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of the population was independent. — (Shaw, p. 3. 4to ed.) Mountains. – Aiglers is mostly mountainous: the little Atlas, which runs along the coast parallel to the greater Atlas, varies from 3,000 to 4,000 ft. in height; its loftiest point is S. of Chiffa; opposite to Cape Matifou its elevation is little more than 2,000 The abrupt mountains of Titteri, belonging to the greater Atlas, reach in some points to an elevation of 9,000 ft., and send off three principal ridges: N. W. towards Cape Ivy; N. towards Algiers; and N. E. towards Bugia. Many of these mountains are remarkable; as Wannashrees (Zolachs), prov. Oran, very lofty, and Jurjura, S. E. of Algiers, both capped with snow during winter; the Titteri Dosh, or rock of Titteri, is also a remarkable ridge of rugged precipices. The Jibbel Auress (4t. Audus of Ptolemy) S. part prov. Constantine, is not, as the name would imply, a single mountain, but an extensive tract, 120 m. in circuit, of mountainous or rather hilly ground. It is interspersed with several fine vallies; and both its lower and upper parts are extremely fertile, it being, in fact, the garden of the prov. — (Shaw, pp. 26. 36. 56.) - Plains. – The principal is that of Metidjah, immediately S. of Algiers, 50 m. by 20; fertile, well watered, and covered with an abundant vegetation, but in parts marshy and o: In the W. prov. are several plains, especially that through which the Shellis' runs; and another S.W. of Oran, sandy and saltish, dry in summer but inundated in winter. In the S. prov. are the rich plains of Hamza, watered by the Nasava. Many luxuriant plains are found in the E. prov., as those of Sateef, Majanah, and that skirting most part of the E. coast, which is, however, in many parts marshy.—(Shaw, pp. 24.37, 44. 47. 50.53.) The Rivers are separated by the greater Atlas range into those which run N. and S. Of the former, or those which discharge themselves into the Mediterranean, the principal is the Shelliff an. Chinalaph), which rises S. of the Wannashree M., and after a tortuous course of 200 m., during which it passes through the Titteri Gawle or lake, falls into the sea under Cape Jibbel Iddis. In the rainy season it overflows its banks, and interrupts the communication between Algiers and Oran. The Wad-el-Kebeer (an. Ampsaga), which falls into the sea N. of Constantine, in 6° E. long., is the second in magnitude; the others are the Seibous, or river of Bona, the Booberac, Yissa, Zowah, Wad-y-Zaine, &c. The large rivers, the Adjedi and Abiad, run S. E., and empty themselves into the Melgigg; and several rivers of inferior dimensions empty themselves into the Shott. These are two very extensive salt marshes; the former on the S. the latter on the N. side of the greater Atlas; they consist partly of a light oozy soil, as dangerous as quicksands to travellers. — The lakes are those of Titteri; two near Oran, which dry in summer, and from which salt is collected; some salt marshes near Cape Matifou, and others along the coast from Bona to the borders of Tunis. ‘s." p. 19.; Shaw, p. 55. Climate — Of the Tell, i. e. between lat. 34 and 37°, is generally wholesome and temperate. Shaw states that for twelve years during his experience it only froze twice at Algiers; yet the heat was never oppressive unless during S. winds. The mean temperature of the year at Algiers is 70° F., in July and August about 86° F.; but ranging occasionally during the prevalence of the khamsin, simoom, or hot wind from the Sahara, as high as 110°, or even more. Luckily, however, the latter seldom or never continues
for more than 5 or 6 days at a time, and rarely occurs except in August or September. In winter the temperature is usually from 55° to 65° F. The heat is mitigated by the N. winds, which with the E. prevail during summer. About the equinoxes violent S. W. winds occur; N.W. winds are common from November to April, at which time storms and showers of rain are most frequent; but in summer these winds bring dry weather; the E. and S. winds are also dry, and quite unlike what, they are on the opposite European coasts. The barometer varies only from 29 and 1-10th to 30 and 4-10ths in. There are about 50 wet days during the year, chiefly in March, along the coast and on the lesser Atlas. The quantity of rain varies greatly in different years; but, at Algiers, it may average from 27 to 28 inches: little falls during summer. Dews are abundant, and the air on the coast is damp. At the end of 19ecember the trees lose their leaves; but by the middle of February vegetation is again in full activity, and the fruit is ripe in May. — (Shaw, pp. 133–136. ; Rozet, i. pp. 140–149.; D'Avizac, art. “Alger.”) The atmosphere is very clear and the country healthy, excepting in the marshy districts. Geology and Minerals. – The primary rocks consist in part of granite, but chiefly of gneiss and micaceous schist. Travertine is found on the coast; near Oran a greyish quartz, but no volcanic rocks; in the interior