Aube, cap. cant., on the great road from Paris to Chaumont, 15 m. N.W. Bar-sur-Aube. Pop. 2,002. The town has a fine castle, erected a short while previously to the Revolution, by the minister Lomenie de Brienne. It stands on an artificial plateau, and commands an extensive view. But the place derives almost its entire celebrity from its connection with the imperishable name of Napoleon. The great captain received the first rudiments of his warlike education in a military academy that formerly existed in this town, but whic was suppressed in 1790; and here, in 1814, in an engagement with the Russians and Prussians, he was in imininent danger. (Hugo, art. Aube, &c.) BRIEU C (S.T.), a sea-port town of France, dép. Côtesdu-Nord, of which it is the capital, on the Gouet, near its embouchure in the Bay of St. Brieuc, 38 m. W. S. W. St. Malo; lat. 48° 31' 2" N., long. 2°43' 55" E. Pop. 11382. Its port, at the mouth of the river at the village of Ligoué, has a handsome quay, and a commodious harbour, accessible to vessels of 350 tons. The town is retty well built. The cathedral, a Gothic edifice, was egun in 1220, and finished in 1234; there are, also, a hôtel de ville, an hospital on a large scale, a workhouse, a theatre, &c. The bridge over the river is a handsome stone structure of three arches. There are some good squares and fine promenades. St. Brieuc is the seat of a bishopric, and of tribunals of primary jurisdiction and commerce; and it has a departmental college, a diocesan seminary with 160 pupils, a school of arts, and a public library with 24,000 volumes. There are in the town fabrics of linen, serge, flannel, paper, &c., with tanneries and breweries. The inhabitants used to employ a considerable number of ships in the whale and cod fisheries, particularly the latter. In 1828, for example, they had engaged in the cod-fishery 47 ships, of the burden of 8,000 tons, manned by 2,610 seamen, who brought home 4,669,200 kilog. of cod, &c., worth 1,845,405 fr. But it would seem, from the statements of Hugo, that in the interval between 1828 and 1833, this important business had very rapidly declined, and we have not learned whether it has since recovered. The coast fishery is still carried on to a considerable extent. Horse
races were established here in 1807, and are kept up with great spirit. (Hugo, art. Cotes-du-Nord.) ..., & BRIGHTON, formerly BRIGHTHELMSTONE, a marit. town and parl. bor. of England, co. Sussex, rape Lewes, hund. Wells-bourne, vulg. Whales-bone, 47 m. S. London. This modern Baiae is situated on the coast of the British Channel, between Beachy Head and Selsey Bill. Pop. in 1821, 24,429; in 1841, 48,567: inhab. houses, in 1841, 8,482. It is of an irregular shape, and is built along the shore, on the sides of a gentle valley, the centre of which, the Steine, forms a long slip of land, lying N. and S. The only buildings in this valley, which divides the town into the E. and W. portions, are the palace, and St. Peter's Church, recently built. The whole of the town E. of the Steine, has been built within the last 60 or 70 years. Along the cliffs, which in this part rise high above the sea, has been formed the finest marine promenade in the world. A wall of immense thickness (at the foundation 30 ft. wide), and from 60 to 70 ft. high, formed of concrete, protects a fine pavement, and a road upwards of 100 feet in width. From the extreme entrance of the town at the E., this splendid marine drive and promenade is occupied to the Steine by large mansions, and lodging-houses of the first description. Along this line is situated Kemp Town, and its squares, a splendid range, forming 3 sides of a quadrangle, and having a row of houses, of similar architectural character, diverging from either extremity: the spacious area in front is laid out in walks, &c., and has an arched passage communicating with the beach, the crescent, and various spacious streets, opening from the line of cliff to the northward. West of the Steine is the old town, consisting principally of old and irregular buildings. Many of these have, however, becn pulled down, and on the sites of some of them, a new market was constructed in 1829, and a town hall in 1831; but the hall, though large, and making a good appearance externaily. is in bad taste and ill contrived within. In every direction around the old town (excepting of course the seaside), new streets and squares have been erected; particularly along the line of cliff, called the King's Road, to Hove, where, facing the sea, but adjoining Brighton, a fine range, called Brunswick Terrace and Square, has been built. The cliffs, in this part of the town, rise only a few feet above the highest part of the beach : in their front is a fine promenade, and, below this, a level space of green sward reaching down to within a very short distance of the sea. On the Lewes road are, Hanover Crescent, Richmond Terrace, and the Grand Parade on the London road, York and St. George's Places, and many structures in the cottage style. The royal palace, called the Pavilion, was begun