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land, co. Dumbarton, 13 m. E. Glasgow, on the highway leading from that city to Falkirk, Stirling, &c. Pop., 1821, 950; 1831, 1,400; and it is supposed to have increased still more rapidly since last census. The chief employment of the people is cotton weaving, there being above 560 looms in the parish, of which nearly 400 belong to the town. The average, weekly earnings of the weavers is stated (1839) by the minister of the parish “not to exceed 5s. or 6s. clear.” (New Statist. Acc. of Scotland, part xxii.) The Forth and Clyde canal runs within a 3 m. of the town; and the Edinburgh and Glasgow railroad, now being made, will run still nearer it; so that its means of communication will be of the very best description. It was erected into a burgh of barony in 1649; and has for five centuries been the proerty of the eminent family of Fleming, whose seat is in ts immediate vicinity. There is no poor-rate either in the town or parish. It has a parish church, two dissenting chapels, and a good subscription library. CUMNOCK, or OLD CUMNOCK, a village of Scotland, co. Ayr, on the Lugar water, 12 m., E. Ayr. Pop. about 1,200. This place has been famous for above 30 years for the beautiful and ingenious manufacture of what are known by the name of Cumnock, or Lawrencekirk, snuff-boxes. This manufacture (to use the words of the New Statist. Acc. of Scotland, art. Old Cumnnock) rose from a very small and rude beginning to its present state of perfection. An ingenious artist of the name of Crawford caught the first idea of them from a box made at Lawrencekirk (where they were first made), which had been sent him to repair. The distinguishing excellence of the Cumnock snuff-boxes lies in the hinge, which is both extremely ingenious in point of contrivance and delicate in point of execution; so that it is, with much propriety, styled the “invisible, wooden hinge.” The wood used in the manufacture is plane, by reason of its peculiarly close texture. One set of artists make the boxes; another set paint those beautiful designs that embellish the lids; while women and children are employed in varnishing and polishing. The process, of varnishing a single box takes from three to six weeks. Spirit varnish takes three weeks, and requires about 30 coats; while copal varnish, which is now mostly used, takes six weeks, and requires about 15 coats to complete the process. When the process of varnishing is finished. the surface is polished with ground flint ; and then the box is ready for the market. The principle on which the hinge is formed, as well as the instruments o: in making it, were for many years kept secret. Hence the price of a box, owing to want of competition, was exorbitantly high, being about 20 times its present price, now that the secret has been disclosed, and competition allowed freely to operate; in other words, a box may now be got for 15d. or 18d., which formerly cost 25s. or 30s. : These ingenious specimens of art have been brought to the highest degree of perfection, particularly so far as the variety and exquisite finish of the painting are concerned. The yearly value of the boxes made in Cumnock may, at wholesale price, average about 1,600!. sterling. (Ib.) The total number of persons employed in the manufacture is about 50 ; and the aggregate number of boxes annually produced is between 25,000 and 35,000. The manufacture prevails to a similar extent in the neighbouring village of Mauchline, as also, to a less degree, in Lawrencekirk, Montrose, and one or two other laces. (Pide ut suprā, compared with the art. Snuffores, in Conn. Dict.) CUPAR-ANGUS, a burgh of barony of Scotland, partly in co. Perth, and partly in Angus, on the Isla, a tributary of the Tay, on the high road between Perth and Aberdeen, about 124 m. from the former. Pop. 2,000. It is neatly built, well paved, and lighted; has a townhouse and jail, an elegant parish church, two chapels belonging to Presbyterian dissenters, and an Episcopal chapel; a weekly cattle-market, and five annual fairs. The town enjoys its share of the weaving of the coarser kinds of linen fabrics, for the manufacture of which the various towns and villages of Angus are distinguished. The webs are generally obtained from Dundee. It has also extensive bleach-fields and tan-pits; but weaving is the staple §o. of the place. CUPAR-FIFE (so called to distinguish it from Cupar. Angus), a royal and parl. bor. of Scotland, co. Fife, of which it is the cap., 25 feet above the level of the sea, in the centre of the Howe of Fife, and on the l. bank of the Eden, 10 m. W. St. Andrew's. Pop. 6,473. Though ancient, Cupar has at present all the characteristic apearances |, modern town. The streets seem as if they ad been recently built; and are wide, well built, lighted with gas, and partially paved. ...The county-hall is a handsome modern structure. Manufactures, too, for which the water of the Eden affords great facilities, have been introduced : there are three spinning-mills, of which two are employed in spinning flax, and one in spinning thread; the aggregate number of hands enin them is 236. ; the manufacture of the coarser fabrics of linen form the staple trade of the

town. There are 10 master linen manufacturers, and 600 weavers; and as every two weavers, require one to wind for them, 900 persons are constantly employed, all of them living in their own houses, and labouring in their own workshops, either in the town or its vicinity. (New Stat. Acc. of Scotland.) There are corn, barley, and flour mills, reckoned the best in the co., a snuff-mili which manufactures 60,000 lbs. of snuff a year, a washing or fulling mill, a glue manufactory, three breweries, two tan-works, a tile and brick work, at which coarse earthenware is made, and a rope-work. Cupar has long had a flourishing joint-stock academy, with numerous other schools; and the bequest by Dr. Bell of 10,000l., for educational purposes according to the Madras system, has recently become available. As the seat of the co. courts, it has no fewer than 30 legal practitioners, exclusive of clerks. There are two reading-rooms and a subscription library, containing 4,000 volumes. The only newspapers (two in number) published in the co., belong to Cupar. It has long been eminent in the typographical art; the beautiful and accurate editions of Virgil, Horace, and other classics, superintended by Dr. Hunter of St. Andrews, having been printed here by the late Mr. Tullis. Besides the par. church, there are four Presbyterian dissenting chapels, one Episcopal, and one Glassite chapel. There is a savings bank, and poor-rates are unknown. Cupar is associated with St. Andrew's, the two Anstruthers, Crail, Kilrenny, and Pittenweem, in returning a mem. to the H. of C. Registered electors in 1839, 333. Municipal do., 259. Corporation revenue, 221/. 