a lime formation often alternates with a schistous marl. The secondary deposits consist in many places of a lias formation and calcareous strata, containing few organic and no vegetable remains. At Oran the lime contains bivalve but no univalve shells. The tertiary deposits are mostly calcareous, in the Metidjah of a yellowish grey colour; sometimes a blue clay enclosing a laminary gypsum and a little iron, in other parts sandy and much impregnated with salt. All the chain of Atlas has a tertiary clay deposit. The W. province appears to be the richest in minerals. Salt is extremely abundant, in springs and beds, on both the E. and W. frontiers; near Constantine, the Titteri Dosh mountains, the Melgigg and Shott marshes, &c. The salt pits near Arzew occupy a space of 6 m. circ., forming marshes in winter which dry in summer, when large quantities of salt are collected. Nitre, though not found pure, is very plentiful in the W. province, Getulia, &c. Iron is most abundant. Copper is found in various places; and there are some very rich lead mines, the ore of those of the Wannashrees being said to yield 80 per cent. of pure metal. There are also ño earth, potters' clay, talc, pyrites, &c. Diamonds (verifying what was reckoned the apocryphal statement of Pliny, Hist, Nat...lib. 37. § 4.) have been found in the sands of the Wad-el-Kammel that runs by Constantine, mixed with small quantities of gold dust, silver, tin, and antimony. Saline hot and cold springs are exceedingly abundant, more so, in fact, than those of fresh water. The latter, however, are by no means rare, and may everywhere be found by digging through a crust of flaky soft stone lying at different depths, but near Algiers and Bona immediately below the surface of the ground. - (D’Arizoc, art. “Alger.”) Vegetation in the N. parts of Algiers is nearly the same as in the S. parts of Spain, Provence, Italy, and the rest of the Mediterranean shores. The mountains of the little Atlas are covered with thick forests, in which are found fire different varieties of oak, the Aleppo pine, the wild olive, the shumac tree (Rhus cotinius), with arbutus, cypress, myrtles, &c. S. of the greater Atlas are found the date-bearing palm, and other trees belonging to a warmer climate. Animals. – Lions of great size and strength, panthers, hyaenas, and leopards, inhabit the mountainous recesses of the greater Atlas, but are never seen near Algiers: wild boars, wolves, and jackals are more common, and there are a few ears. Wild cats, monkeys, porcupines, and hedge-hogs are more or less abundant; as well as antelopes and other species of deer, hares, gennets, jerboas, rats, mice, &c. The useful animals are horses, asses, black cattle, sheep, camels, dromedaries, &c. Ostriches are found in the desert on the confines of Morocco; there are also vultures and other large birds of prey; bitterns, curlews, lapwings, plovers, pigeons, and snipes; with great plenty of game and small birds. Some serpents of the Coluber race are met with ; and lizards, chamelions, and other amphibia. Tunny and other sea fish abound on the coasts; ...} perch, eels, &c. are found in the fresh waters, and even in the warm saline streams; conger at the mouths of the rivers; and lobsters and many other crustacea along the shores. Among the insect tribe are scorpions, tarantulas, &c. ocusts seldom commit the same devastations here as in Egypt and Syria. Coral, which is very abundant on the coasts, forms an important article of produce and industry: it is of a larger sort, but less vivid in its colour than that of Sicily. (Rozet, vol. i. p. 218. ; Shaw, p. 192. ; Campbell, Letters from the South.) People. — There are nine distinct races of inhabitants; viz. 1st, Berbers or Kabyles, who, however, call themselves Mazigh (noble) or Mazerg (free); they constitute about half the entire population, and are the lineal descendants of the aboriginal inhabitants of the country. They are principally found in the mountain districts; and their laids are occasionally well cultivated and irrigated. 2d, Biskeris or Mozabs, supposed to be the descendants of the Getulae, living principally S. of the greater Atlas, and comparatively industrious. 3d, Moors; a mixed race, descended from the Mauritanians, Berbers, Carthaginians, Romans, Vandals, and Arabs; they constitute the bulk of the population of the towns and villages. 4th, Arabs, consisting of three tribes: the first, supposed to have descended from the ancient Amalekites, is nearly extinct; the second consists of cultivators of the soil, and is fixed to certain spots; the third, or wandering Arabs, are principally herdsmen and shepherds dwelling in tents. 5th, Negroes, called Abyd (slaves) or Soudan (black); originally brought thither from the interior, and sold as slaves. 6th, Jews, who form a third part of the inhabitants of Algiers, and a fourth part of those of Oran. 7th, Turks, now very few, nor ever very numerous, although long the dominant race: they were a heterogeneous body, composed of genuine Turks, Greeks, Circassians, Albanians, Corsicans, Maltese, and renegades of all nations; mounted, and forming a militia similar to the Mamelukes. On the o of Algiers, in 1830, by the French, the Turks being permitted to withdraw, evacuated the country to the number of about 20,000. 8th, Kolouglis, or descendants of Turks by Moorish mothers; their name literally signifying “sons of soldiers.” Although possessed of influence, they did not formerly enjoy the same rights and consideration as their fathers. 9th, Europeans, who may of course be subdivided into various nations, but are mostly French. Amongst the Kabyles of the Auress are a tribe distinguished by a fair complexion, blue eyes, and light hair, believed to be descendants of the
