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instances, when the owners allowed it as the cheapest and easiest way of making a title to the rest of their land. The number of churches built, or in progress, connected with the Church of England is about 90 ; the number of clergymen 73; the number of followers are estimated at 150,000, by the Bishop of Montreal, within whose diocese the province is included, and under him are the archdeacons of York and of Kingston. (Lord Durham's Report, * C., p. oil The Presbyteriaus of the Scotch church, the Catholics, and the Wesleyans, are the other chief sects: the latter are said to outnumber any of the rest. The ministers of the Church of Scotland are supported partly by stipends from the government, partly by their respective congregations; the Catholics |. bishop, who resides at Toronto, and who also receives an annual grant from the government to aid in the maintenance of himself and priesthood; the ministers of the other sects are wholly supported by their congregations. By the Constitutional Act of 1791, reserves of land were set apart in this, as in the lower province, for the maintenance of “the Protestant clergy;” the economical evils resulting from this mode of raising religious funds have been previously noticed, but another important question has arisen, which has reference solely to their application : the chief point at issue being, whether the words “Protestant clergy” are to be understood in an exclusive or general sense. The adherents of the Church of England have claimed, from the first, the sole enjoyment of the funds, though (even if all who belong to no other sect be supposed to be within their pale) they are in a considerable minority, and likely so to continue; the adherents of the Church of Scotland claim to be put entirely on a level with the Church of England, and have demanded an equal division of the funds between the two ; the other Protestant sects affirm that the term includes them also, and have formally claimed that an equal provision shall be made for them. But besides these sectarian claimants, there is another party, comprising the Catholics, and no inconsiderable portion of the members of the other sects, who attirm the justice of a broader principle, and contend that the funds shall either be applied to the purposes of all religious creeds whatever, or that, leaving each sect to provide for its own establishment, the law shall be set aside, as inexpedient, and the funds appropriated to the general purposes of government, or to the support of some general system of education. In 1835, the governor (Sir J. Colborne) established 57 rectories, which are supposed to convey the same so vileges and authority as English ones, even to the right of levying tithes. Previously to this, though the clergy of the Church of England were an endowed body, and in the receipt of a much larger share of public money than the other sects, they possessed no exclusive privileges or authority. 'Hénée'the measure was regarded by the other sects as placing them in a position of legal inferiority, and caused so much indignation, that some are disposed to rank this as the chief predisposing cause of the recent insurrection ; nor has a subsequent opinion in favour of the legality of the measure given by the English law officers of the crown, in 1837, tended to recommend it. (Lord Durham’s Report, pp. 62–65.) The educational establishments of the colony are very insufficient and defective: a college has been established at Toronto ; but the mode in which it has been established, and the regulations adopted in it, are amongst the grievances publicly set forth by the colony; the most valuable portion of the lands originally set apart for the o of schools throughout the country having been diverted to its egdowment. There have been, occasionally, grants by the legislature for the purposes of education ; but the schools are few, and of an inferior kind, even in the best settled districts, and in the remoter ones there are none. It must also be understood that a very considerable portion of this province is, as yet, without roads, mills, post-offices, or churches; hence the intercommunication of the different settlers is of a very limited and uncertain description ; nor has any adequate system of local assessment been established to improve or create internal means of communication. Funds have been occasionally voted, as in the lower province, by the provincial legislature, for the purpose ; but, as they were at the disposal of the House of Assembly, which chiefly represents the interests of the older and more settled districts, they were not usually applied where they were most needed. At present the state of the Fol. finances precludes any such aid being granted, n consequence of the debt incurred by attempting to carry into effect a resolution, many years since adopted, of removing or obviating all the natural impediments in the course of the St. Laurence, and effecting a continuous ship navigation from its mouth to the head of Lake Huron. With this object in view, the House of Assembly took a large portion of the shares of the Welland Canal (which had been commenced by a few spirited individuals), and it subsequently undertook the Cornwall Canal, to avoid Long Sault Rapids; but the