5s. It is overned by a provost, 3 bailies, and 23 counsellors. upar was a royal bor. so far back, at least, as the reign of David II. On a mound at the E. end of the town, called the Castle-hill, formerly stood a castellated fortress, the chief residence of the family of Macduff, the feudal thanes or earls of Fife. At the foot of this mound was a convent of dominican or black friars, founded by the Macduffs, and afterwards annexed to St. Monance in the same co. (Keith's Scot. Bishops, ed. 1824, p. 445.); but of these two buildings no traces are now extant. The patrimonial estate of the famous Scottish poet, Sir David Lindsay of the Mount, was within a short distance of Cupar; and on a verdant esplanade, still called the Play Field, in front of Macduff Castle, was acted, in 1555, his witty drama of the Three Estates, a popular satire on the priesthood, and which is thought to have had no mean effect in hastening the Reformation. ) (Ib., Boundary Returns, and Chambers's Gazeteer. CUIt ACOA or CURA SSAO, an isl. in the Caribbean Sea, belonging to the Dutch, off the N. coast of Venezuela, between lat. 120 and 1291.3' N., and long. 68° 44' and 690 13' W. Length, N.W. to S. E., about 43 m. ; average breadth about 14 m. ; area, 600 sq. m. Pop. in 1815 nearly 13,000; of whom 6,000 were slaves, 4,000 free-coloured, and 2,780 whites. Its shores are bold, and its interior is in parts hilly. It has several harbours, the chief of which is that of Santa Anna, in the S.W., where its principal town is built. The soil is in general poor and ...!. and there is a great deficiency of water; but by the industry of the inhab., some tobacco, sugar in considerable quantities, indigo, &c., are grown ; and a good deal of salt is obtained from the marshes. Maize, cassava, figs, oranges, citrons, and most European culinary vegetables are cultivated ; but provisions are not produced on the island in sufficient o for its inhab. Curaçoa was formerly noted for its contraband trade; but since the independence of S. America, this has greatly diminish The government is conducted } a stadtholder, assisted by a civil and military council. Wilhelmstadt, the cap. and seat of government, is one of the neatest cities in the W. Indies; its public buildings are magnificent, the private houses commodious, and the clean streets remind the traveller of those in the Dutch towns. The port of Curaçoa has a narrow entrance, but is large and safe. It is protected by the fort of Amsterdam and other batteries; but was taken by a squadron of four Fnglish frigates in 1807. Two smaller islands, one on either side, Buen Ayre and Oruba, also belong to the Dutch. Their inhab. are co, cattle-breeders. CUSTRIN or KUSTRIN, a strongly fortified town of the Prussian states, prov. Brandenburg, on the Oder, where it is joined by the Warta, 52 m. E. Berlin. Pop. 5,840. The Oder is here crossed by a bridge nearly 900 st. in length, uniting the citadel with the town ; being surrounded by marshes, it is strong as well by nature as by art. The Russians burnt the town (without, however, taking the fort) in 1758. It was soon after rebuilt on a greatly improved plan. The fortifications have been much o since the peace of 1815. CUTCH-GUNDAVA, an inl. prov. of Beloochistan, differing in some important respects from all the others, o; by far the most valuable portion of that country, and its only prov. E. the Brahooick Mountains. It lies between lat. 27° 40' and 29° 15' N., and long. 67° 20' and 60° 30' E. Length N. to S, about 120 m, ; breadth of its habitable and fertile part a little more than 60 m. ; hav. ing N. Sewestan (Caubul), E. and S. Sinde, and W. the rov. Thalawan. It is for the most part a plain, bounded y deserts on the N. S. and E.; and watered by several rivulets communicating by numerous aqueducts. Soil rich and loamy, and so exceedingly productive that it is said, were it all cultivated, the crops would be more than sufficient to supply all Beloochistan; as it is, considerable quantities of grain, besides cotton, indigo, and oil, are exported. It is alleged, but !o. foundation, that rice will not grow in Cutch Gundava, notwithstanding the luxuriance of all other crops, and the plentiful supply of water. Climate oppressively hot throughout the summer, when the simoom is frequently experienced ; during winter it is so mild that the chiefs and principal inhabitants of the adjoining W. provinces resort thither. The bulk of the pop. are Juts; there are a few Hindoos in the towns and villages, who live by barter, transporting grain, &c. Villages extremely numerous. The chief towns are Gundava, the cap., }. Bhag, and Lheree. (Pottinger's Travels in Belowchistan, i. 308. 311–321. 325. 326. &c.) CUTTACK, a large marit. distr. of Hindostan, prov. Orissa, presid. Bengal, between lat. 19° 30', and 21° 40' N., and long. 84° 30' and 87° E.; having N. the distr. Midnapore and the Berar ceded districts, W. the latter, S. Ganjam, and E. the Bay of Bengal. Area 9,000 sq. m. Pop. 1,984,600. It consists of three different tracts of country, — the marshy coast, the dry central region, and the hilly country to the W. . The latter abounds with trees, valuable either for cabinet-work, dyeing, or varnish-making. Rivers numerous; the chief are the Mahanuddy, Brahminy, Coyle, and Subunreeka ; all these are of considerable size, and even the minor streams swell, during the rains, to an enormous magnitude, rendering the construction of extensive and solid embankments necessary in many parts of the distr., The periodical rains are not so early here as in Bengal ; the summer heats are very oppressive, and the forests of Cuttack are generally highly insalubrious. They are also much infested with ferocious wild animals, o leopards; and reptiles, many of which are venomous..., Rice of different qualities, wheat and