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boats ply, on fixed days as high as Ulm ; but, beyond that town, the principal utility of the 1)anobe is to assist the manufacturing industry of Wirtemberg and Baden. (Austria and the Austrians, i. 324.) So far back as the 8th century, Charlemagne contemplated uniting the Danube and the Rhine, by moans of a canal ; and the remains of a work commenced with that view are still visible at Wessenberg. After the lapse of more than 1,000 years, an undertaking of a similar kind is now in progr under the auspices of the Bavarian government ; a canal having been commenced which is to run from Dietfurth, on the Altmühl, to Bamberg on the Mayn. A railroad from the vicinity of Linz to Budweis, on the Moldau (Bohemia), already connects the I)anube with the Elbe ; another railroad is opened from Linz to Gmunden on the Traun ; a third from Vienna to Brunn will, perhaps, be continued to Bochnia in Gallicia, forming a communication betwccn the I);inube and the Vistula; a fourth line is in progress from Vienna to Baab, the most important corn-market in IIungary: and the especial attention of the Austrian government is now directed toward the formation of a fifth line to connect the Danube with the Adriatic. (Turnbull.) The steam navigation of the Danube and the concurrent works above mentioned will doubtless materially augment the resources, and contribute efficiently to the improvement of the Austrian empire. By these means new markets will be opened for the hitherto all but unsaleable produce of Hungary, Transylvania, &c.; and these countries will in consequence be brought nearer to the Position they should occupy among European nations. That Russia, whose strength is in part derived from the weakness of Austria, should look with jealousy on the Danube steam navigation is not to be wondered at ; and some of the obstacles which have been thrown in its way o without difficulty be traced up to this source. t one period, in opposition to the treaty of 1814, an attempt was made by the Russians to exact tolls from the vessels belonging to the Austrian Steam Company, and other ships passing the mouth of the Danube: but, on this being résisted by Austria and other European powers, it was dropped. Facilities, however, exist in the nature of the country for obviating such attempts on the part of Russia. The elbow of the Danube at IRassova is only 30 m. from the Black Sea, within which distance a deep lake, 13 m. in length, intervenes. A ship-canal, not ..". long as that from Amsterdam to the lielder, might, it is believed, be easily constructed, which would not only shorten the navigation of the Danube 200 m., but would pass through a territory nearly 100 m. S. of the frontier at present occupied by Russia, . The most ample information connected with the natural history and antiquities of the Danube may be found in the rare and valuable work of Count Marsigli on that river, o in 1726, in 6 vols. folio. The original work, which is in Latin, was translated into French, and published in 1744. (See Oesterr. Nat. Encyc, art. Donau; Brugui re, Geographie de l'Europe, p. 401. ; Dict. Goog. , Paget's Hungary, &c.; Turnbull's Austria, 1840; Quin, Steam Navig., &c.; Murray's Handbook for S. Germany.) DA18 AB.J E R D, a town of Persia, prov. Fars, 155 m. S.E. by E. Shiraz. It is finely situated on the banks of a river, and in an extensive plain, surrounded with groves of orange and lemon trees, which yield such an abundance of fruit that the juice is exported to all parts of Persia. Though much fallen off from its former splendour, and partially in ruins, it has still a pop. of from 15,00 to 20,000. The culture of tobacco is here carried to a great extent. (Kinneir.) 1) ARDANELLES (an. Hellespontus), the narrow strait -
Longus in angustum qua clauditur Hellespontus,"