by George IV. when Prince of Wales, in 1784, and finally completed in 1827; it is in the oriental style, and copied from the Kremlin at Moscow; its stone front extends 200 ft. ; it has a circular building in the centre, surmounted W. pillared dome. The Chapel Royal is on the W., and behind is a circular range of stables in the Arabian style, lighted by a glass dome: it is excluded from the view of the sea by the buildings of Castle Square; and little can be said in favour of the taste displayed in its erection. The old church is a spacious structure, partly in the ornamented and partly in the later Gothic style, with a square tower; it crowns a hill 150 ft. above the sea, and serves as a landmark for vessels. St. Peter's church, serving as a chapel of case to the last, an elegant Gothic structure, built in 1827, at the public expense, has upwards of 1,100 free sittings. Besides these, and the Royal Chapel, there are 7 others connected with the established worship, 3 occupied by Independents, 2 by Particular Baptists; a Catholic chapel, a new and elegant building in Upper St. James' Street, containing a fine specimen of sculpture from the chisel .# Mr. Carew; and chapels for the Scotch Seceders, Friends, and Wesleyan and Whitfield Methodists: there is also a Jewish synagogue. There are numerous free schools, supported by subscription or endowments; of which the principal are, the Blue Coat Schools, one for clothing and educating boys, and one for girls; a government school for the children of fishermen; the Union School, supported by the various dissenting sects; with orphan, national, and infant schools. The County Hospital, a large and well supported establishment, is contiguous to the town. There are baths of all kinds, constructed with the utmost regard to comfort and convenience, as well as numerous bathing machines, and a spa, about half a mile W. of the town, where there is a chalybeate spring, in considerable repute; the building is in the cottage style. The German Spa is delightfully situated in a valley facing the sea, at the foot of the Row Hill. It was established in 1826, for the preparation of artificial mineral waters, in imitation of the natural springs at Carlsbad, Ems, Marienbad, Pyrmont, &c. Six almshouses for decayed widows were erected in 1795, on the Lewes road, opposite the #. Gardens, by two sisters, of the name of ercy. Every class of visiters finds suitable accommodations here, in furnished lodgings, inns, and hotels; of all which there is every variety, from those of the most superb and expensive character, to the plainest and most economical. The theatre is small and ill-contrived; but the public assembly rooms, at the Old Ship Hotel, are fitted up in the most splendid style. The Royal Gardens, N. of the town, are devoted to various amusements, and comprise a good cricket-ground. On the Downs is a well kept course, where annual races are held the first week of August. There are many fine promenades; amongst them, a very favourite one is the suspension chain pier, constructed in 1821, at an expense of 30,000l. : the pier head is 60 ft. by 20, and has seats and awnings, as well as tiers of galleries and flights of steps, to facilitate landing and embarkation at different states of the tide; the pier itself is 1,200 ft. in length by 14 ft. in width; and an esplanade of the same length, 40 ft. wide, connects it with the Steine. The principal market-day is Thursday, but there is a daily supply. Fairs held, one on Holy Thursday, and one on the 4th September. The chief trade of the place is fishing, in which nearly 150 boats are employed. The mackerel season begins in April, the herring season in October; besides which, turbot, soles, skate, &c., are caught in considerable quantities, and supply the London markets, as well as those of the place. A portion of the inhabitants are also employed in making nets and tackle for the fishery, of materials supplied from Bridport. Coasting vessels occasionally discharge coals and light goods on the beach; several steamers pl tween this place and Dieppe, 21 leagues S. E.; being a nearer and pleasanter route to Paris (viā Rouen) than that by Calais. The intercourse with the metropolis, formerly effected by fast coaches, is now carried on with the #. facility by means of a railway. The Reform Act conferred on Brighton the privilege of