maize, in the hilly tracts, the sugar-cane, pulse, aromatic roots, spices, and dyeingdrugs, are the chief articles of culture. Several kinds of granite, slate, and iron ore are found, and gold dust in the beds of the mountain torrents. The land is not assessed under the permanent settlement, as is the case in the adjoining prov. of Bengal ; but an agreement is usually made to: the government and the landholders for a certain term, the amount of the land-tax being by no means fixed. A considerable proportion of the territory in the W. or mountainous region, is in the r ion of a ber of nearly independent zemindars, each of whom maintains a kind of sovereign state, and pays but a light tribute. A more valuable source of revenue to th government than the land-tax has been the o of salt, much of which, remarkable for whiteness and purity, is made on the coast of this district: The chief towns are Cuttack the cap., Balasore, and Juggernaut, the seat of the celebrated temple of that name. (See JUGGerNAut.) Cuttack was acquired by the British, on the expulsion of the Mahrattas, and the reduction of the Juggernaut rajah in 1803-4. . In 1817, the too rapid introduction of the revenue, and judicial systems established in Bengal, amongst the rude and barbarous inhabitants of Cuttack, together with the evils of over-assessment and mismanagement, excited a rebellion in this distr., which was subdued in the ensuing year, but at the expense of much treasure, and the loss of many lives. (Hamilton's E. H. Gaz. i. 469—472. ; Parl, Reports, &c., Revenue Section.) UTTAck (Catak, a royal residence), a town of Hindostan, cap. of the above distr., seat of its principal judicial court, &c., on the Mahanuddy, and in the rainy season insulated by two of its branches, 220 m. S.W. Calcutta; lat. 20927° N., long. 86° 5' E. Pop., a few years since, 40,000. Its principal street is well built, and it has many houses two and #: stories high, a spacious marketplace, #. handsome Mohammedan structures, and some military cantonments. The dwellings of the civil establishment are dispersed over the environs. This town is secured from inundation by large and solid embankments along the river: the value of these was sufficiently proved in 1817, when during the heavy rains the waters of the river rose in one night 18 ft., or 6 ft. above the general level of the town, which was only preserved by their means. Cuttack is said to have been a capital as early as the 10th century. (Hamilton, i. 472.) {{o VEN, a sea-port town of N. Germany, immediately within the aestuary of the Elbe, on its S.W. side, in a detached portion of o to Hamburgh, from which it is distant 55 m. W.N.W.; lat. 53° 52'21” N., long. 8° 43' E. It has about 100 houses, and 800 inhab., a good harbour, with deep water, a lighthouse, and is a quarantine station. It was formerly the rendezvous of most passengers to and from England and the

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Elbe: but since the establishment of steam-packets, they are conveyed direct to and from Hamburgh. Vessels entering the Elbe generally heave to opposite Cuxhaven for pilots, § whom it is mostly inhabited. In summer it is resorted to by sea-bathers. CUZCO, an inland city of Peru, formerly the cap. of the empire of the incas, at the foot of some #. having an extensive valley opening to the S.E., said by Mr. Pentland to be 11,380 ft. above the level of the sea, about 400 m. E.S.E. Lima ; lat. 13° 30' 55° S., long. 72° 4’ 10” W. Pop., unknown, but estimated in 1825 at 40,000, mostly Indians. The cathedral and convent of St. Augustine are said to rank amongst the finest religious edifices in the New World ; and it had a few years ago 6 churches, 8 convents, besides that of St. Augustine, 4 well-endowed hospitals, 3 monasteries, a university, and 3 collegiate schools. But Cuzco derives most part of its interest from the historical associations connected with it, and from its remains of the architecture of the incas. In fact, great numbers of the private houses belong to that aera ; and by the size of the stones, and the fineness and peculiarity of the buildings, give to the city a venerable imposing air. The Dominican convent, a magnificent structure, is raised on walls that formed part of the famous temple of the sun destroyed by the fanatical zeal of the Spaniards. Ulloa says that the high altar stands on the very spot formerly o by the golden image of the sun. Upon a hill to the N. of the city are the ruins of a very extensive fortress, the work of the incas, the walls of which are of the species named Cyclopean, and have a striking analogy to the so-called structures found in various parts of Greece, Italy, &c. Some of the stones, which are all of angular shapes, are of such an enor. mous size, that their weight is said to exceed 150 tons ! and, though no cement be used in the building, they are so admirably jointed and fitted together that the interstices are hardly perceptible. It is very difficult to ima#. how such vast blocks could have been conveyed rom the quarries and placed on the walls without the aid of powerful machinery. . In the plain to the S. of the city are extensive remains of ancient edifices in the same style; and it is said by Alcedo that a subterranean passage led from the palace of the incas to the fortress, and that a road was constructed from the city to I.ima. The inhab. have been described as industrious, and as excelling in embroidery, painting, and sculpture. There are manufactures of cotton, linen, and woollen stuffs, and of leather and parchment. A considerable trade is carried on in these and in the products of the adjacent district. But despite all this, the markets are said by General Miller to be “very ill supplied.” Cuzco is the most ancient of the reruvian cities; its origin dating from the aera of Manco Capac, the sounder of the empire of the incas, probably in the 12th century. Pizarro took possession of it in 1554; and was .# after besieged in it by the whole Peruvian force. During this siege a great part of the town was destroyed. (Modern Traveller, xxviii. 