Vandals. Traces of the Huns, Suevi, and other Gothic nations have been also found. (For further information respecting the different o races, see ARABLA, BARBARY, Morocco,
*—rong from W. to E. a rich champaign country stretches for some distance inland S. of Arzew, bounded towards the sea by steep rocks and precipices; many fertile plains are irrigated by the Sigg river (or Sikk, a drain or trench), its waters being diverted by numerous canals for that purpose. Behind Masagran, and near the Shelliff, as far as the sea, is a tract studded with orchards, gardens, and country houses. The country round Shershell is of the most exuberant fertility, possessing large tracts of arable land, and the mountains covered to their summits with plantations of fruit trees, and af. fording delightful and extensive prospects. The inland parts of the W. province present alternately fertile valleys and high ranges of rocky mountains. “If we conceive,” says Shaw, “a number of hills, usually of the perpendicular height of 400, 500, or 600 yards, with an easy ascent, and several groves of fruit and forest trees rising up in a succession of ranges one behind another, and if to this prospect we here and there add a rocky precipice of a superior eminence and dislicult access, and place upon the side or summit of it a mud-walled Dashkerah, or village of the Kabyles, – we shall then have a just idea of the atlas bounding the Tell.” The verge of the Sahara beyond this presents nothing but scattered villages, and plantations of dates. The plain of Metidjah, adjoining the capital, contains many farms and country houses, producing in perfec. tion flax, henna, roots, pot-herbs, rice, fruit, and corn of all kinds; it is adorned besides with multitudes of oleanders, geraniums, passion flowers, and other luxuriant shrubs. The S. province has the same general character as that of Oran. The Titteri Dosh, 20 m. S. of Medeah, is a towering range of bleak precipices. The Jurjura, S. E. of Algiers, is a similar tract. The spa coast of the E. province as far as the river Zhoore is mountainous, and called by the Arabs El-Adwah (the Lofty); thence to the Seibous it is hilly; and from the latter to the border mostly level, and sometimes covered with forests. Some distance to the S. are the M. Thambes of Ptolemy. The Seibous in some parts wanders through beautiful valleys, clothed with olive trees, lentisks, and a fine lo. The country about the source of the Zenati is broken and irregular, and o to be volcanic; that to the N. and N. W. of Constantine, from which that city is chiefly supplied, is watered by the Rusuli, which is “bordered by a few villas and numerous gardens, rich in every variety of vegetable and fruit trees, with extensive groves of pomegranate, olive, fig, orange, and citron,” and bounded . bold ranges of hills; its fruit is esteemed over the whole province. In the road from Algiers to Constantine, between the plains of Hamza and Majanah, a deep narrow pass, called Beehan (the Gates), which a few men might defend against an army, leads through a mountain ridge; and a little farther E. the road is carried by a dangerous track over the crest of a o, mountain. S. of Seteef are many rich plains. The territory around Tifesh is the most fruitful in Numidia, and the W. province the finest of the regency. The villages of Zaab, are collections of dirty hovels, surrounded by date plantations; Wad-reag, a similar country, has 25 villages. To the W. extends the vast region of Blaid-el-Jerride, “a dry country,” abounding in dates. (Shaw, pp. 14–68. ; Sir
G. Temple, Extracts in the Geograph. Journal, 1838, part ii.) Antiquities. – Most of the cities and towns
bear names little altered from those given them by the Romans. Many ruins remain; those of Tipasa (Tifessad), 13 m. E. of Shershell, stretch for two miles along the coast: on the brink of the Shelliff, in about the same lat., there are several classical remains, Corinthian capitals, &c., probably the ruins of the Colonia Augusta of Pliny. About 14 m. E. of Algiers are the ruins of it curium. At Maliana, N. of the Sheiliff, a stone, inserted in a modern wall, bears an inscription, whence it has been inferred that it was the place where Pompey's grandson, and great
randson were buried. (See Martial, Epig. lib. v.