returning 2 members to the H. of C. : parl. constit., in 1842-43, 2,601. The parochial affairs are managed by directors and guardians, and the affairs of the town, lighting, &c., by commissioners; but the principal conservator of the peace is the High Constable. Magistrates of the county hold sittings at the Town Hall every day, and petty sessions every Monday and Thursday. Brighton is by some considered to be the spot where Caesar landed; a notion for which there is no good foundation, and which probably originated in the numerous Roman remains, coins, &c., found in the vicinity. For some centuries it was a mere fishing village, and was frequently attacked and plundered by the French; to prevent which, Hen. VIII. erected some fortifications, which were strengthened and extended by Eliz. In 1665, and again in 1669, irruptions of the sea destroyed a large part of the town, and inundated an extensive tract adjoining; again, in the years 1703-5-6, the fortifications were undermined, and the place threatened with total destruction. In the reign of Geo. II. Brighton first came into some repute as a sea-bathing place, through the writings of Dr. Russell, an eminent physician of that day. In 1760 the chalybeate spring was observed, which tended to increase its growing popularity: . No doubt, however, it is principally indebted for its rapid rise, and for the high rank it has long continued to hold among watering and fashionable places, to the zealous and continued patronage of Geo. IV. when Prince of Wales, and when regent and sovereign. It has nearly quadrupled its population in the course of the present century; and the advantages it enjoys in its situation, and in its being the nearest port on the S. coast to London, may, perhaps, insure its prosperity, even though it should cease to be an object of royal favour. BRIGNOLLES, a town of France, dép. Var, cap. arrond., on the Carami, 22 m. N.N.E. Toulon. Pop. 5,652. It is neat and well built, and is finely situated in a fertile basin, surrounded with high wooded hills. Its principal ornament is its magnificent public fountain, in the square Carami. It has a tribunal of primary jurisdiction, a primary normal school, a secondary ecclesiastical school, a public library, a society of agriculture, &c., with filatures of silk, fabrics of wine, candles, and tanneries. A considerable trade is carried on in olive-oil, wine, liqueurs, brandy, and excellent prunes, known by the name of brignolles. (Hugo, art. Par; Dict. Geog.) BRILLON, a town of the Prussian States, prov. Westphalia, reg. Arnsberg, cap. circ., 24 m. S. E. Soest. Pop. 301. It has two churches, a college, an hospital, and fabrics of linen and brass. silver, lead, and calamine. BRIN DISI (an. Brundusium), a sea-port and city of Naples, prov. Terra d'Otranto, cap. distr., at the bottom of a bay between capes Cavallo and Gollo ; lat. 40° 37' 50" N., long. 179 58' 32” E. Pop. 8,500. (Rampold.) . In antiquity this was one of the most important cities of Italy, and was the port whence the intercourse between Italy and Greece, and the East, was usually carried on. It owed this distinction as much to the excellence of its harbour as to its situation: but in modern times it is sadly changed for the worst. It is still of great extent within the walls; but the inhabited houses do not occupy above half the inclosure. The streets are crooked and rough, and the houses poor and in disrepair. With the exception of the citadel, a large heavy-looking cathedral, and a few remains of antiquity, there is nothing in it that deserves attention. This melancholy change has been roduced by the nearly total loss of the inner harbour: his, which encompasses the city on two of its sides, and is deep and capacious, was united to the outer harbour, or bay, by a narrow entrance, like that leading to Portsmouth harbour or the Havannah. Unfortunately, however, this entrance having been nearly shut up, the inner harbour was in consequence rendered inaccessible all but the smallest vessels, and in summer became fetid and unhealthy. Julius Cæsar, who attempted to block up Pompey's fleet that had rendezvoused in the inner harbour, by running mounds into its outlets, may be said to have commenced the ruin of Brindisi, which was com
In the environs are mines of pleted in the 15th century by a prince of Taranto, who sunk vessels filled with earth and stones in the passage left open by Caesars. The destruction that was thus brought on the town and its offsets roused at length the attention of the Neapolitan gov., by whom a vigorous effort was made in 1776 to obviate the cause of the mischief, by cutting a new channel between the two harbours. But owing, as it would seem, to some defect in the plan, the project has only partially succeeded: the new channel soon filled up, and the entrance to the inner, harbour, became nearly is much encumbered as before. The canal is now, however, kept open by dredging and otherwise to the depth of 10 or 12 palmi, so that vessels of this draught of water may enter the inner port. The outer harbour, or bay, is deep and capacious, and has good anchoring round. It is partially protected by an island, on which a §. is built; but it is exposed to the easterly gales, which throw in a heavy sea. (Swinburne's Two Sicilies, i. 384., 4to. ed. ; Craven's Naples, p. 148: ; Rivera, Considerazioni su i mezzi da liestituire il Regno delle duc Sicilic, i. 242., &c.) BRIN ON-L’ARCH EVE QUE, a town of France, dép. Yonne, cap. cant., near the canal of Fo to m. E. Joigny. Pop. 2,400. It has fabrics of coarse cloth, and tanneries; and carries on a considerable trade in corn and linen, and in the forwarding of timber by the canal for Faris. Bit 10 U 1) E, a town of France, dép. Haute Loire, cap. arrond, in a vast plain near