connecting the Sea of Marmara with the AEgean, and separating part of the S.E. coast of Europe from the most W. part of Asia. Its modern name is derived from the castles, called the 1)ardanelles, built on its banks. Its general direction is N. E. and S.W. Length about 40 m. ; breadth unequal, but where least, not more than ; m. across. Peing, as it were, the key to Constantinoise and the Black Sea from the W., this strait is pretty strongly fortified. The entrance is 2 m. wide, and defended by a fort on either side; that of the Asiatic coast (Koum Kalessi) mounting 80 guns and 4 mortars, and that on the European side (Sertil Bahr Kat'ssi) mounting 70 large guns and 4 mortars. The adjacent heights are also crowned with batteries, and about 3 m. above the New Castle of Europe there is one mounting 12 guns. Proceeding onward, 12 m. above the New Castles, are the Dardanelles, or Old Castles of Europe and Asia; these defend the narrowest part of the strait, which is here only 3 m. wide. The Sultanieh Kali'ssi, or Asiatic castle, is the strongest, and is the residence of the seraskier Fo whose authority extends over the forts on both sides. It has 2 connected forts, and 192 guns, 18 of which are of the largest calibre. The European castle is built in the sorm of a crescent,
and In 1832 was furnished with 64 guns: it has 2 collateral batteries recently built; the most S. of which mounts 48, and the N. 30 guns. 1; m, further on the Asiatic side is a battery of 45 guns; and 3 m. above the European castle is a battery called Kiamleh Bouroum, with 30 guns, near the small town of Maito, supposed to occup the site of the ancient Madytus. The |. forts on bo sides are Botalli Kalessi, on the site of the ancient Ses. tos, and Nagara, near Abydos, which see. The direct distance between them is about 14 m. A strong current runs always from the Sea of Marmara, through the Dardanelles, at the rate of from 2 to 4 m. an hour, according to circumstances. The wind also generally sets in the same direction. There are shoals in some places; but deep water is every where to be found in some part of the channel. The Asiatic shore presents the most beautiful scenery : that of Fo is, on the contrary, generally steep and rugged. To each of the Dardanelles a town is attached : the Asiatic is the larger, and contains 2,000 houses; but the streets are narrow, ill paved, and dirty, and almost all the buildings are of wood. It has manufactures of pottery. Gallipoli is the principal town on this strait, which see. This strait has been famous from the remotest period. It derives its name from Helle, daughter of Athamas, king of Thebes, drowned in it. (Hygin. Poet. Astron. lib. 2. § 20.) It is also memorable as the scene of the death of Leander, and of the impotent rage of Xerxes, whose ill-fated host crossed over it on a bridge of boats between Sestos and Abydos. (Andréossy ; Dict. Geogr., Purdy's Sailing Directory, 1834, pp. 161–167. DARFUR, a country of central Africa, between llo and 16° N. lat., and 26° aud 30° E. long. It lies between Hormou and Abyssinia; almost due S. from Egypt, and W. of Sennaar, whence it is separated by Kordofan. Standing, however, like an oasis in the midst of the Great Sahara desert, Darfür is situated at a great distance from all the above-named territories. The country is of the most dreary character, without rivers, lakes, or much cultivable land, with a few mountains rising from its sandy plains. Of the topography and real extent of Darför we ossess but limited information, and only one authority or the little we do know (W. G. Browne). The principal town appears to be Cobbé, in lat. 14° 11’, and long. 28° 8', which is 2 m. in length, from N. to S., but very narrow ; each house being separated from the others by a cultivated enclosure. The inhab. are supplied with water from shallow wells dug, in most instances, beside their houses, but so unskilfully that the soil often collapses, and the same well is seldom of use longer than sour months at a time. . This place is chiefly inhabited by merchants, and from it a caravan starts at irregular intervals to Cairo. 