289. ; Ulloa, Voyage de l'Amerique, i. 507. ; Geogr. Journ. viii. 427.) CYPRUS, a famous and considerable island, in the N.E., angle of the Mediterranean, between Asia Minor and Syria, at present belonging to E pt. 44 m. S. Cape Anamour in the former, 65 no Latakia in the latter, and 330 m. E. Crete; between lat. 349 34” and 35°42' N., and long. 32° 18' and 34° 37' E. Shape somewhat oval, with a considerable promontory projecting E.N.E. from the main body of the island: greatest length, 132 m. ; average breadth from 30 to 35 m. Pop. estimated at 70,000, of whom 40,000 are Greeks. It is intersected lengthways, or from E. to W., by a range of mountains, the highest point of which, St. ë. (an. M. Olympus), is about 15 m. S. Nicosia. The principal river Pedia (an. Pedarus) consists of two main branches; it flows E. through the centre of the island, having its embouchure near the ruins of Constantia, on the E. coast; but this, like most of the other rivers, is but of limited dimensions, and is nearly dried up in summer. Cyprus is also otherwise ill supplied with water, that obtained from most of the wells being brackish. The principal plains lie along the banks of the Pedia, and the S. coast of the island. The climate differs in different parts: along the N. shore it is comparatively ‘..". the winds coming from the cold mountainous districts of Asia Minor, temper the heat in summer, and in winter produce P.": colds on the mountains, which are covered with snow for several months. But it is otherwise in the plains along the S. and E. coasts: these consist, for the most part, of a whitish soil which has an offensive glare, and being defended from the N. and N.W. winds by the mountains, at the same time that they are exposed to the full sweep of the E., S. E., and S. winds from the Syrian, Arabian, and Lybian deserts, they have a higher temperature than any other place in the Levant. During the summer heats malaria is frequently generated ; and long droughts, combined with the want of industry, and the neglect of irrigation, not unfrequently destroy

the crops. The soil is naturally ruitful and, in anti-
quity, Cyprus was famous for its fertility, and the va-
riety and excellence of its products. Even now, though
only a very small portion of the land be cultivated, and
that in the most wretched manner, the merchants of
Larnica annually export several cargoes of excellent
wheat to Spain and Portugal. The best, as well as
the most agreeable parts of the island are in the vi-
cinity of Cerina and Baffa, the ancient Paphos. (See
BAFFA.)
Cotton, of a superior quality, is produced in trifling
quantities; but under the Venetians, the island annually
exported about 30,000 bales. It then also exported con-
siderable quantities of sugar, produced from plantitions
of canes in the vicinity of Limasol and Baffa. There
are extensive forests of oak, beech, and pines; groves
of olives and plantations of mulberries. It is remarkable
for the fineness of its fruits, and its rich sweet wine,
oil, and silk. The latter is of two kinds, yellow and
white, but the former is preferred. The wheat, is of
a superior quality, affording excellent bread; and rice,
madder, o an endless variety of other valuable pro-
ducts, might be cultivated in several parts of the island.
The wines of Cyprus, particularly those produced
from the vineyard called the Commandery, from its
having belonged to the knights of Malta, were formerly
more highly prized for desserts than even those of
Crete. In the earlier part of last century, the total
roduce of the vintage was supposed to amount to above
,000,000 gallons, of which nearly half was exported ;
but now, the wine grown and exported does not amount
to a tenth part of these quantities: “ Perhaps,” says
Dr. Clarke, “there is no part of the world where the
vine yields such redundant and luscious fruit: the juice
of the Cyprian grape resembles a concentrated essence.
The wine of the island is famous all over the Levant.
Englishmen, however, do not consider it as a favourite
beverage; it requires nearly a century of age to de-
prive it of that sickly sweetness which renders it re-
Fo to their palates. Its powerful so quality
also not likely to recommend it. When it has re-
mained in bottles for 10 or 12 years, it acquires a slight
degree of fermentation upon exposure to the air ; and
this, added to its sweetness and high colour, causes it
to resemble Tokay more than any other wine. . It will
keep in casks, to which the air has access; for any
number of years. If the inhabitants were industrious,
and capable of turning their vintage to the best account,
the red wine of the island might be rendered as famous
as the white, and, perhaps, better suited for exportation.”
(Travels, iv. 19.)
But the brutal despotism under which it has groaned
for centuries, has depopulated the island, and rendered
the few inhabitants, it now contains, remarkable only
for indigence, sloth, and apathy. . In antiquity, , the
*}} o fell little short of 1,000,000; and in
571, when it was conquered the Turks, it had
a pop. of about 400,000, or nearly six times its pre-
sent amount. No where, indeed, as Mr. Kinneir has
truly stated, is the baleful influence of the Ottoman
dominion more conspicuous than in Cyprus, where
it has literally turned cities into miserable villages,
and cultivated fields into arid deserts. In describing
his journey from Larnica to Nicosia, Dr. Clarke ob-
serves: “ The soil every where exhibited a white
marly clay, said to be exceedingly rich in its nature,
although neglected. The Greeks are so oppressed by
their Turkish masters, that they dare not, cultivate
the land: the harvest would instantly be taken from
them if they did. Their whole aim seems to be to
scrape together sufficient, in the course of the year, to
pay their tax to the governor. The omission of this is
unished by torture or by death ; and in cases of their
nability to supply the impost, the inhab. fly from the
island. So many emigrations of this sort happen dur-
ing the year, that the pop. of all Cyprus scarcely exceeds
60,000 persons, a number formerly insufficient to have
peopled one of its many cities. The governor resides
at Nicosia. His appointment is annual, and as it is ob-
tained by purchase, the highest bidder succeeds; each
striving, after his arrival, to surpass his predecessor in
the enormity of his exactions. From this terrible op-
ression, the consuls and a few other families are free,
n consequence of a protection granted by their respec-
tive nations.” (Travels, iv. 55.; see also to the same
effect, Walpole's Travels, ii. 21.)