the Allier, 30 m. N.W. Puy. i’op. 5,247. It is old, ill-built, and dirty. Its most remarkable edifices are the college, situated on a hill, and commanding a fine view, and the church of St. Julian, a venerable Gothic fabric, founded in the 9th century. Besides the college, it is the seat of a court of primary jurisdiction, and has a small public library, and a society of agriculture. Brioude was the birthplace of the Marquis de Lafayette, who acted so conspicuous a part in the American and French revolutions. X. Old Brioude, about 3 m. S. S.E. of Brioude, is a bridge over the Allier, built in 1454, consisting of a single arch 182 st. in span. (Hugo, art. Haute Loire 5 Doct. Geographoto. ) BRISACH (NEW), a fortified town of France, dép. Haut Rhin, cap. cant., near the left bank of the Rhine, opposite to Old Brisach, 9 m. S. E. Colmar. It was built in 1690 by Louis XV., and fortified by Vauban. It is a regular octagon, and is regarded as one of the finest works constructed by that celebrated engineer. The streets all terminate in a place in the centre, and the houses are all of the same height. It is of no importance except as a fortification. Hugo says he passed through it in 1828, and that two of its gates were then shut up ; that most of its houses were deserted, and that the grass grew in the streets. (Hugo, art. Haut Rhin.) BRIS 10 HELLA, a town of the Papal States, leg. Ravenna, on the Lamone, 27 m. S.W. Ravenna. Pop. 3,000. It has an extensive trade in silk.
BRISTOL, a city, co., and sea-port of England, at the confluence of the Avon and Frome, 8 m. N.W. of the embouchure of the former, in the Bristol Channel, and 108 m. W. London. Lat. 51° 27' 6' N., long. 2° 35'28" W. Pop. of city and suburbs, (inclusive of Clifton and the parish of Bedminster, on the S. side of the Avon, co. Somerset, ) in 1821, 95,758; in 1841, 140,158: but certain portions of the suburbs are excluded from the limits of the existing parl. bor. as fixed by the boundary act, the pop. of which, in 1841, was 123,188. This city extends over 6 or 7 distinct hills and their intermediate valleys, amidst a picturesque and fertile district. . In the older portion, forming the nucleus of the modern city, the houses were mostly of wood and plaster, with projecting upper stories over narrow streets; but these are now greatly diminished; in other parts the streets and squares are spacious, and the greater number of the houses well built modern structures. Those of Kingsdown, St. Michael's, and Clifton hills, on ho and W., rise with their terraces and gardens each above the other, like an amphitheatre: Redcliffe, on the S., has narrow streets and densely crowded houses, resembling those of the older part of the city: Bedminster is mostly occupied by small modern tenements for the working classes and tan-yards. The whole city is well paved and sewered, and is lighted with coal gas, supplied by 2 public companies. There is an adequate supply of water
conducted by pipes to several public conduits and public pumps. There are 25 churches of the established worship, among which are some fine specimens of the ancient Gothic; others are handsome modern structures. Of the former may be noticed the cathedral in College Green, of the age of Stephen, and anciently part of the abbey of St. Augustine; St. Mary's, Redcliffe, crowning the summit of that hill; and St. Stephen's, with its once richly decorated tower. The dissenters of various denominations have 36 places of worship, and form a very numerous and important part of the community. There are 12 endowed charity schools: the free grammar-school, founded in 1532, which has several exhibitions, and two fellowships, each of 30l. a year, in St. John's, Oxford: Elizabeth's Hospital, founded in 1586, whose endowments produce above 4,000l. a year, now managed by the charity trustees appointed by the Lord Chancellor; the Redcliffe free grammarschool, founded in the 13th of Eliz. ; Colston's, in 1708, for the maintenance, clothing, and education of 100 boys; and 8 others. In the whole, above 200 boys and 40 girls are wholly maintained, educated, and apprenticed; 90 boys and 88 girls clothed and educated; and 148 educated only. Besides these, there are (1839) 35 other schools, supported either wholly or par
tially by benefactions and public subscriptions,
in which upwards of 3,000 children are edu
cated, and upwards of 10,000 receive instruction
in the Sunday schools of the various sects. Of the endowed charitable institutions, the principal
are, the Trin. Almshouse, with a chapel annexed;
its endowments produce 700l. a year; it main
tains 10 old men, and 36 women: Foster's ditto, with a chapel, has 530l. a year, and main
tains 14 old people; and the Temple Hospital, founded in 1613, has 6091. 18s. a year, and maintains 24 old people: the Merchants' almshouses, founded in 4th Eliz. for 31 old sailors and their widows: Colston's, in 1696, has 300l. a year, and
maintains 24 old men and women: Ridley's, in
1716, has 155l. a year, and maintains 10 decayed
single persons: Blanchard's, in 1722, has 35l.