p. 75.) Near Bona are the ruins of Hippo Rogius, and many towns can boast of ancient relics in tolerable preservation. The province of Constantine especially abounds with them, and with Roman roads; and even the remote district of Wad-reag has numerous remains of Roman masonry. N. the capital is a collection of unhewn stones, somewhat similar to those of Stonehenge, which the French call 1)ruidic, but others believe to be Phoenician. There are few Christian remains, their buildings having been destroyed by the zeal of the Saracens. (Shaw, pp. 21–67. ; Sir G. Temple, Extracts.
Agriculture. — Much of the land is uncultivated and waste; but the fertility for which it was so famous in antiquity – Non quicquid Libvcisterit, Fervens area messibus, –
still continues unimpaired; and requires merely the substitution of regular government for law. less violence, and of industrious colonists for roving herdsmen, to render it once more the granary of Europe. The land in many, parts, owing to the quantity of salt with which it is impregnated, is so rich as to require no manure but burnt weeds. But in a dry climate like this every thing depends on the command of water; and the necessity under which the native inhabitants were placed of providing this indispensable element for their lands, had so far countervailed their indolence and want of science as to make them pretty expert in the art of irrigation. The French were not, at first, sufficiently alive to the vital importance of this; and some of the Arab works for irrigating were in consequence ne# * to the great injury of the province. The land is usually ploughed and sown in October, or (if with barley) in November; by the aid of April rains a good crop is thought secure, and the harvest takes place in the end of May, or the beginning of June, yielding at an average 8 or 12 for 1. The species of corn mostly own are the Triticum durum (hard wheat), and ordeum vulgare (common barley). Maize is not much cultivated, except in the W. province; white millet for fattening cattle is planted there; rice chiefly in the prov. of Oran. Oats not being grown, horses are fed wholly upon barley and straw. The plough used round Algiers is the same as that of Spain and Provence; but in general is not shod with iron. It is drawn by cows and asses, very rarely by horses; yet with such imperfect loughing the crops are generally excellent. hen reaped, the grain is trodden out by cattle or horses; and after being cleaned by throwing it up against the wind, is deposited in subterraneous caves or magazines. The pulse crops are beans, lentils, kidney beans, pease, and garvangos (cicer pea); turnips, carrots, cabbages, &c. are good and plentiful. Endive, cress, spinach, and
artichokes are in season from October to June; after which come calabashes, mallows, tomatas, and water-melons. Potatoes are frequently grown, but do not arrive at a large size, and are of inferior quality. The date is the principal fruit, and is by far the most valuable product of the country S. of the greater Atlas. It is propagated chiefly by young shoots, and yields fruit in its 6th or 7th year; it attains maturity at about its 30th year, and is in full vigour for 60 or 70 more, after which it gradually declines, till it becomes extinct when about 200 years old ! (Shaw, p. 142.) Truly, therefore, might Palladius say, Cui placet curas agere sarculorum de palmis cogitet conserendis. (Oct. 12.) During its maturity it yields annually from 15 to 22 clusters of dates, each weighing from 15 to 20 lbs. The date(cow: ) when it dies is always succeeded by others from shoots or kernels; whence may probably have originated the fable or allegory of the bird Phoenix. The lotus or seedra bears a berry sold all over the S. district. Most of the fruit trees common to Europe are found in Algiers; but the fruits are inferior, excepting nectarines, peaches, and pomegranates; there are no hazel nuts, filberts, strawberries, gooseberries, or currants. – The vine is cultivated with much advantage; the grapes ripen by the end of July, and are eaten both fresh and dry by the natives, who seldom make wine; though this, no doubt, will be attempted, and most likely with success, by the French. Oil of a very inferior quality, and always acrid, is obtained from the olive. Melons and Indian figs are largely grown, and form a considerable part of the food of the Arabs. In some grounds near Algiers the sugar-cane is cultivated. Cotton and indigo have been tried, and the climate suits them well; coffee has also been tried, but is not found to succeed.