6,000 persons are said to reside at Cobbé. A neighbouring village, called El Fashar, is the residence of the sultan and his court. Sweini, another Fūrian town, lies almost N. of Cobbé, at the distance of about 2 days' diligent travelling, and in the direct road to Egypt; hence it is § resorted to by merchants. Its environs are more fertile than those of Cobbé, and when the jelabs (traders) remain there, it boasts of a daily market. Cubcabia, due W. from Cobbé, at a distance of 24 days, is a more considerable place, being the depôt of merchandise brought from the W. It has also a manufactory for leather and of tokeas, a coarse cotton cloth from 5 to 8 yards long, and about 22 in. wide, which form the covering of all the lower class of both sexes. The other towns are Ril, Cours, Shoba, Gidid, and Gellé. (Browne's Travels, pp. 266–276.) The inhab. of Darfür, which have been estimated not to exceed 200,000 in number, are a mixture of Arabs and Negroes. They are governed by a sultan, whose power is not altogether absolute, he being, in some degree, amenable to the kukara, or ecclesiastics; and #o standing in some awe of his own troops. His power is delegated in the provs. to governors, called meleks. Though the Fúrians are bigoted Mohammedans, they do not abstain from intoxicating liquors; the crime of drunkenness, committed by means of a decoction of hemp, is frequent among them. Snuff and tobacco appear to be almost necessaries of their existence; but for the endurance of hunger and thirst they are unequalled even by the inhab. of surrounding arid regions, among whom such a qualification is so essential. They are not remarkably cleanly in their persons; and, having no baths, rub their bodies with a kind of farinaceous paste as a substitute. The Furians are, unlike other moslems. jovial, and even licentious, in their manners, and are particularly fond of dancing, each tribe having a dance peculiar to itself. At Cobbé education is in some degree provided for by four or five mectebs (schools), where reading and writing are taught. A kukara also iectures occasionally on the Koran, and what they call eln, philosophy. The language is a dialect of the Arabic peculiar to the Fúriang. Agriculture in Darfur is at a very low ebb ; indeed, the soil which was presented to Mr. Browne’s observation, consisting of bare rocks, sand, a sinall portion of clay, and a still smaller part of vegetable moult, seemed to offer, no encouragement in that respect. Entirely devoid of rivers or lakes, the country solely derives irriation from heavy periodical rains, which are preserved n numerous water-courses. At the commencément the farmer digs innumerable holes in his fields, into which he throws the seed, and, covering it over with his foot, leaves it without further care until the grain becomes ripe. (Ibid. p. 291.) The harvest is gathered by women and slaves, who break off the ears with their hands; so that the farming implements of the Fúrians are few and rude. The grains chiefly raised are wheat, dokn (Holcus dochna Forskiial), kassob, and sesamum (simsin, Arabic term); the o se consists of kidney-beans, a bean called fat, and another denominated shifth, together with other leguminous, plants peculiar to that part of Africa. The occasional drought is not favourable to watermelons, though many are grown. Tamarinds, dates of an inferior quality, the Rhamnus nabecca of Forskāal, and tobacco, which is said to be indigenous, are all cultivated in Darfür. (Browne, . 306–313.) Commerce. — Although the Furians have but a limited variety of articles to exchange for those necessaries of life wstich their own country does not produce, yet commerce, from their centrical situation, affords the chief means of support to the nation, Many of their towns are entirely peopled ". The caravans from Egypt, Sennaár, &c. are laden with jewellery, swords, fire-arms, coffee, raw and manufactured silks, shoes, writing paper, Syrian soap, French and Egyptian cloths, with Indian muslins and cottons, wire, brass, silver, &c. 1 or these the Fúrians give in exchange slaves, camels, ivory, ostrich feathers, gum, pimento, tamarinds, leather sacks for water (ray), others for dry articles (geranb), paroquets, monkeys, and guineafowls. (Browne, pp. 346. 349.) The climate of Darfur is chiefly influenced by the erennial rains, which fall from the middle of June till September with frequency and violence, and suddenly invest the face of the country, till then dry and sterile, with a delightful verdure. Jusy appears to be the hottest month, for, according to Browne's meteorological journal, k | during the years, 1794-5, the thermometer never sunk below 90- at 3 P.M. ; but more frequently rose to 98°. In the April of 1794, however, it ranged #. 