a year, and maintains 5 aged people: there are
several others of minor importance. Endowed
charities, to the amount of about 23,000l. a year,
are distributed as follows:–6,000l. lent in va
rious sums for various terms without interest, to
tradesmen; 9,000l. distributed among the poor;
1,000l. to the endowed hospitals, and 7,000l.
among the endowed schools. The other charitable institutions are the Bristol Infirmary, established in 1735; it is capable of accommodating 200 patients, and has, at an annual average, 1,600 in and 5,000 out patients: it is supported partly by its own funded property, and partly by subscriptions and donations: the General Hospital, a smaller establishment than the former, and partly on a self-supporting principle: the Dispensary, which gives medical relief to about 3,000 poor annually at their own dwellings; it has 2 stations. There are also an asylum É. the blind, another for orphan girls, a female penitentiary, and between 40 and 50 other charitable societies, which distribute, in various ways, from 12,000l., to 15,000l. annually. The principal public buildings are, — the Guildhall, an old structure of the reign of Richard II., with a modern front: the Council House, built in 1827: the Gaol, a large, well-arranged, structure, built in 1820: the Bridewell, rebuilt after the riots in 1831: the Exchange, an extensive building of the Corinthian order, erected by the corporation in 1743, but never being adopted by the merchants as a place of meeting, the interior is occupied as a corn-market, and its back forms part of the spacious quadrangle in which the principal market is held. The Commercial Rooms, built in 1811, and used as an exchange, have a handsome dome, an Ionic portico, a large hall, reading-room, and various apartments for the despatch of business. The Bristol Institution, a handsome edifice, opened in 1823, has a readingroom, library, theatre, and museum: in the latter are good collections both in natural history and the fine arts; courses of lectures are given, philosophical papers read, and it has occasional exhibitions of paintings. The Mechanics' Institute, built in 1832, has a lecture and a reading-room. The Bristol Library was established in 1772, and has an extensive collection (about 30,000 vols.) in general literature. There are also law and medical libraries; a medical school, established in 1834, in which complete courses of lectures are given: the certificates of its professors are recognised at Apothecaries' Hall; a proprietary school, called the Bristol College, established in 1830, for classical and scientific education; and an academy for the education of young men for the Baptist ministry, to which an extensive library and museum are attached. There is a handsome edifice of the Corinthian order in Princes Street, now the office of the Bristol General Steam Navigation Co., but concerts, balls, &c., are sometimes given in its large room : the Victoria public rooms are now (1839), also, in progress. At Clifton are baths and pump-rooms; and connected with the hot wells, is a handsome edifice of the Tuscan order. The great rise of tides in the Bristol Channel, and in the river, enables the largest class of ships to come up to the town: but to obviate the risks and damage to which they were formerly exposed by grounding at ebb tide, a floating harbour, equivalent to a dock, was constructed in 1804, by changing the channel of the river. . It extends about 3 m. from the dam above Bristol Bridge to the entrance lock at Rownham, occupyin the old bed of the Avon and of that branch o the Frome that lies between the quays of St. Augustine and St. Stephen. The present extent of quay frontage is 6,000 ft., but the limits admit of any further extension that an increased trade might require. The act authorising the formation of the harbour (43 Geo. 3. c. 140.) enacts that there should be 21 ft. water in a sufficient number of berths; but the mud being suffered to accumulate so as considerably to reduce this depth, occasioned much complaint. This defect has now, however, been in, a great degree obviated. A new channel was formed for the river, and the harbour finished in 1809, at an expense of about 700,000l. There are 2 basins for the temporary accommodation of vessels entering or leaving; one at Rownham, for large ships, the other below the iron bridge at Bedminster, for coasters. There are also a floating and a dry dock, founded by the Merchant Venturers in 1769: to the former of these timber ships are compelled to resort, if they do not discharge at some private wharf; further down the river are several private docks, where ship building, to some extent, is carried on. Vessels frequently load and discharge cargoes in Kingroad, at the mouth of the river, by means of lighters: the Great Western o is obliged to do this, the entrance to the floating harbour not being wide enough to admit her; but the harbour dues are payable, whether ships enter it or not. The tide in the Avon sets with great rapidity, especially between the high precipitous rocks of