Mr. Kinneir states, that “ the governor and the
archbishop deal more largely in corn than all the other
people of the island put together: they frequently sieze
upon the whole yearly produce, at their own valuation,
and either export or retail it at an advanced price; nay,
it happened more than once, during the war in Spain,
that the whole of the corn was purchased in this man-
ner by the merchants of Malta, and exported without
leaving the lower orders a morsel of bread.” (pp.
182, 183.) We have seen no very recent accounts of the
condition of Cyprus, under the rule of Miehemet Ali ;

but, unless the pacha have established a different government in it from what he has established in Egypt, une miserable inhabitants have gained little by the change.

...] and cattle are bred in considerable numbers. There is abundance of game, such as partridges, quails, woodcocks, and snipes; there are no wild quadrupeds, excepting foxes and hares, but many kinds of serpents, and the tarantula. Clouds of locusts sometimes devastate the country. The ancient mines of Cyprus, now wholly neglected, afforded large quantities of the finest copper (AEs Cyprium), whence, though that be very doubtful, the name of the island has been supposed to be derived : it is also said to contain ores of gold, silver, and other metals, and has a species of rock-crystal called Paphos diamond. Amianthus or asbestos of a very superior quality is found near Baffa ; it is flexible as silk, white, and more delicately fibrous than that of any other o Mariti states that a village, called Amianthus, existed in Cyprus in his time; and it was most probably the spot where the amianthus, or incombustible cloth, used by the ancients to wrap up the bodies of distinguished persons when laid on the funeral pile, was principally produced. (Travels, i. 177.) Salt is obtained by evaporation at various places on the S. coast. The inhab, manufacture small carpets, some silk and cotton fabrics, and excellent Turkey leather. Under the Turks this island was divided into three sanjiacks – those of Bassa, Cerina, and Nicosia. Nicosia, in the centre of the island, is the of; The other principal towns are Larnica, on the site of the ancient Citium, ! masol, Famagusta on the E., Cerina (an. Cerinia) on the N., and Baffa (Paphos) on the W. coast. Even the ruins of most of the ancient cities mentioned by Strabo have disappeared; but at Constantia, near Famagusta, Kinneir traced the circ; of the ancient walls, and the foundations of some buildings; and at Larnica medals and other antiquities are frequently dug up. The remains of a monastery, built by a princess of the house of Lusignan, stand about 4 m. S.E. Cerina. Cyprus was originally peopled by the Phoenicians. It was colonised by the Greeks, and successively possessed by the Egyptians, Persians, Greeks, and Romans. In antiquity, it was as famous for the worship of Venus as ... for that of Apollo and Diana. This, in fact, was the favourite seat of the goddess, “diva potens Cypri.” Divine honours are supposed to have {. first paid to her at Paphos (see BAFFA), where she had a magnificent temple—

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Hence the epithets Cyprian, Paphian, Idalian, &c., ap-
plied to Venus. It is alleged that the ladies of the island
i. still devotedly attached to the worship of the god-
ess.
After the fall of the western empire, Cyprus formed
part of the Byzantine empire, from which it was taken
by the Saracens, Isaac, a prince of the Comneni family,
having usurped the sovereignty, was dethroned, in 1191, by
Richard I., king of England. The latter having con-
ferred the island on Guy de Lusignan, to indemnisy him
for the loss of Jerusalem, it continued in possession of
his family for three centuries, or till 1480, when, on de-
fault of heirs, it fell to the Venetians. The Turks took
it from them in 1571. Bregadino, the gallant defender
of Famagusta, after exhausting every resource, at last ca-
pitulated on honourable terms. No sooner; however, had
the place been delivered up than the capitulation was dis-
regarded ; and Bregadino himself was skinned alive and
impaled, - a dreadful augury of what the population was
to suffer under the dominion of such barbarous ruflians.
It is now in the possession of Mthemet Ali. (See Mariti's
Travels in Cyprus, passim ; Clarke's Travels, iv., 11–80. ;
Kinneir's Journey through Asia Minor, pp. 176–197.
&c. &c.)
CZEGLED, a large market town of Hungary, between
the Danube and Theiss, co. Pesth, on the high road
between that city and Debreczin, 39 m., S.E. the former,
and 84 m. W. S.W. the latter. Pop. 14,662 (Berghaus),
chiefly Protestants. A great deal of ordinary red wine is
made here, as well as beer. (0esterr. Nat. Ency., &c.)