949 to 1019, while the same month of the succeeding year exhibits an average far below that of either of the July months. The thermometer seldom sunk, according to Browne's register, lower at 3 P.M. than 70°, or at 7 A.M. below 589, which happened most frequently in February: December and January, also, exhibit low degrees. N. and N.W. winds are those which blow with the greatest frequency over 1)arfur. (Appendix to Browne's Travels, pp. 581–588.) Among the animals to be found in Darfür are horses, of which there are not many ; sheep, which also are scarce, yield meat of a poor o: s o are more numerous'; but horned cattle form the chief wealth of the Furians, as in the more S. African nations. The milk of the cows is not very palatable ; but the beef is good. Camels of every variety of breed are exceedingly numerous: but the Gerab camel is much subject to the mange; the males are sometimes castrated. Dogs are employed both in hunting the antelope and for guarding sheep ; the household cat is also met with. Tí. wild animals are the lion, leopard, wolf, .jackal, wild buffalo, &c. Elephants assemble in large herds of four or five hundred : though they are much smaller than the Asiatic eleo the animal is a source of great profit to the 'orians, who make a lucrative sale of his tusks, hold his flesh in great esteem as food, and manufacture the fat into a much-used unguent. Several sorts of monkeys, and the civet-cat, are also mentioned by Browne. 3. triches, vultures, paroquets, partridges, pigeons, and quails, were also seen by him. Locusts, hooded-serpents, musquitos, and white ants, infest the country in large numbers. (Travels, pp. 293–304.) Of the minerals found in Darfür, the best is copper; but iron is produced in the greatest abundance, and is formed into domestic utensils and arms. All the silver, lead, and tin is brought from Egypt. The other geological features of Darfür are scarcely known. Rocks of grey granite and fossil salt only are mentioned by Brown. (Ibid. pp. 304–306.) I)A R! EN. See PANAMA (Isthmus of). DARLINGTON, a market-town and bor. of England, co. Durham, Darlington Ward, S. div., on the Skerne, an aillucint of the Tees, and on the great N. road from Lon. don to Edinburgh, 215 m. N. by W. London, and 17 m. S. Durham. Area of township, 3,470 acres. Pop. (1831) 8,571. The town consists of several well-built and welllighted streets, which branch out from a spacious market square. The river is crossed by a bridge of 3 arches. The church, formerly collegiate and dedicated to St. Cuthbert, was built about 1160; it has a fine tower and spire 150 it. high. The Prim, and Wesl. Methodists,
Independents, R. Catholics, and Soc., of Friends, have places of worship. A grammar-school was founded by Q. Eliz. in 1567, and a blue coat school by Lady Calverley in 1715. There are also Lancastrian, national, and Sunday schools, a dispensary, lying-in charity, and 2 alms-houses. A mechanic's institute, with a library, has been formed here. It is a bor. by prescription, governed by a bailiff appointed by the bishop, who holds a court twice a year for the manor of Bondgate, and a bor. court also twice a year, at both of which debts under 40s, are recoverable. Petty sessions are held on alternate Mondays in the town-hall, a meat of having a house of correction connected with it. The election for members for the S. division of the county is held here. The manufacture of linen, which was formerly carried on to such an extent as to give employment to 500 looms, has declined, but it is still pretty considerable. The manufacture of woollen yarn employed, in 1839, 3 mills, with 405 hands; in the same year there was 1 flax mill at work, with 93 hands. A good many persons are also employed in wool-combing ; and there are several tan-yards, ropewalks, breweries, and iron and brass works. he Stockton and Darlington railway, one of the first in the kingdom, commences at Witton Park Colliery, near W. Auckland, and proceeds by Darlington and Yarm to Stockton, a distance of 244 m. It has 2 fixed engines, which work 4 inclined planes, m. long each. Markets, Mondays; cattle markets, on alternate Mondays. Fairs on the 1st Monday in March, Easter and Whit-Monday, and 10th Oct.; statute fairs on 13th May and 23d
Nov. The 1)arlington Joint Stock o: Co., a branch of the National and Provincial Bank of England,