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House neglected to ensure the continuation of their plan in the lower province, which was indispensable to its completion, and as the legislature of the lower province declined to co-operate with them, the works have been suspended, after encumbering the province with a public debt of 1,000,000l. sterling. As the external trade of the {..." is conducted through the medium of lower Canada (not so much because it is a matter of necessity as in o of revenue laws), this, also, has a prominent place in the list of grievances. In the mean time, the United States, having created a St. Laurence of their own, from the shore of Lake Erie, through the state of New York, by the Erie Canal, the colony has become anxious to participate in the benefit derivable from it, by making New York a port of entry, and being allowed to land goods there, under as low a duty as if they were imported by the St. Laurence. New §. is, in fact, the natural and proper channel of communication with Upper Canada, the voyage by the St. Laurence being incomparably more tedious and dangerous than that by New York, while, owing to the accumulation of ice, it is impracticable long aster the Erie Canal is open. The Constitutional Act of 1791 (which separated the provinces) gave a similar form of government to both, so that it is unnecessary to repeat here what has been pre: viously stated in respect to its working in Lower Canada. A lieutenant-governor, appointed by the crown, is at the head of the executive, and is also usually the commander of the forces. The civil and criminal code of England, and the forms of procedure in her courts, are adopted in those of the colony; which has, also, an unpaid magistracy, and sheriffs for each district, as in the lower province. The expenses of the civil administration are defrayed by duties on articles imported from the United States, by a portion of the customs’ duties collected in Lower Canada, and by a small land-tax; the military expenditure, the funds for the partial support of ministers of the churches of England, Scotland, and Rome, , and for presents to the Indian tribes, being deflayed by the eneral gov., or, in other words, by the people of Britain. he colonial revenue, which is about 60,000l., hardly suffices to pay the interest of the debt incurred in the formation of the canals, in consequence of which, the few and imperfect local works in different i." of the province have been left to be provided for by local assessments. The recent political disorders that have occurred in this province may be dismissed very briefly. . There is here no war of races, as in Lower Canada; and financial disputes, so long the subject of contention there, have been more smoothly arranged in the upper province, though it has a deficient, and the other a surplus, revenue; there is however great disorganisation, much bitterness of Poło, feeling, and many real grievances requiring redress. ere exists no chief centre in the province, where the general sentiments of the different parties may be gathered, and a prevailing tone given to their purposes and actions; but, on the contrary, many local centres, differing in opinion and in supposed interests from each other, and having little intercommunication. The removal of those restrictions which make the subjects of the United Kingdom, who emigrate thither, be considered aliens, as much as if they had chosen to settle in the United States, and for a more prolonged period, is loudly, and justly, complained of. But these, after all, are subordinate matters, and here, as in the lower prov., the real struggle is, whether the colony shall be selfgoverned, or really independent. Other grievances may be redressed, and the connection of the colony with the mother country preserved; but the demand for a really responsible executive is, as already seen, substantially equivalent to a demand for separation. The government has been, for a considerable period, in the hands of a party known throughout the province by the designation of “The Family Compact,” who are in Fo of the higher public offices, and distribute the minor patronage, and whose interest is still paramount in the executive and legislative councils. y grant or purchase, this party is also in possession of the greater portion of the waste lands of the province, and their influence predominates in the chartered banks. To the monopoly of political power possessed by this party an opposition |al. arose, and gathered more and more strength, till it obtained a majority in the House of Assembly, which, on a dissolution, was lost again, and on a subsequent one recovered. This alter. nating state of things continued through four or five general elections, neither party preserving the mastery for two successive ones. The mode in which the clergy reserves should be disposed of was the most important question raised by the reformers in this struggle; and, though various methods of Fo these were advocated by various sections of the party, all united in appealing to the people against the exclusive claims of the Church of England, whilst these claims were uniformly and strenuously supported by their opponents. This struggle was at its height, when a third party, consisting of emigrants from the United Kingdom, within a short period doubled the population of the colony. Of these both the old parties became equally jealous; those who enjoyed the power and privileges of office, and those who were struggling for ascendancy, betraying equal anxiety to exclude the new settlers from political power ; nor did they, for a considerable period, appear in the field as a distinct political party, though subsequent events have made it probable that the distinction of old and of new settlers will become an absorbing element in the political divisions of the colony. The objects of the original reformers were uniformly defeated by the influence of their opponents in the legislative council : so that, finding the practical inutility of a majority, in the House of Assembly only, they ultimately directed their attention, not to the re-organisation of that council, like the Lower Canadians, but to the securing of a responsible executive administration. Both of these parties have shown an equal degree of jealousy in respect to the interference of the general government; whilst the party subsequently introduced wish that its influence in the colony were in reased. It has not been ascertained what proportion of the colonists were prepared to join Mackenzie's treasonable enterprise, in the event of a successful commencement ; though it appears improbable that his views were sympathised with to any serious extent, notwithstanding the great political dissatisfaction of the period, caused by the result of the elections, which secured to the oil party a majority in the House of Assembly, and enabled them to carry some obnoxious measures. But it is probable that this dissatisfaction was the proximate cause of that ill-planned and worse conducted affair, which, however, was sufficient to show that, without some signal change, the tranquillity and preservation of the colony must depend rather on the extent of the military force and the vigour of the government, than on the attachment of the colonists to the mother country. To obviate the discontent and various evils that had accumulated in these prov's., they were united under one legislature in 1839, under the government of Lord Sydenham. It was supposed that by this arrangement all disputes relative to the division and almount of revenue would cease, and that the completion of the great works, undertaken to make the St. Lawrence available to the upper province, would be promoted. But the grand object to be effected by the measure was the annihilation of the majority possessed by the French party in the lower province. In a legislative assembly composed of the representatives of both provinces, it is expected that the French party will be outnumbered ; and order and progressive improvement being secure, the ultimate amalgamation of the two races is predicated, as in the state of Louisiana. In point of t, however, the majority in favour of the government in the united legislature is very scanty; and though discontent be for the present allayed, we doubt whether its seeds either are or can be eradicated. It is believed that some smaller grievances have been redressed by the modification the spirit of the government has under gone ; and it is proposed to introduce a good system of municipal institutions. Amongst other measures, the removal of such civil disabilities as new settlers are now liable to is proposed, and the repeal of the law which prohibits American citizens from holding land in the colony. But supposing these measures have the anticipated effect in amalgamating the English and French colonists, and redressing other grievances, still the question remains, would they be sufficient to tranquillise the colony, and to attach it to British interests * All experience says they would not. Nothing, we may depend upon it, will satisfy the Canadians, or any people in their situation, short of substantial or total indeo and the latter would be in all respects more or our advantage than the former. Were the duties on Canada timber reduced to the same level as those on Baltic timber, we question whether Canada would be found to possess a single article that could be advantageously exported to this country, or that we might not buy cheaper and better elsewhere. It no doubt has afforded an extensive outlet for emigrants, and has been in so far useful ; but in all other respects its occupation has always been, and will most probabl continue to be, productive of little except loss. And, even with respect to emigration, it is by no means clear that the so would be at all narrowed by Canada becoming independent, or connected with the U. States, The presumption seems, indeed, to be very much the other way; and notwithstanding the efforts that have been o to attract emigrants to Canada, they seldom have been so numerous as those to the U. States, and would have been incomparably fewer, had they been aware of the real situation of the two countries. The people of Britain would, therefore, do well to reflect dis