Clifton and Leigh, which seem rent asunder to admit its passage; in Kingroad, its rise at springs is between 48 and 40 ft. ; at neaps above 23 ft. ; at the gates of the floating harbour its rise is from 4 to 5 feet less than at the tide guage in Kingroad. The bridges which connect the opposite sides of the floating harbour and rivers are, — Bristol Bridge, of 3 stone arches, built in 1768; it connects the central part of the city with Redcliffe: 2 iron bridges each with a single o of 100 ft. ; one on the Bath and Wells, the other on the Exeter line of road: a swivel iron bridge (to admit the passage of ships), connecting St. Augustine and Clifton with the rest of the city: a small stone bridge, spanning the Frome at the point where it ceases to be navigable; and a suspension bridge now in progress, which will connect Clifton with the co. of Somerset: this, when finished, will be the most picturesque and striking work of its kind in the kingdom, and probably in the world; the roadway will be 850 ft. in length, 220 ft. above high-water mark, with precipitous rocks on both sides. . The Avon, above Bristol Bridge, is navigable for barges to Bath, whence the water communication is continued by the Avon and Kennet canal. The Bristol and Gloucester railway, intended to connect the 2 cities, now extends to Coalpit Heath (9 m. of line); it has 3 termini at Bristol, and several thousand tons of coal, monthly, are conveyed thither by it. The Great Western railway (118 m. of line), and that of the Bristol and Exeter (76 m.), will shortly effect a rapid means of communication with the metropolis and intermediate towns E. of the city, and with those of Somerset and I)evon on the S. W. The Exchange market, and that of St. James, are open daily for general provisions; the chief supply being on Wednesdays and Saturdays: the corn and leather markets are held Tuesdays and Thursdays; the hay-market, Tuesdays and Fridays; the fellmongers, Wednesdays and Saturdays; the cattlemarket, Thursdays, in a walled area of.4 acres, outside the city, at Temple Meads, at the junction of the Great Western and Exeter railways: this market fluctuates considerably, but the average weekly supply is estimated at 500 head of cattle, 3,000 sheep, 400 pigs, 80 horses. A great market is held there on the Thursday preceding Christmas, when the show is usually very fine. Two annual fairs, commencing 1st March, and 1st Sept., and continuing each about 8 days, and formerly resorted to by clothiers, hosiers, cutlers, &c., from all parts of England, having greatly fallen off, were abolished in 1837; but fairs for cattle, horses, leather, &c., are still held on the above days. ristol was, for a lengthened period, second only to London as a commercial emporium ; but though its comarative importance has, in this respect, greatly declined, t continues to be the scat of some important manufactures and of an extensive and increasing trade. The principal manufactures are those of soap, glass bottles, crown and flint glass, chain cables, anchors, steam-engines and other machinery, resined sugar, tobacco, earthenware, floor-cloths, brass wire, pins, sheet lead, zinc, saltpetre, tin, copper and brass wares, pipes, hats, drugs, colours, dyes, starch, bricks, British spirits, malt liquors; there are also extensive soda works and recently a large cotton-mill. Many of theiron foundries are on a large scale And are increasin; both in their number and the extent of their exports. In 1838 there were made at the various soap manufactories 8,029,076 lbs. hard soap, and 253,467 lbs. soft do. ; in 1838 there were consumed, in 39 public breweries, 227,315 bushels malt ; and by 703 licensed victuallers, and 767 keepers of beer shops, together, 358,915 trushels. The establishments for glass, sugar, brass, floor-cloths, and earthenware, are also on an extensive scale. The post-office revenue in 1837 was 35,7111. There is a savings' bank, established in 1813, and six other banking establishments. The deposits in the former, on the 20th of Nov. 1838, amounted to 296,3811, of which 283,1881. were contributed by 7,433 depositors, and the rest by friendly and charitable societies. Bristol early possessed, and continues to enjoy, a large share of the trade with the West Indies; and among her foreign imports the most important are those of sugar, molasses, rum, coffee, tea, and cocoa ; the next most important are those of tobacco, timber, wine, brandy, tallow, fruits,wool, hemp, dye, stuffs, oils, saltpetre, hides, &c. The exports consist principally of the produce of the various manufactures of the city, with salt, coals, and culm, in part the produce of the neighbourhood ; , and cotton, linen, and woollen goods. In 1837 the declared value of exports amounted to 259,6871. 1s. 5d., and 386 ships, of 76,957 tons burden, entered inwards from foreign parts, and 204 ships, of 49,223 tons, cleared outwards: the customs duties during the same year were 1,153,1091. 