Cattle constitute the principal wealth of the natives. Sheep are of two kinds: one small, with a thick large tail; the other of a much larger size, chiefly found in the country of the Melano. Getulae. Sheep of the fine Tunisian breed are not met with. Goats pretty abundant; pigs few, round-bodied, short-legged, and generally black Cattle usually black; their milk is inferior to that of European cattle; that of sheep and goats is mostly used in the making of cheese, butter, &c. The Arabs seldom diminish their flocks by killing them for food, but live on their milk, wool, &c.; no animals are castrated. The common beasts of burthen are camels, dromedaries, asses, and mules. Dr. Shaw speaks of a singular cross breed between an ass and a cow, called kumrah, having a sleeker skin than its sire, no horns, but the dam's head and tail: but Rozet says that he had not been able to find any trace of any such animal. Horses are not of the pure Arabbreed, nor altogether well shaped, being lanky and round-shouldered ; head small, and not ill formed; ears erect; and they are hardy, fleet, spirited, and docile: those of Oran are accounted the best. They are used only for riding, and like the camels are reared and live in the tents with their owners. (Shaw, pp. 2–65. 166–170.; Rozet, pp. 204–261.; Campbell's Letters from S.
Trades and Manufactures. – Almost all the trades of Europe are followed in the towns; but conducted in a very inferior manner, as well because of the indolence as of the ignorance of the natives. The Jews are the most industrious, and monopolise the greater part of the external trade, with the higher branches of art, being the chief jewellers, watchmakers, tailors, &c. #. Arabs are merchants, tanners, and carpenters; the Neoes masons, bricklayers, and other artificers; the
abyles extract iron, lead, and copper from their mountains, and manufacture gunpowder, said to be superior to that made at Algiers. The chief manufactures are coarse linen, woollen, and silk stuffs, the first two forming the greater part of the dress of the population, leather saddles, bridles, carpets, fire-arms, steel and other metal articles, pottery, gunpowder, but very inferior to that of 2urope. Women only are employed in the linen and coarse woollen manufactures, as well as in the slavish occupation of grinding corn. European goods are much in request, and are bartered in the S. for gold dust, ostrich feathers, &c.
Trade. — Previously to the occupation of Algiers by the French, the established rates of duty were 5 and 10 per cent. on imported articles, according to the stipulations in the treaties with the countries of which they were the produce. But these general rules were so disregarded in practice; and, in point of fact, little or no trade could be carried on, except by those who obtained licences to that effect from government, which were either sold to the highest bidder, or to those who had most interest with the Divan.
Such is the inexhaustible fertility of the soil, that notwithstanding the low state of agriculture, corn and animal products have always formed a principal part of the exports; and Marseilles and other towns in the S. of France, with Genoa, &c. in Italy, used to derive a considerable part of their supplies of corn and butcher's meat from Algiers. Exclusive of these, the principal articles of export were coral, hides, wool, wax, oil, leather, gums, ostlich feathers, dates, kermes, &c. But since the occupation of Algiers by the French, the exportation of corn has in the meantime almost ... ceased; and besides the supplies obtained in the country large quantities have been imported for the use of the French troops.