passionately on the state of the Canada question. We believe most men of sense admit that, sooner or later, Canada will be independent, or be incorporated with the U. States. But if so, what should be our policy in the mean time P. Having put down rebellion for the presen the question is, are we resolved to maintain an army o 10,000 or 15,000 men in Canada? to expend directly, and indirectly, some three or four millions a year in preserving a mere nominal ascendancy in a colony, by the independence of which we should certainly lose nothing? If such be our determination, it may be doubted whether we have profited much by the dear-bought experience afforded by the American war. We deny that Canada contributes, in any way whatever, either to the strength or security of Great Britain. On the contrary, the connection with it is an evident source of weakness; and, while it multiplies the chances of our being involved in disputes with other powers, it supplies no means of carrying them on, and distracts and lessens those in our possession. National pride may prevent our relinquishing this costly and worthless dominion, but good sense, and the most obvious views of expediency, would suggest the policy of voluntarily anticipating what must, in the end, necessarily happen; and of providing for the independence of Canada, under a system of friendly and mutually beneficial relations with this country. History. — Canada is said to have been first discovered by Sebastian Cabot, in 1497; if so, it was comprised with the rest of the extensive line of coast he explored, under the general name of Newfoundland, subsequently limited to the island so called. The French first attempted to make those discoveries available, and are said to have frained a map of the gulph so early as 1508. In 1525 the country was taken possession of in the name of the king of France, and in 1535 Cartier explored the river, naming it St. Laurence, from having entered it on that saint's day. Quebec, however, the first settlement, was not founded till 1608. For a considerable period subsequent to this the colonists appear to have been engaged in a series of sanguinary conflicts with the native Indian tribes, and to have been often on the brink of being extirpated: the strife, however, ultimately terminated in a friendly compact, which converted the Indiaus into available auxiliaries against the English. Quebec was taken by the British forces under Gen. Wolf, in 1759, and the whole territory formally ceded by the Treaty of Paris, in 1763. The seigniorial rights, the various holdings and tenures under them. and the endowments of the Catholic church, were left undisturbed ; and all the estates, including all the unappropriated lands in the prov., held at the period by the French king, became vested in the 13ritish crown. In the years 1812–13–14, the lakes, and especially the shores of Niagara, were the scene of a succession of severe contests; the war was wholly a frontier one, and the militia on either side being engaged in it, near relatives were found often contending in opposite ranks, so that common was aggravated to civil warfare; and Indians also were employed, and increased its horrors. The grievances and complaints of Lover Canada first obtained the attention of parliament in 1828, when a select committee of the H. of C. reported on them. The legislative assembly's claims were, the right of appropriating all the crown revenues as they pleased, and also all those accruing from parliamentary and provincial statutes, and the settlement and alienation of all the wild lands of the province ; but the most important point, without which the rest would be conceded in vain, according to their statement, was, that the legislative council should be elected by the §. and thus assimilated to the senate of the United States. Another II. of C.'s report led to the nomination of Lord Gosford (who was also appointed governor), and two other commissioners, and five reports and appendixes, published in 1837, are the only result of to: labours. In the divisions which took place in the House of Assembly, the British party divided from 8 to 11 in a house of 88 mem. The grievances of the upper province were set forth in the report of a committee of their H. of Assembly, who adopted it, and laid it before the king. The extent and abuse of the crown patronage ; the virtual irresponsibility of the executive; the mode of conducting the business of the provincial post-office ; the management of the Toronto College ; the provision made for the ecclesiastical estab., and for the maintenance of certain sects only (the House say they “recognise no particular denomination as established in Upper Canada, with exclusive claims, powers, or privileges”); the partiality shown in the choice of magistrates; the absence of control over the crown revenues; and the failure on the part of the local to carry into es!ect the recommendations of the general governm., are the most prominent of the grievances set forth. Subsequent to this, Sir F. Head replaced Sir J. Colborne as gov., in 1836; and during his government the outbreak under Mackenzie took place. (Besides the references in the text, see Darby's Grog, qf U. S.; The London Geog: | Society's Trans. ; Hall's Travels ; Stuart's Three Years' Residence in America, Gourday's Upper Canada, &c.)