13s.6d. Pristol carries on an extensive and growing trade with Ireland, from which she imports corn, butter, bacon, potatoes, cattle, horses, sheep, pigs, salmon, &c.; she sends in return tea, raw and refined sugar, cheese, wrought iron, tin plates, copr, glass, woollen, and leather. In 1837 there arrived rom Ireland 632 vessels, of 95,694 tons, and cleared for it 340 vessels, of 74,578 tons. The imports, coastwise, consist mostly of iron, tin, coal, salt, agricultural produce, and foreign produce, brought from other ports under bond. The exports are chiefly foreign and colonial produce (especially groceries, spirits, and wines), and the various manufactures of the city. There belonged to the port, in 1836, 271 sailing vessels, of 39,650 tons, and 17 steamers, of 1,810 tons. A communication by steam for the conveyance of goods and passengers to Ireland was established in 1826, and has led to a great increase of the trade with that part of the empire. Bristol has also had the honour of being the first port in the empire to establish a regular communication by steam with the United States. The first Noy the Great Western steam-ship was performed in 1838. The pari. and municip, limits of Bristol coincide, and had, as already stated, a pop., in 1841, of 123,188 ; and at present, 1845, probably of 130,000. It is divided into 12 wards, and governed by a mayor, 16 ald., and 48 councillors. Previously to the Municipal Reform Act, the government was vested in a mayor, 12 ald., and 30 common councillors, the recorder being senior alderman: they were a self-elected body, and filled up their vacancies from the freemen, of whom there were 3,109 registered. The governing charter was granted in the 8th of Anne; the earliest in the 9th of Hen. II. A court of sessions, or goal o: (except for capital cases, now tried at Gloucester,) is held quarterly by the recorder. The tolzey, or sheriff's courts, for all kinds of actions in cases under 40s. A court of conscience, established by act 1 Wm. 3., for debts under 40s., has from 150 to 200 causes weekly. There is also a court of requests for debts not above 151., established by act 45 Geo. 3., consisting of the common council and other commissioners, with an assessor, which has on an average from 20 to 25 cases weekly; and a court of assize for nisi prius cases, held the week after the Somerset assizes, by the senior judge on the western circuit. The number of prisoners tried at the criminal courts in 1837 was 215, of whom 88 were acquitted and I executed. A police force, upwards of 200 strong, on the plan of the ...]". police, has been established under the Municipal Reforin Act. The county jurisdiction, by water, extends over the Avon, from 4 m. above the city; and sea-ward, to the steep and flat Holmes, and to the high-water-mark, on the English side of the Severn, from Aust's Passage to Clevedon. The charters of Hen. VI. and Edw. I granted the corporation an o but this has been lost through desuetude. They are conservators of the port and harbour ; and by an act of 47 Geo. III., have the power of licensing pilots, who have the exclusive privilege of piloting all vessels passing up or down to the E. of o; Island, except Irish and coasting traders: the ports of Bristol, Newport, Cardiff, Swansea, Ilfracombe, and Bridgewater are comprised within this jurisdiction. There are 34 licensed or branch pilots, one of whom cruizes from Ilfracombe, the rest from § near the mouth of the Avon. A board of commissioners, elected by the rate-payers, has the exclusive power of paving, lighting, and cleansing the town ; they levy an annual assessment on the inhab.for these purposes, varying from 11,000l., to 12,000l. The cororation revenues are derived from town and market ues and rents of houses and lands in the city and neighbourhood ; the annual average was estimated, in 1835, at 18,773!. ; their debt, at that time, amounted to 86,2041. ; but it has been since paid off by the sale of lands, &c. The Merchant Venturers are another incororated body, whose Fo charter dates in list of has. I. : they hold, under the former, a beneficial lease of the wharfage and other harbour dues, but have long ceased to be a trading company. The Dock Company are also incorporated, by an act of 43 Geo. III. : their affairs are managed by 27 directors, 9 of whom are appointed by the rhunicipal corpor. from their own body ; 9 by the
Merchant Venturers, from theirs ; and 9 are ietors of at least 10 shares, and chosen by the shareholders. The Chamber of Commerce was instituted in 1823, “for the protection and promotion of the commercial and manufacturing interests of Bristol ; ” it is supported b annual subscriptions, and governed by directors, elec annually, who publish reports of their proceedings: they are not an incorporated body, but have exerted a great and beneficial influence in the commercial arrangements and reforms of the town and port since their establishment. The management of the poor, within the old limits of the city, was vested in a corporate body by an act 7 & 8 W. 3. c. 32, and subsequent acts have been
o regulating their number and powers. The guard-.