The other principal articles of importation are cotton, woollen, silk, and linen stuffs, but particularly the first; wines and spirits; sugar and coffee; arms, hardware and cutlery, &c. Subjoined is an account of the value of the imports and exports since 1831 : —
It is supposed that of the imports, in 1837, about one third part were on account of the army. No duties are charged on French commodities, nor on foreign commodities required for the subsistence of the inhabitants, or to be used in agriculture or building. On other articles the duties vary from a fifth to a fourth part of those in the French tariff; articles prohibited in France are charged with an ad valorem duty of 15 per cent. A tonnage duty of 2 fr. is charged on foreign ships. The increase of shipping has been quite equal to the increase of trade; and the proportion of both in the hands of the French is rapidly in. creasing. A regular intercourse is kept up by means of steam packets between Marseilles and Algiers. he barbarians by whom this fine country has been so long laid waste, while they neglected all the old Roman roads, constructed none themselves; so that the communication between different parts was very difficult, and produce could only be conveyed on the backs of mules and ca
French money is now, however, in frequent use, and Spanish dollars worth about 31. 4d. Revenues. – It is impossible precisely to ascertain the amount of revenue at the disposal of the dey of Algiers previously to the French conquest; but it would seem, according to the best attainable information, that it may be fairly estimated at about 3,000,000 fr., or 120,000l., including therein 550,000 fr., or 22,000l. of tribute paid by Naples, Portugal, &c. for exemption from piracy; but it is probable that the taxes paid by the people amounted to at least three or four times as much. The taxes were of various kinds: the principal was the tithe (aschr) of all crops; and there were also poll taxes on the Jews, with taxes Gn professions, trades, &c.; and the government derived a considerable sum from the monopoly of wool, leather, salt, and wax. These taxes have been partly retained by the French; but the more oppressive, with the monopolies, have been abolished. A considerable revenue has been latterly derived from the sale of the public lands and other . belonging to the state, which are o to be extensively purchased and occupied by Europeans. The revenue, which in 1832 amounted to only 1,400,416 fr., had increased in 1837 to 3,039,775 fr. But notwithstanding this increase, the occupation and defence of the Algerine territory entail on France a heavy annual expenditure; and oecasioned, for a while, considerable doubts as to the policy of her continuing to hold the country. (Tableau, &c. p. 383, §§ The tribute of the Arabs was better collected by the Turks than . have been expected; but it was otherwise with the Kabyles. No sooner had the latter got intimation of the approach of Turkish troops to enforce payment than they hastily decamped, carrying with them their cattle and families to fastnesses in the mountains; so that the tribute was seldom paid, unless the dey's troops succeeded in capturing some stragglers from the main body, or some stray cattle, which were usually ransomed. The Coral Fishery is prosecuted from the middle of April till the end of July. Ten years .# generally allowed for the growth of the coral, different spots are annually chosen for the fishery. Foreigners are allowed to fish on paying a rent to government. In 1836 there were 245 boats engaged in the fishery, principally at Bona, the revenue accruing on which to the French was 242,222 fr. (10,084.) The value of the coral exported in 1837 was 1,163,513 fr. (Tableau, §c. pp. 337. 353.) The Government is at present administered by the commander-in-chief of the French forces in Algiers, who is governor-general, and responsible to the French cabinet; there is besides a civil intendant. Previously to 1830 the government was vested in a dey, or pacha, being the officer at the head of the Turkish soldiery in the regency. This officer, who exercised absolute power, was appointed for life, but was rarely permitted to die in office. He was chosen out of, or rather rose from, the army; and in the words of Dr. Shaw, “any bold and aspiring soldier, though taken yesterday from the plough, might be con...}. heir apparent to the throne; and with this farther advantage, that he lay under no necessity to wait till sickness or old age had removed the present ruler; it was enough if he could protect himself with the same scimitar which he had the hardihood to sheathe in the breast of his redecessor.” (Shaw, p. 248.) The dey notified is accession by an embassy to the grand seignior; by whom it was uniformly confirmed. But he did this merely as an act of deference to the sultan as the chief of Islamism, and not as recognizing in him any real supremacy. The dey received no orders from the Porte; but acted, in all respects, as an independent prince. He presided in the Divan, Dowanee, or council of state, consisting of sixty old officers and other high functionaries, and which nominally formed the government; but though formally convened every Saturday, this body did little but agree to the measures previously decided upon by the dey and his favourites. heir ordinances began with “We superior and inferior members of the mighty and invincible militia of Algiers, and of the whole regency, have hereby resolved,” &c. Each of the three provinces, exclusive of Algiers, into which the regency was divided, was