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CANANDAIGUA, a town of the U. S. of America, New York, cap. co, Ontario, beautifully situated on an acclivity at the outlet of the considerable lake of the same name, 88 m. E. Buffalo, and 95 m. N. N.W. New York. Pop. (1835) about 3,000. It consists chiefly of two parallel streets, running N. and S., intersected at right angles by several others. It contains a large square, in which are the court-house, prison, town-house, and principal hotel ; and it has a state-arsenal, various places for public worship, 3 or 4 banks, male and female academies, several large mills and manufactories of different kinds, and (in

1836) 3 printing offices, each issuing a weekly, newspaper. he inhab. are intelligent, liberal, and hospitable. Within 3 m. of the town, on both sides the lake,

are several sulphuretted o springs. Canandaigua was founded in 1788, and from its position on its lake, and in the vicinity of the Erie Canal, is a place of considerable commercial importance. (Gordon's Gazetteer of New York.) CANANO Re (Canura), a marit. town of Hindostan, prov. Malabar, at the bottom of a small bay, 45 m. N.W. Calicut, and 66 m. S.S.F. Mangalore; lat. 11o 42° N., long. 75°27' E. It trades with Bengal, Arabia, Sumatra, and Surat, from which it imports horses, piece goods, almonds, sugar, opium, silk, benzoin, and camphor: its exports are chiefly pepper, cardamoms, sandal wood, coir, and shark-fins. s is the cap. of the talook of Chericul, a losty and uneven track, extending for 2 m. inland from the fort, and some years since containing together with the town about 11,000 houses. Its territory is now subordinate to the British, but has long been governed by a succession of female sovereigns, whose authority has xtended over most of the Laccadive islands. Cananore is the head military station of the British dominions in Malabar prov. (Hamilton's E. I. Gaz. i. 340. ; Madras Almanack.) CANARA, a marit. prov. of Hindostan, presid. Madras, comprising the ancient countries o ulava and Haiga, with small portions of Malabar and the Hindoo Kaukana. It lies chiefly between lat. 122 and 15° N., and long. 749 and 76° E.; having N. Goa and Dharwar (Bejapoor), E. the latter province and Mysore, S. Coorg and Malabar, and W. the ocean ; length, N. to S., 230 m. ; average breadth about 35 m.; area 7,477 sq. m. Pop. (1837) 759,776. It is mostly bounded by the W. Ghauts, but includes a portion of the country above them, called Carnata, of which the name of this distr. is a corruption, most improperly applied. Surface generally rugged and uneven. It has no considerable river, but a number of minor ones, of which Mangalore is the chief. The coast in the S. is occupied by a chain of salt lakes. Soil and climate very similar to those of Malabar. Granite and laterite are amongst the prevailing rocks, and near the sea shore there is much sandy soil, on which cocoa-palms are grown in great number. The periodical rains are extremely heavy, and set in fro. the middle of May till the end of Sept., during which ships leave the coast, and a stop is | to all traffic. The country abounds in forests; those n the N. producing teak, and other large timber, sissoo, bassia latifolia, prickly bamboo, the varnish-tree of Birmah, nur romica, minosa catech:1, cassia, sandalwood, wild pepper, a species of nutmeg, &c.; those in the S. containing teak, mango, caryota palm, and much jungle, greatly infested with tigers. Canara is the granary of rice for Arabia, Goa, Bombay, and Malabar; and both the climate and soil, especially in the valleys, are highly adapted for its culture. Sometimes 50 bushels a year are obtained from an acre; and in the S. the land ot yields two or turee crops during the same period #. rice, sugar-canes, pepper, betel-nut, and leaf, cucurbitaceous it. &c., are grown. Husbandry is better here than in Malabar ; the plough is a neater implement, and manure of both leaves and dung is made use of: some cultivators employ 25 ploughs, although full half of them use no more than one. Rice is thrashed by beating handfuls in the straw against a bamboo grating. There are no barns, and the grain is kept in straw bags hung up in the houses: carts are not used, the roads are bad, and goods have to be conyeyed on the heads of the peasantry. There are neither horses, asses, nor goats. 131ack cattle, in 1836-7, estimated at 573,412 head, sheep at 544,326 head; hogs are kept, and eaten only by the lowest ranks. All the lands in the S. are private property, but, generally much encumbered oil, mortgages: in the N. mortgages are much less frequent, and the cultivated lands only are the property . individuals: government claims all the hill, forest, and waste land. In S. Canara inheritance in land, goods, honorary dignities, and whatever else is capable of being conveyed, descends in the female line; and instead of a man's own children, those of his sister, or maternal aunt (as is the case in all the country in the S. part of the Malabar coast) become his heirs, while he has a corresponding right over them, to the extent of sclling them for slaves. In Karnata Proper, above the Ghauts, these laws are reverscd, and a man's children