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suburbs, for 6 m. along a river which, uniting with the Ganges on the one hand and the Brahmaputra on the other, affords the greatest facilities to commerce : lat. 239 42° N., long. 90° 17' E., 127 m. N. E. Calcutta, and 116 E.S.E. Moorshedabad. Pop. probably above 200,000. Like other native towns, it is a mixture of brick, thatch, and mud houses, with narrow and crooked streets. The bulk of the houses are so very combustible, that they are usually burned down once or twice a year; but bamboos, mats, and thatch being extremely cheap, to rebuild them costs only a few rupees : According to Heber, Dacca is like the worst part of Calcutta, near Chitpoor, but with some really fine ruins intermingled with the huts, which cover three fourths of its area. There are few European houses, and these mostly small and mean, compared with those of Calcutta. Some Greek buildings, which were the favourite residence of the late nabob, were ruined a few years ago by the encroachments of the river. In the 17th century Islam Khan built a palace and fort here, the ruins of which form an imposing object; and toward the end of the same century a rand of Aurungzeb ed and finish a magnificent palace, now also in ruins. The pagodas are few and small, owing to the qscendancy of Mohammedanism, and almost every brick building has its Persian or Arabic inscription. There is a sinall but pretty Gothic English church ; and a burial ground about a mile from the city, containing some handsome tombs, both Christian and Mussulman. There are several obelisks in and around the city; and about 4 m. off is a beautiful Gothic bridge, said to have been constructed by a Frenchman, but, like most of the other ublic edifices, in a state of ruin. All the buildings yond the inhabited portion of the city are surrounded by ruins and rank vegetation ; , and the castle, factories, and churches, of the 1)utch, French, and Portuguese, have all fallen into decay. English goods and manufactures, or imitations of them, are to be met with in the bazaars; but no vessels larger than small countrybuilt brigs come up the river, and the trade is reduced to the fiftieth part of what it was. The striped and flowered muslims of Dacca were formerly regarded as inimitable, and were in great request at the š. court, and other native Indian courts, as well as at the old court of France. The manufacture was hereditary in several families, but has been annihilated by the destruction of the native courts and the wealthy native nobles. Its loss has been very generally ascribed to the importation of the cheaper muslims of England, but this is an entire mistake ; it was wholly suppressed before a yard of British muslin or calico found its way to India. The manufacture, in fact, was never carried on upon a large scale; and being one of luxury only, it fell with the fall of the wealthy class, who alone purchased its §'s (See ante, p. 357.) The cotton grown in the district is now mostly exported to England. There are some re1. ble (reek, Port and Ar merchants, but Englishmen are not numerous at Dacca: the Serampore mission has, however, had a station here since 1816 : schools have been established at different times, and in 1836 the government school was attended by 149 pupils. At the beginning of the present century, the proportion of Mohammedans to Hindoos was 145 to 130. The country round 1)acca being always covered with verdure during the dry months, it is comparatively free from violent heats, and is reckoned one of the healthiest stations in Bengal. Dacca is comparatively modern : it is not mentioned by Abul Fazel. From 1608 to 1639 it was the metropolis o Bengal, and again attained to that dignity in 1657, the commencement of the aera of its greatest splendour, when, judging from its ruins, it must have vied in extent and wealth with the largest cities of India. Its decline began with the disorders consequent to the invasions of Nadir Shah. In 1744 the establishment of a provincial council helped to revive it, but on the removal of this its decay recommenced. (Hamilton's E.I. Gaz., i. 477,478, ; Mod. Trav., ix. 134–145. ; Rennel's Memoir, p. 61., &c.) DAccA, and DAccA JELALpore, two districts of Hindostan, prov. Bengal, chiefly between lat. 230 and 24° N., and long. 89° 30' and 91° E.; having N. the distr. Mymunsing, E. Tipperah, S. Backergunge, and W. Jessore and Rajishaye. Subjoined is a statement of the area of these districts, with their pop. and revenue at the undermentioned periods:—

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and Ganges. During the rainy season it exhibits the appearance of an inland sea, over which the villages, raised on artificial embankments, are scattered like so many islands. The land fertilised by such extensive inundations is extremely productive; but a large proportion of it is covered with jungle, and infested with elephants, tigers, and other wild animals, which do considerable damage to cultivation. These, however, are much less numerous now than formerly ; and a great deal of the land that had been overspread with jungle has latterly been cleared, and brought into cultivation. The banks of the Comercolly river, one of the arms of the Ganges, are populous, and well cultivated, producin rice, sugar, cotton, and indigo ; a species of cotton calle banga, though not of a superior quality, very well adapted for the fine striped muslins, for which this prov. was lon famous, used to be grown in large quantities. The lan is subdivided into extremely small estates; and the constant shifting of the river-courses alters their extent and boundaries so much, that the assessment and collection of the revenue have always been matters of much difficulty. Dimities, cloths resembling diaper, and damask linen, are now the chief manufactures. About half the pop. are Hindoos, and half. Mohammedans. slavery is pretty prevalent. These districts had formerly an unenviable notoriety, from the number and enormity of the crimes committed in them, but in this respect they have lately very much improved. There are numerous Hindoo schools, for instruction in the Bengalee language, religion, and laws. Chief towns, Dacca, Narraingunge, Soonergong, and Rajanagur. (Hamilton's Hindostan, i. 180–183; É? Gaz., i. 474–476; Mod. Trav., ix. 133. ; Reports on Afflirs of the E. I. Comp.) AHOMEY, a country of Africa, on the Guinea coast, of which the boundaries are far from being well defined, but which is supposed to extend between about 6° and 8° or 99 N. lat., and from 10 to perhaps, 3° E. long., having W. Ashantee, E. Yarriba and Benin, and S. the Atlantic Ocean. As far as has been hitherto discovered, this country is destitute of any hill whatever, and consists of an immense plain rising gradually from the sea to the Kong Mountains, which are here from 150 to 200 m. inland. The Volta and Loka rivers bound it on the W., but, excepting these, there seems to be no stream of an considerable floo. The country is, however, we watered, and interspersed with small marshes. The soil is ...