governed by a bey, nominated by the dey, and responsible to him. Except in the towns, where they were absolute masters, and in their immediate vicinity, the Turks had but a very limited authority over the rural population. F. Arabs and Kabyles af. fected an almost entire independence, obeying only their sheikhs, and frequently committing hostilities on each other. This state of things has hitherto been but little changed under the French; and it is easy to see that the growth of a regular and efficient system of government can only be gradual, and must principally depend on the spread of agriculture, or on the more extensive occupation of the country by a settled population. Military and Naval Force. — Under the Turks the dey maintained about 10,000 regular infantry and 6,000 cavalry; but in case of need he could bring into the field a considerable body of irregular troops, bound to serve, like the European forces of the middle ages, for a certain number of days at their own cost. The cavalry was recruited chiefly among the Arabs and Berbers. The naval force, so long an object of terror to the Christian powers, was never very formidable. In 1816, when it was nearly annihilated by Lord Exmouth, it consisted of 4 frigates of from 40 to 50 guns, 1 of 38 guns, 4 corvettes, 12 brigs and goelettes, and 30 gun-boats. In 1824 their corsairs had again begun to infest the seas; and in 1830, on the capture of Algiers, the French found a large frigate in dock, and two others in the port, 2 corvettes, 8 or 10 brigs, several xebecks, and 33 gun-boats. (Rozet, iii. pp. 362–380.) The French troops in Algiers in 1837 amounted to 35,474, exclusive of nearly 6,000 native troops. This, however, was a much larger force than had been embodied in any previous year; though, considering the extent of the country and the predatory warlike habits of the natives, it does not appear likely that it can be advantageously reduced. Justice has been continued by the French, except in political cases, much on the same footing as under the Turkish dominion; being administered by the rabbins amongst the Jews,
and by cadis and other officers, according to the Mussulman law, among the Turks, Moors, Arabs, &c. In Algiers, questions among Europeans are decided by a civil court, and a correctional and criminal court. . The civil court finally decides upon all cases in which the sum in dispute is under 12,000 fr.; when the sum exceeds this limit, an appeal may be made to the royal court of Aix in France. At Oran and Bona there are French judges, who decide cases under appeal to the courts of Algiers. In their procedure no departure from the French code is permitted. Ireligion. — That of the French, and consequently now of the state, is Roman Catholic; but the great bulk of the people profess Mohammedanism. The Negroes, howcver, are mostly addicted to feticism; and the creed of the Berbers is scarcely known, as they suffer no strangers to witness their rites: they pay great reverence to their marabouts or mourabeys, persons who practise a rigid and austere life, and who sometimes affect to perform miracles. They regard them as inspired, and honour their tombs. This custom has crept in amongst the Jews, who venerate the sepulchres of their rabbins, and convert them into synagogues. Since the French occupation a good many mosques have been converted into Christian churches. Morals are at an extremely low ebb; the inhabitants, particularly the Moors, being in eneral grossly sensual, debauched, and corrupt. 'ublic.women are numerous, and syphilitic diseases common, and endemic. Drunkenness is not very frequent amongst the natives; but the French have lost 3,000 men annually from excess. Public Instruction. — The Moors and other inhabitants of the towns can for the most part read the Koran and write, which, however, comprise the whole of their instruction ; few understandarithmetic, or go beyond the first two rules; and this limited instruction, it will be observed, is enjoyed by the male sex only, women being brought up in the most complete state of ignorance. The Moors often transact business by placing their fingers on different parts of each other's hands, without speaking; each singer and joint denoting a different number. Few books except the Koran, and some encomiastic commentaries upon it, are ever seen or sought after. The education of children in the Koran goes on for three or four years, when their tuition ceases. The French have established schools of mutual instruction in all the so towns, which are chiefly superintended by Jews, and tolerably well attended. In 1837, there were 1202 pupils at the French schools in Algiers, Oran, Bona, &c.; out of these no fewer than 885 were Europeans, who were mostly instructed in Arabic. The native schools in Algiers were attended by 695 pupils, of whom more than a half were Moors, and the rest Jews. Hitherto very little progress seems to have been made in diffusing a knowledge of French among the Arabic population. (Tableau de la Situation, &c. p. 254.) Arts and Sciences. – The Arabs of Algiers, though descended from the people who gave algebra to Europe, and preserved medicine during the dark ages, have no notion either of arithmetic, or of the correct measurement of time or distance. Their medicine, too, is in the rudest state, and few diseases occur that do not, under their treatment, become either chronic or mortal. Their remedies consist chiefly of superstitious practices, as pilgrimages, &c.; or inert decoctions, as that of mallows. They are accustomed, in cases of rheumatism and pleurisy, to