inherit his property. The lands mostly belong to individuals, who let them, and even frequently mortgage them to cultivators; the land assessment is moderate, being about 30 per cent. on the produce ; but the cultivators generally are as much depressed as elsewhere, since they have about 20 per cent. to pay to their landlords, and out of the remaining 50 per cent. to provide live and dead stock, and subsist the slaves. Land, when sold, usually fetches from 8 to 12 years' purchase-money on the clear rent. Slavery is very common, and almost all the supposed aborigines are es. Their total numher was, a few years ago, estimated at 82,000; but their proprictors are said to treat them well. Many different tribes inhabit Canara. The Jains (See H1NDost AN) are more numerous here than in any other part of india. and many ancient Jain temples exist in tolerable perfection. §. inhabit the inland parts, where, together with Bunts and Sudras, they own most of the land. There are about 50,000 R. Cath, in Canara, mostly descendants of the Portuguese, IXutch, French, and Danish colonists. Canara is not celebrated for manufactures ; the chief are those of sugar from the palms, and salt on the coast. The exports consist principally of rice, betel-nut, black pepper, ginger, cocoa-nuts, and oil and raw silk; the imports are cloths, cotton, thread, blankets, tobacco, black cattle, and sandal-wood, for export to Bombay. The total public revenue, in 1836-7, was 2,758,460 rup., of which, 1,671,215 were derived from land, 274,438 from salt, 240,551 from land customs, &c. All the chief towns, viz. Mangalore, Barcelore, and Calliampore, are in the S. Tulava was governed by its own princes till A. D. 782; from that year till 836 it was subject to the rajahs of Bijnagur ; and afterwards to the princes of Ikeri. It escaped the Mohammedan conquests till 1765-6, when Hyder invaded and conquered it, after which it suffered als the horrors of anarchy, till the death of Tippoo in 1799, when it passed into the hands of the British, and under them has become a tranquil and orderly district. (Hamilton's W. & E. I. Gaz., i. 330–340. ; Madras Almanack, &c.) CAN ARY ISLANDS (believed to be the Fortunatae Insulae of the ancients), a group in the N. Atlantic ocean, belonging to Spain, between 27° 40' and 29° 24′ N. lat., and 13° 32' and 18° 26' W. long., 135 m. N.W. Cape Bojador, in Africa, and 650 m. S.W. Cadiz. This group consists of seven principal islands, as follows: —

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- 136,192 235,645 Besides these, several small islands, viz. Graciosa, Clara, Allegranza, &c. called the Little Canaries, are situated to the N.W. of Lanzarote, and connected with that island by a bank, on which there is, for the most part, 40 fathoms water. Lanzarote is the most easterly, Allegranza the most northerly, and Hierro, or Ferro, the most southerly and westerly of the group. This last-mentioned island has acquired considerable celebrity, from its having been selecto! by the early modern geographers as the point where they placed the first meridjan, or from which they began to reckon the longitude. In some countries this method of reckoning is still kept up; but the English and French adopt for their first méridians those passing, through the Observatories of Greenwich and Paris. The most w. part of Hierro, or Ferro, La Dabessa, is 180 9' 45.” W. of the meridian of Greenwich, and 200 30° W. of that of Paris. The islands are all of volcanic origin, very mountainous, their coasts precipitous, and the channels between them very deep. The greatest height of some of them above the level of the sea is as follows: —

Total

Teneriffe (Peak) - 1 1,400 ft. Lanzarote (Montana
Canary (H. Cunabre) - 6.648 lanca) - - - 2,000 ft.
Fuerteventura (India) - 2,820 Allegranza - 93.9

Teneriffe and its peak, a half cxtinct volcano, which may be seen at a distance of more than 150 m., will be found elsewhere described (TENERIFFE). In all the islands there are plentiful traces of extinct volcanos; but in that of Lanzarote one burst forth in 1825, which still continues active. The basaltic cliffs in that island rise almost perpendicularly to the height of 1,500 ft. : Allegranza appears wholly composed of a mass of lava and cinders.'" The Canaries have no rivers, properly so called, but they are watered by numerous brooks, which rise in the higher nountain regions, and, during rains, suddenly swell to torrents. There are few safe roadsteads, and no close harbours: the Great Canary island has, perhaps, more Sato anchorągos than any of the others, and the Bay of Las Palmas at its N.E. extremity offers a spacious haven for ships, secure on all winds except those from the S.E., which seldom blow with any violence. The climate, though hot, is generally healthy; the heat, being attempered by the elevation of the land, and the prevalence of N. and W. breezes. The temperature is in most parts very equable ; the average in Dec.. and Jan. has been sound to be 679, in Aug. 760 Fah. The range of temperature is seldom more than four or five degrees in the twenty-four hours. The S. and S.E. winds occasionally cause pestilential maladies in the E. Canaries, and bringing intolerable heats, and clouds of locusts, scorch up and desolate the country. The fertility of the lands is in proportion to their humidity. In some parts they produce abundance of wheat, maize, and other kinds of corn, dates, figs, guavas, lemons, olives, and numerous other fruits, of both the torrid and temperate zones; the sugar-cane, tobacco, cotton, orchill, and many perfumes and medicinal plants. They contain, also, woods of pine trees, laurel, arbutus, &c. and excellent pasturage. The average annual quantities of the principal articles of produce in the entire group, are said to be —

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Canary is, perhaps, the best watered and most fertile island ; and it and Teneriffe are the two best cultivated. Teneriffe is the principal seat of the vine culture; the Vidueno and Malvasia wines are exclusively the produce of that island: the vine is, however, largely grown in the others, and the wines produced exported to Europe under the name of Teneriste. The best wine in the E. Canaries is that of Lanzarote, where the grapes grow on a soil of decomposed scoriae. Much brandy is distilled and ex

orted. Amongst the other chief products are silk, |..." wax, and cochineal. Game is very plentiful ; and they are said to be without either ferocious or venomous animals. Cattle and poultry have been introduced from Europe. The canary-bird (Fringolla Canaria, Linn.) is still found in these islands: but in its wild state its colour is grey or linnet-brown : the plumage of those we are accustomed to see, has derived its hue from repeated crossings. The fishery, which is principally carried on along the opposite African coast, occupies a great number of hands; and it is said that Spain might, in case of emergency, procure 2,000 able young seamen from the islands without distressing the fishery. Sugar, with coarse woollens, silks, and limens, are amongst the manufactures.