} alluvial ; not a stone is to be met with ; the surface is covered with a vegetation of unbounded luxuriance; and the beauty and excellence of the country are spoken of in terms of the highest admiration. (See the statements of Bosman, Phillips, &c., in the Histoire Générale des Poyages, iv., 274, &c.) Oranges, limes, guavas, and other tropical fruits, melons, pine-apples, yams, &c., grow wild ; and maize, millet, and other grains, potatoes, indigo, cotton, sugar, tobacco, and spices, are successfully cultivated. In some parts the country is covered with dense forests, the retreat of lions, hyenas, leopards, elephants, and overgrown serpents. Deer and domestic animals are plentiful. Previously to the early part of last century this country was divided into a number of petty states, and is represented as having been populous and well cultivated. The Dahomans, by whom it was overrun and laid waste, came from the interior of the Continent. They are said to be hospitable to strangers, brave and resolute; and these, if they exist, would appear to make up the whole amount of their good qualities. Their disposition seems, from their conduct, to be a compound of that of the o and the spaniel, exhibiting the utmost ferocity and thirst for blood with the most abject servility. All the most arbitrary forms of eastern despotism seem to be mild and free, when comared with that established in this wretched country. It is singular, too, that this despotism is not founded upon force and terror, nor is it connected with any thing timid or effeminate in the character of the people. It rests on a blind and idolatrous veneration for the person of the sovereign, as for that of a superior being. He is the absolute master of the lives and properties of his subjects, and disposes of them at pleasure. It is a crime in the latter to suppose that the king eats, drinks, sleeps, or performs any of the functions of an ordinary mortal. A sovereign of the name of Bossa having succeeded to the throne, caused all the persons of the same name in his dominions to be put to death, conceiving it to be an unpardonable presumption that any subject should bear the same name with his master. The greatest lords can only approach the king lying flat on their faces, and rolling their heads in the dust. The attempts thus made to inspire the people with reverence for their monarch, seem to have been completely successful. The Dahoman rushes to battle in obedience to the orders of his king with a blind, unthinking, brute confidence. Norris having asked a Dahoman before battle if he did not think the enemy too numerous; the latter replied, “I think of my king, and then I dare engage 5 of the enemy mysels.” He declared his indifference o: he survived or not ; adding, “It is not material; my head belongs to the

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*f; not to myself; if he pleases to send for it, I am ready to resign it; or if it is shot through in battle, it is no difference to me, I am satisfied.” After such statements, the reader will not be surprised to learn that human skulls form the favourite ornament in the construction of the palaces and temples. The king's sleeping chamber has the floor paved with the skulls, and the roof ornamented with the jawbones, of chiefs whom he has overcome in battle. Every year a grand festival is held, which lasts for several weeks, and during which the king waters the graves of his ancestors with the

blood of hosts of human victims. The bodies of those unhappy men are not even interred, but are suspended by the feet to the walls, and left hanging till they

putresy. Perhaps, however, the most extraordinary fact connected with this barbarous horde is, that all the women are monopolised by the sovereign ; and that no individual can possess himself of either a wife or a concubine i.". by gift of, or purchase from, the king; and whether the lady be young or old, handsome or the reverse, she must be equally acceptable to the slave to whom she is given or sold The king keeps, of course, a goodly seraglio for himself; and at his death his wives and concubines fall to murdering each other, till the carnage be stopped by the interference of the new king. After these statements, it will only appear consistent and natural that the tiger should be the principal setiche, or object of worship, among the Dahomans ! We are glad to have to add that, despite their ferocity, this most detestable of barbarian hordes has been checked in its devastating course. A number of the petty states it had subdued have emancipated themselves; and it appears probable that the sovereign of Dahomey is now tributary to the sovereign of Yarriba. Next to Abomey, the cap. and residence of the king, about 80 m. inland, Whydah, Ardrah, Aoona, Calmina, &c., are the chief towns or villages. (Ritter's Africa; JDalzel's History of Dahomey; Bourdich, &c.; Norris.) DALECARLIA, a prov. of Sweden, which see. DAL KEITH, a bor, of barony and market-town of Scotland, co. Mid-Lothian, on the road from Edinburgh to Coldstream, 54 m. S. E. Edinburgh, on a peninsular neck of land between the N. and S. Esks, which unite about a mile E. from the town, and fall into the Frith of Forth at Musselburgh. Pop. (1838) 5,345. It is a clean, well-built town; the principal street, which is wide and handsome, runs from E. to W., and there are several subordinate streets. Its public buildings are, — a parish church (an old Gothic edifice, used as a collegiate church before the Reformation), three chapels belonging to Presbyterian dissenters, and one belonging to the Independents. An elegant new parish church is now being built (1839). Dalkeith has long been eminent for its educational institutions, particularly its classical school. A subscription library established in 1798, contains 2,300 vols. In 1835 a scientific association was formed for Poss the delivery of popular lectures on science, which has hitherto been eminently successful. This town, like other burghs of barony, was originally under the exclusive management of the baron or superior and his bailie; but, in 1759, an act of parliament was obtained, appointing certain trustees to superintend the paving, cleaning, and lighting the streets, to supply the burgh with water, and to provide a revenue for these purposes by imposing a small tax on the ale, porter, * beer consumed in the parish. The power of the baron or his bailie is now very limited both as to civil and criminal matters. Dalkeith is chiefly celebrated for its grain market, which is held every Thursday, and is reckoned the largest market of the kind in Scotland. The quantity of the different kinds of grain exposed for sale in the market for the year ending July 1. 