a private banking house, and a savings' bank are established here. (Surtee's Hist. of Durham : Bailey's Agr. Piew of Durham : Parl. Papers.) DARMSTADT, a town of W. Germany, cap. of the grand duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt, seat of the gov. and resident e of the o: Starkenberg, in the great Rhenish plain near the N.W. extremity of the Odenwald, o on the Bergstrasse, or high road between Frankfurt-on-the-Maine and Heidelberg (see Hessi:DARxist ADt), 17 m. S. the former city, 58 m. N. by E. Carlsruhe, and 8 m. E by N. the Rhine; lat. 49° 56' 24” N., long. 8° 24′49” E. Pop. about 23,000, though it is said, at the beginning of the present . to have been under 9,000. ... "...' It is rather dull, has little trade, nor, for a capital, does ..". much deserving of notice. It consists of an old and a new town; both encircled by walls : the , former is ill built, and its streets are narrow and dark ; while the latter has broad, straight, and handsome streets, and good houses, many of which stand singly. The town is well lighted at night. It has 3 or 4 suburbs, 72 streets, 12 squares, 4 churches, 6 entrance-gates, 3 of which are handsome structures, and 53 public edifices; amongst the latter are the opera-house, which, in the time of the late grand duke, was one of the most celebrated throughout Germany for its performances; it is built in the Italian style, and is 230 (Rhenish) ft. in length, by 158 ft. broad. The riding-school, now converted into a depôt for artillery, 319 ft. in length, by 157 ft. in breadth, is another conspicuous object. The grand duke resides in a new palace of no great architectural pretensions. The old J. palace, surrounded by a dry ditch which has been changed into a shrubbery and garden, is a structure of the various ages from the 16th to the 18th century, and contains a picture-gallery with about 600 so but mostly second-rate, a museum of natural istory with some valuable fossils, a museum of ancient and modern sculpture, a hall of antiquities, collection of cork models, armoury, and a library of 120,000 vols. open to the public. The remaining principal public buildings are – the palaces of the hereditary prince and the Landgrave Christian ; the Catholic church, a brick editice, the interior of which is an elegant and imposing rotunda, 173 ft. in diameter, 123 ft. in height, and surrounded by pillars 50 ft. high ; the Casino, in which the commons of the duchy meet ; the military hospital, royal stables, orphan asylum, ducal chapel, synagogue, &c. armstadt is the seat of the high court of appeal for the grand duchy, and various other judicial tribunals and government offices. It has a gymnasium, a teachers' academy, a practical school of arts and sciences (healschule), schools of artillery and military duty, of sculpture and drawing, &c. It has manufactures of tobacco, wax-candles, carpets, silver articles, coloured paper, cards, and starch: coaches are built in the town, and there are numerous mills and kitchen-gardens in the vicinity. The majority of the inhab. depend, however, for subsistence on the presence and exponditure of the court. A daily communication is maintained with Strasburg, Frankfurt, and other considerable towns from 50 to 100 m. distant. (Berghaus, Allg. I inter und Polkerkundo, iv. 351. ; Cannabich, Lehrbuch, p. 476. ; Murray's Handbook for N. Germany.) DART FORD, a town and par. of England, co. Kent, lathe Sutton-at-Hone, §"." Axton, 194rtford, and x 3
Wilmington ; on the Darent, about 4 m. from its embouchure in the Thames, 15 m. E. S. E. London. Area of r. 4,150 acres; pop. of do. (1821), 3,593 ; (1831), 4,715, he town, situated in a narrow valley, consists chiefly of one main street, along the road from London to Dover, and of 2 smaller ones branching from it. The river is crossed, at the E. end of the town, by a bridge of the aera of Edw. III., widened and repaired about 60 years since. The church is a o: structure, with 2 burialards, one surrounding it, the other on the summit overooking its tower. There are several dissenting chapels; a free grammar-school, founded in 1576, for 8 boys; a national school, and 2 sets of almshouses. There is a co. bridewell near the town, and sessions for the upper div. of the lathe