The quantities of the principal articles imported and exported in 1833 were as follows:–

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is at the lowest ebb, and few or rather no improvements are ever attempted, or even so much as thought of. The military force is composed of 25,000 men. (For descriptions of Santa Cruz, Lagunas, and Orotava, see Texehifre) Las Palmas, in the Great Canary, near its N. E. extremity, lat. 28° 8' N., long. 20° 23' 30" W., has a handsome sea-port town with 18,000 inhab, a cathedral, hospital, college, a mole, many public fountains, and a well-supplied market. In good weather ships anchor within half a mile of the town, but the roadstead is but indifferent. The other chief towns are, Arecise, or Port Naos, in Lanzarote, a well-built town, with 2,500 inhab. ; Cabras, 1, (10 inhab., in Fuerteventura; La Hila, in Gomera; and Santa Cruz, in Palma. When these islands first became known to Europeans of modern times, they were inhabited by a race of Fo called Guanches, of a tall, athletic, and vigorous rame (though this has probably been exaggerated), and who made a determined resistance to the invaders. Though unacquainted with the use of iron, th ppear to have arrived at a considerable degree of civilization ; they cultivated music and poetry with success, had a kind of hieroglyphic writing, believed in a supreme being, in a future state of rewards and punishments, and embalmed their dead. Many of their mummies have been sound in modern times in caves in various parts of the islands. They are placed erect upon their feet, and are in so remarkable a state of dessication, that some of them do not weigh above from 6 to 8 lbs. Their government was oligarchical. Humboldt and Dr. Prichard think that the Guanches were either intimately connected with, or descended from the Berbers of N. Africa. Many of the Guanches were reduced to a state of slavery by the Spanish and other European traders, by whom the islands were first visited ; and those who escaped the scourge of slavery, war, and famine, were mostly carried off by a pestilence in 1494. The Canaries were first discovered by accident about 1330 by the crew of a French ship driven thither in a storm. After several unsuccessful Spanish expeditions, John de Bethencourt, a French gentleman, sailed with a fleet from Rochelle in 1400, and took possession first of Lanzarote, and subsequently of Fuerteventura, Gomera, and Hierro. Bethencourt's heir subsequently disposed of these to a Spanish nobleman, and they afterwards became the property of the Spanish crown : the conquest of the other islands was effected by Spain before the termination of the 15th century. (Humboldt's Personal Narratine, vol. i. ; Tables of Revenue, &c. 1835. ; Journ. Geog. Soc. 1836. : Prichard's Researches, ii. 34.) CAN CALE, a sea-port town of France, dép. Ille-etVilaine, cap. cant., 9 m. E. St. Malo ; lat. 48° 40' 40' N., long. 1951'30" W. Pop. 5,151. It is situated on the W. side of St. Michael's Bay. At a short distance from the town there are some large rocks, within which there is good anchorage in 5 or 6 fathoms. Excellent oysters are found in the bay, and make a considerable article of traffic. The English made, in 1758, an unsuccessful descent on the coast here. (Dict. Géog.) CAN DAHAR, a fortified city of Caubul, cap. (1838) of an indep, territory held by a Banrikzye chief, brother of the sirdar of Caubul, in a plain near the Urgundaub river; 200 m. S.W. Caubui, 260 m. S.E. Herat; lat. 32° 20' N., long. 66° 15' E. Pop. 50,000, the greater proportion of whom are Afghans. It is said to be of an oblong form, enclosed by a bastioned mud wall, on the ramparts of which three men may walk abreast, and a ditch, 9 ft. deep, recently constructed, surrounds

Santa Cruz in Teneriffe, and Las Palmas in Canar , are the principal commercial ports. The present inhabitants are probably almost wholly of Spanish origin. The islands are governed by the Spanish laws, the administration of which is directod by an audiencia in Great Canary. The governor of the Canaries, who is president of the odocio, resides at Santa Cruz. The three easterly islands form one bishopric, and the four westerly another. There are 41 monasteries, and 15 convents. with 423 regular clergy; and the people are said to be equally ignorant and bigoted. They are not, however, deficient either in industry or enterprise. On the con. trary, many of them emigrate to America, the Philippine islands, &c., where they are distinguished by their adventurous spirit. But, at home, such of them as are not engaged in the fishery, are sunk in comparative apathy, produced by vicious laws and institutions. The lands are parcelled out, in immense estates, held under strict entail, and the plan followed in letting them to the actual occupiers being as bad as possible, industry

- xports the whole. , Candahar is regularly built, most of the Imports re streets meeting at right angles: its houses are geneForeign countries - - |{!!”73,228 roals }ssioiss. v. rally of brick, and often with no other cement than America - - - || 1,060.60s"' ago, mud. Four long and broad bazars meet in the centre Spain - - - go; 3,07s, 06 of the city, in a small circular space about 45 yards - in di , and covered with a dome, where proclaTotal - - 15,257,216 9,571,050 mations are made, and the bodies of criminals exposed.