1839, was as sollows: — wheat, 10,220 quarters; barley, 15,803 do, ; oats, 43,6304 do.; peas and beans, 1,8214 do. : in all, 71,4753 quarters. The sales this year, how: ever, were greatly below the average, which is about 100,000 quarters. There is another market of considerable extent held here every Monday for the sale of meat, flour, and pot-barley. There are in the town or immediate vicinity, extensive flour and corn mills, both on the N. and S. Esks, a brewery, an iron-foundry, a tannery, and currying works. here are no fewer than five branch banks in the town. The burgh is distinguished by the number of its shops and the extent of business done in them ; circumstances that result from the eminence of its grain and other markets. The Dalkeith and Edinburgh railroad, which connects these towns, was commenced in 1827, and opened for goods and passengers in 1831. Branch lines lo. since been formed, leading to Portobello and Leith on the one hand, and Fisher-row, near Musselburgh, on the other. The IXuke of Buccleuch has, at his own expense, brought the Dalkeith line into the centre of the burgh, and is prolonging it, by a splendid viaduct over the N. Esk, that it may communicate with coal mines in that quarter. e average number of passengers carried

annually on this railroad is 300,000. The average amount of coal so conveyed is 120,000 tons. Coal abounds throughout the whole neighbourhood of Dalkeith. Dalkeith Palace, the principal residence of the Duke of Buccleuch in Scotland, is within 300 yards of the E. termination of the town. This palace, which formerly belonged to the Douglasses Earls of Morton, was acquired, in 1642, by the noble family of Buccleuch, who still retain it, and are superiors of the burgh. Anne, heiress of Buccleuch, was married to the famous Duke of Monmouth, a natural son of Charles II., and who was beheaded for rebellion in 1685. George IV., on his visit to Scotland in 1822, resided in Dalkeith House. The parliamentary electors of the burgh unite with the county constituency in returning a member to the H. of C. (Obtained from local inJormation.) DALMATIA (an. part of Illyricum), a marit. country of Europe, being the most S. prov. of the Austrian empire comprising a long and narrow territory lying along the N.E. shore of the Adriatic, and numerous islands in that sea, between lat. 42° 8' and 44° 55' N., and long. 14030” and 19° E., having N. Hungarian Croatia; E. Turkish Croatia, Herzegovina, and Montenegro ; and S. and W. the Adriatic: length of the continental portion, N.W. to S.E., 240 m.: breadth greatest towards the N., where it averages nearly 40 m. ; but it tapers thence gradually to its S. extremity, and in its lower half is never more than 15 m. in width. Area about 5,800 sq. m. (273-7 Germ.). Pop. (1837) 382,285. IXalmatia is generally mountainous. The Dinaric Alps bound it on the E., and the whole country is intersected in a direction parallel to the coast by some of their subordinate ranges, the highest point of which, Mount Biocova, near lat. 43°30', is 4,856 ft. in elevation. Here, as elsewhere, the Dinaric Alps are chiefly of calcareous formation, and full of clefts and ravines ; they are rugged, and often destitute of soil, in consequence of which the country has in most !. a sterile and desolate aspect. Narrow valleys are abundant, but plains of any extent few. . . There are numerous small lakes, and one of a tolerable size, near Zara; but, generally speaking, Dalmatia is ill watered. The principal river, the Narenta, in the S. has not a course of more than 15 m. in the Austrian territory; the other chief rivers are, the Zermagna, Kerka, and Cettina, but none is of any great size. The Cettina is remarkable for a fine cascade, 170 ft. in altitude. The coast is indented with numerous harhours, of which those of Cattaro, Sebenico, and Ragusa, are the best ; it has also numerous headlands, and is fenced by a great number of clongated o: in a direction parallel to the shore. The principal are, Arbe, Pago, Jsola Grossa, Brazza, Lesina, Curzola, Lissa, Meleda, &c.; they are mountainous, and present the same general aspect as Continental Dalmatia. The climate is warmer than in any other part of the Austrian dominions. In the S. the date-palm flourishes in the open air, and the olive grows in the lowlands every where throughout the country. Frost and snow are almost unknown in the plains and valleys, and are of very short duration in the mountains: the mean temp. of the year at Ragusa is 5793. Fahrenheit. The winter is limited to six weeks of retty constant rain; yet, on the whole, less rain falls in almatia than in any other prov. of the empire, and the country often suffers from excess of drought. Except in the marshy tracts along the shore, the air is pure and salubrious. In 1837, there were 225,719 acres of arable land, 140,702 acres in vineyards, and 40,060 acres in meadows and gardens. Agriculture is in every respect extremely backward. Maize and barley are the principal kinds of grain cultivated; but not two thirds of the corn necessary for home consumption is grown; the rest of the quantity required comes mostly from Turkey and Hungary. The Dalmatian wines are strong and deepcoloured, but are apt to acquire a taste from the leathern flasks in which they are kept. They, however, bear transport well, and considerable quantities are sent to Fiume, Trieste, and Venice. The total quantity produced annually, is officially estimated at 8,328,000 gallons. Fruits are abundant and excellent. Figs may be considered the chief staple of Dalmatia; they grow without culture all along i. coast, but the best are those of Lesina. During their period of maturity, figs make a large part of the food of the village pop., and about 845,000 libbre are annually exported. The climate is highly suitable for the olive, and the oil is better than that produced in most parts of Italy. Nearly 17,000 cwt. are annually obtained. Cattle-breeding is not pursued to any great extent, and the breeds are mostly inserior. The stock in 1837 has been estimated at 14,000 horses, 91,000 black cattle, 713,000 sheep, and 450,000 goats: The wolf, wild dog, fox, and lynx, are amongst the wild animals; game (excepting deer) abounds, as do waterfowl and birds of prey. he anchovy and tunny fisheries are important, though mot so much so as during the last century: at present they furnish employment to about 8,000 inhab. ried and silted fish form an important article of consumerce. There are some coral fisheries, of which that

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