ans consist of the mayor and 12 members elected annually by the town council out of their own body, the senior churchwardens of the different parishes, the senior overseer of the castle precincts, and 48 other inhabitants. . The amount of poor-rates levied in the united parishes for the year ending Lady-day, 1836, was 27,095l. 18s, : the average of 20 years, ending with 1832, was 23,850l. Clifton forms the centre of a union, under the Poor Law Amendment Act; in the parishes of that union, which are also within the present limits of Bristol, the o: amount of poor- for three years, ending 1835, was in all 10,7881. they are represented by 15 guardians. Bedminster is the centre of another union; its own average rates for the same period were 4,7341. : it is represented by 6 guardians. The rack rental of Bristol, according to a survey in 1838, amounts to 373,3611. ; the number of rated properties being 19,920; of these, 10,420, valued at 212,404l., are within the ancient limits. Bristol has sent two m. to the H. of C. since 1243: !'...". to the Reform Act, the right of election was n the freeholders and freemen only. No. of registered electors in 1842-43, 10,416. Bristol was made the seat of a bishopric in 1541. It is now, in conformity to the act 6 & 7 W. 4. c. 77, united with Gloucester, in a see com: §: the city of Bristol, the deaneries of Cricklade and salmsbury, in Wilts, and the previous diocese of Gloucester : Bristol being constituted a d , which, alter§ with that o Gloucester, is to elect the future shops. The Bristol hot well, under the Clifton rocks, is a place of mutch resort for invalids, its waters being considered efficacious in consumptive cases. The temp. of this saline spring, when fresh from the pump, is 74°Fahr., and it then evolves free carbonic acid : in each pint of the water (according to 1)r. Carrick) there are 3.5 grs. carb. of lime, 1.5 sulph. of soda, 1-5 do. of lime, "5 muriate of soda, l do. of magnesia; total, 6 grs. It issues from the cliff, between the high and low-water-mark; the hot-well house is finely situated beside the Avon ; a carriage road winds from it, behind the rocks, to Clifton Down ; a shorter footpath at the back also leads to that village, which is the fashionable part of Bristol: the scenery, by either line, is singularly interesting. The acclivities are occupied by handsome edifices i. squares, terraces. crescents, &c., forming fine promenades; the most magnificent of these ranges is York Crescent. Near the water is a good hotel, whence the Irish steam-packets start regularly ; and on the cliff a splendid one, where concerts and assemblies are held during the season. Another spring higher } the cliff, but probably from the same source, has within a recent period had baths and a pumproom attached to it. The geological features of the place may be thus briefly described: – If the entire area be divided N and S. into three unequal portions, that on the P. will fall within the limits of a coal formation, which extends N. and S. of the city, but chiefly to the N., about 30 m. : its beds are thin, as compared with those of other coal-fields. The central or largest portion is chiefly occupied by the new red sand, in which saurian remains occur; the western part is chiefly mountain lime. Some of the summits in the N. and W. parts of the city are 250 ft. above the bed of the Avon. In the rocks of Clifton, and the opposite ones of St. Vincent, quartz crystals of great purity occur, known as Bristol diamonds. There are remains of three Roman encampments at Clifton, Itownham, and Abbots-Leigh. The decline in the comparative importance of Bristol, as a trading, emporium, has been chiefly manifested by contrasting its progress with that of Liverpool. The average customs duties of Bristol for the seven years ending with 1757 amounted to 155, 1891. ; those of Liverpool, for the same period, to 51,136l. In 1784, the customs of Bristol were 334,000?., a great increase; but those of Liverpool had advanced, in the same year, to 648,6841. One of the chief causes that have been commonly assigned for this relative slowness of progress, is the excess of local taxation: the town and harbour dues having been much heavier than those of any other of the larger ports. The munic. report of 1835 gives the proportion of local taxation charged on 23 principal articles, imported in 1831. in Bristol and three other ports; as – Bristol, 11. ; London, 10s. 4d. : Liverpool, lls. 5d. ; Hull, 7s. 3d. ; Gloucester, 6s. 2d. Since 1831, however, the rates have been