The principal bazars are each about 50 yards broad; their sides are lined with well-supplied shops one story high ; and there is a gate at the end of each opening into the surrounding country, except the N. bazar, having the palace at its end, a structure in no respect remarkable externally, but containing many courts and buildings, and a private garden. There are many caravanseras and mosques: the principal building of o, latter kind is the tomb of Ahmed ". an elegant, but not a large, structure, with a handsome cupola, formerly an inviolable sanctuary. A great variety of trades are carried on, and the streets are filled with a noisy and bustling crowd from morning till night; but, unlike most other Afghan cities, there are here no water sellers, the city being well supplied by canals from the Urgundaub, whence subterranean or open water-courses are carried to the different streets; and there are, also, numerous wells. Three of the principal bazars were at one time planted with trees, and had, it is said, a narrow canal running down the middle of each ; but many of the trees have withered, and if the canals ever existed, they are no longer visible. The vicinity of Candahar is fertile, and abounds with gardens and orchards, producing the finest fruits and vegetables, especially pomegranates ; with corn, tobacco, madder, assafoetida, and artificial grasses. The climate is mild and healthy. Were the city the seat of a just government, it would be the centre of a rich circle of cultivation ; but the chiefs who, by oppressions of all sorts, have contrived to raise about 50,000l. annual revenue from the land, have also, by their exactions, banished much of the trade and opulence of the city. Persian traditions, and the conjectures of European geographers, agree in assigning the foundation of Candahar to Alexander the Great. The present city was built by Ahmed Shah in 1753 or 1754, who made it the capital of his dominions, an honour which his successor Timour transferred to Caubul. Elphinstone's Caubul, ii. 129–134. ; Conolly's overland Journey, ii. 91–93. *Nokish, a soubah or prov. of the Deccan, Hindostan, between lat. 20° and 22° N., and long. 73° and 77° E.; having N. Malwah, E. Gundwana, S. Berar and Aurungabad, and W. Gujrat: length, E. to W., about 210 m.; average breadth, 80 m. It contains parts of three mountain ranges, viz. the Sautpoora mountains in its N. ; the Chandore, or Adjuntah range, S.; and the Sydaree mountains, or W. Ghauts, in its S.W. parts: its principal plain is between these ranges, and opens E. into the plains of Berar, and W. is continuous with those of Surat, from which it is separated by a thick and extensive jungle. The Tuptee river flows through this plain. The Nerbudda forms the N. boundary. Candeish, though interspersed with low barrell hilla, has a large extent of very fertile territory, watered by copious streams and limpid rivulets from the table-lands, which greatly enhance its natural beauties. For thirty years, however, before the British became possessed of it (1819), it had been the scene of continual anarchy, and much of the best land, especially N., the Tuptee, had become overspread with an uninhabited forest. abounding with the ruins of former villages, and swarming with tigers. This prov. is comprised within the several territories of the Guico war, Sindia, the Nizam, and the British government; the land in those parts belonging to the latter is granted on the most easy terms to the cultivators, but some length of time must elapse before the country recovers its former prosperity. The existing villages are mostly built of mud, and protected by a mud wall and fort, without ditch or outwork. The hill ranges, and the whole country along the courses of the Nerbudda and Tuptee rivers, are inhabited by Bheels, who have been here less disturbed than in any other part of India. They are of small stature, dark complexion, prone to rapine and thieving, go armed with a bow and arrow, and in many respects resemble the hill-people of Follo. They eat beef and pork, drink spirits, and bury their dead; yet they pretend to be Hindoos of the Brahmin, and Rajpoot castes. They have contributed greatly to the devastation of the province. Candeish formerly contained a large number of Mahratta fortresses: its principal towns are Boorhanpoor, Aseerghur, Hindia, Nundoorpoor, and Gaulna. Numerous Arab colonists settled here, and early in the 15th century Candeish was an independent kingdom, governed by sovereigns claiming descent from the caliph Omar, who had their capital at Aseerghur: toward the end of that century, it was completely subdued and annexed to the Mogul empire. The decline of Candeish may be dated from 1812, when Jeswunt Row-Holcar ravaged it : next }. it was depopulated by famine, and subsequently ruined by the exactions of the peishwa's officers, and the predatory incursions of the Bheels, Pindarries, and insurgent bands of the Arabs, who had established themselves in the strongholds. On the British conuest, in 1818, when Holcar's possessions in Candeish ell under our dominion, these refractory tribes were either brought into subjection or pacified: or else, as the Arabs, obliged to emigrate from India, after having been }. what they were legitimately entitled to by the ritish government. (Hamilton's E. I. Gaz. i. 343–345. ; Reports, &c. on Affairs of the E. I. Company.) ANbfish, an inl; zillah or distr. of Hindostan, prov. Candeish, presid. Bombay; between lat. 20° and 21° 42’, and long. 73° 37' and 76° 22' E.; having N. the collectorate of Surat and Sindia's dom. ; E. the latter, and those of the Nizam ; S. the Nizam's dom. and the collect. of Ahmednuggur; and W. a portion of the Guico war's territory: shape somewhat rhomboidal; length, E. to W., about 180 m. ; greatest breadth 115 m. ; , area 12,527 sq. m. Pop. 478,500. This distr. is capable of great improvement, being for the most part overgrown with jungle : very complete embankments on the various streams, and many dilapidated, though substantiallybuilt dams and aqueducts for irrigation, are met with, which might be again rendered available at a small expense. In 1820, when Col. (now Gen.) Briggs entered upon the civil management of this distr., there were 80 distinct bands of freebooters ravaging it, and out of 2,700 villages, 1,100 had been altogether desolated during

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the preceding 30 years of anarchy. The Bheels were at that time in the habit of levying a old of black mail upon the villagers, consisting of a portion of the produce of the land; but, by conciliatory treatment, in less than 10 years most of them had returned to their former occupations as village watchmen and guardians, and only one gang of 40 individuals remained to infest the country when Col. Briggs left it. The agricultural classes are peaceable and inoffensive, but timid and destitute of energy. . There are no large or o landholders, excepting the proprietors of certain jaghires granted for military services by the British government. The village constitution exists, but the ryotwarry system has been introduced into this distr., to which, in the opinion of gentlemen who have held civil offices in it for a considerable time, it is, from various causes, extremely ill adapted. Grain, cotton, and indigo, are the chief articles of culture; but there is a vast quantity of waste land, and the cultivation and revenue have both diminished of late years, owing to the difficulty of o of the produce, from the general fall of prices, want of roads, &c. Civil justice is administered by the punchayet, or native arbitration ; and in criminal cases, while Colonel Briggs superintended the distr., trial by jury was established, which is said to have worked exceedingly well. Schools are common in Candeish distr.; every Brahmin, and all who have any thing to do with mercantile business, are instructed in reading, writing, and accounts: in 1825, there were 189 schools in all, attended by 2,022 scholars, or 1 in 18 for the whole male population. The Mohammedans are said to be the most ignorant of the population. (Hamilton's E. I. Gaz. i. 345, 346. ; Brigg's Evidence, in Reports, &c.; Hodge's Evidence, in ditto.) CANDIA or MEGALO-KASTRON, a fortified marit. city, cap. of Crete, on the N. shore of that island, near its centre, 34 m. W. Spinalonga, and 64 m. E.S.E. Canea; lat. 35° 21' N., long. 240 8' 15° E. Pop. 12,000, 9,000 of whom are Mohammedans. This city, and hence Crete itself, derived its name of Candia from the word Khandah, signifying an entrenchment in the language of the Saracens, by whom it was built. Its present fortifications are of Venetian construction ; o are massive, bastioned, and furnished with outworks ; the scarp wall, a beautiful specimen of art, is in most places 50 ft. in perpendicular height; the sea wall, is not above 20 ft. in height, irregular, and but badly flanked. The port is formed by two moles, which, bending towards each other, project about 250 yards into the sea, and are defended at their extreme points by sorts. . It is at present so choked up by sand and the ruins of the old Venetian docks and arsenal, that a vessel drawing more than 8 ft. water cannot enter. The city has four gates, three on the land side and one towards the sea. Principal streets wide, roughly paved, but clean, well furnished with fountains, and adorned with clumps of trees. Houses generally well built, but have seldom more than

one story above the ground floor. The bazars, which are good, have quite a Turkish appearance. In the E. part of the city, the houses are mostly interspersed with

gardens. Candia is the residence of the pasha and seat of the provincial council, and of a Greek archbishop. Chief buildings, – governor's palace, the Greek cathedral and other churches, many mosques, a synagogue, the remains of two Roman Catholic churches, a light-house on the W. mole, and some good baths. The arched vaults built for the Venetian galleys still exist, and several other relics of Venetian sway are found. The country immediately round Candia is not particularly fertile. Its prov, comprises all the E. part of the island, and produces chiefly wheat, barley, raisins, and a little cotton. (Scott's Trav. in Fgypt and Candia, i.; Pashley ; Consular Report, &c.)

CANDIA. See Crete.

CANDY, an inl. town of Ceylon, at the head of an extensive valley in lat. 79 17" N, and long. 80°36' E., about 1,400 ft. above the level of the sea, 80 m. E.N.E. Colombo, and 95 m. S.W. Trincomalee. Pop. about 3,000. It is surrounded by woody hills and mountains, varying from 200 to 2,000 feet in height, and stands on the border of an artificial lake; but its situation, though beautiful and romantic, is insecure. At a distance of 3 m. it is nearly surrounded by the Mahavilly Ganga, here navigable only for small boats, Excepting those inhabited by the chiefs, which are tiled, the native houses are built entirely of clay, and thatched. Temples very numerous, and considered almost indispensable appendages to the houses of the opulent; in the greater number lights are constantly kept burning; and in one of them the celebrated tooth, said to have belonged to Boodh, is still preserved Since the capture of Candy, residences for the governor and commandant, and a gaol, have been built by the British, and several missionary and other schools established. There is no church, but the district court-house and missionary school-room are made use of for divine service. Candy was anciently the cap. of an indep. kingdom of the same name, which comprised the central mountainous country of Ceylon. It was

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