are held in it. During the reign of Elizabeth, the co. assizes were frequently held here ; and at present a court of requests for debts under 51, whose jurisdiction extends over the town of Gravesend and 4 adjoining hundreds. Market, Saturday; fair, August 2., for horses and cattle. The chief business of the town is caused by the numerous large gunpowder, paper, oil, and flour mills on the Darent: there is also a large steam-engine manufactory, and a foundry connected with it, employing together between 200 and 300 hands. The river is navigable for boats to the town, where there is a small wharf, whence there are daily passage-boats to London. The Roman Watling Street is traceable near the town. In one of the chalk hills between which it stands are several ancient excavations, supposed to have been scooped out for granaries during the Saxon period. There are some remains of an Augustine nuno subsequently made a o residence by Henry wifi. and by Elizabeth. Dartford was the source of the insurrection headed by Wat Tyler, who, being a blacksmith in the town, killed the poll-tax collector by a blow of his hammer, for an insult offered to his daughter. DARTM () OR. See ENGLAND. DARTMOUTH, a parl, bor., town, and sea-port of England, co. Devon, hund. Coleridge ; 170 m. (direct distance) W.S.W. London, and 26 m. S. by W. Exeter. Pop. 1821), 4,485; (1831), 4,597. Area of parl. bor. 1,850 acres. he town is situated on the W. bank of the aestuary of the Dart, near its embouchure in the English Channel, where it forms a spacious harbour, capable of containing several hundred sail of vessels of the largest size. The entrance to the harbour is narrow, and protected by a battery on its W. side, on the site of an ancient castle, from which to a castle on the opposite bank (now in ruins) a chain used to be extended, for the |''. of defence. The streets, which are narrow and irregular, rise from the margin of the river, and parallel with it, one over another, along a steep acclivity, being mostly connected by flights of steps; houses mostly antique, with projecting upper stories; the whole is paved, well supplied with water, and partially lighted with gas. There are 3 churches — St. Saviour's, built 1372, a curious old structure, usually called the Mayor's Chapel; Town-hall Chapel, on the summit beyond the town, with a tower forming a sea-mark ; and St. Petovex's, adjoining the battery at the entrance to the harbour. There are also 3 dissenting chapels; 2 sets of almshouses, one of which, founded 1671, is for decayed mariners; and several minor charities. Market, Friday, in a spacious market-place, built 1829. At present there are no fairs. There are large tide-docks, adapted for the repair and building of vessels, but they have been unoccupied for many years; ship-building, however, has recently been revived at another establishment, and some remarkably fine vessels have been launched. There are also o for sail and rope-making, a spacious quay, and several private wharfs. The exports consist chiefly of woollen goods and cider, sent thither from the interior, and shipped coast-wise; and of various articles of general supply for the Labrador fisheries, in which several vessels belonging to the port are directly engaged, though this trade has greatly declined from its ancient importance. There are regular sailing-vessels and one steamer, for s and passengers, between Dartmouth and London. There belonged to the port on the 1st of January 1836, 395 ships, of the burden of 27,140 tons, manned by 1,760 seamen. In ancient times, however, its mercantile marine was comparatively much more considerable, as is evident from the fact of its having furnished 31 vessels and 757 seamen to the fleet of Edward III. against Calais. The port is a bonding one, its jurisdiction extending about 40 m. along the coast (from the Teign to the Erme), and up the 1)art, to Totness bridge (10 m.). The Dart is navigable thus far for vessels of 150 tons, the channel having recently been deepened and improved: a small steamer plies daily between the two towns, and several other passage-boats; a flying bridge connects the town with the opposite bank at the higher part of the harbour; and there is a horse-ferry to Kingswear, at the lower part. An annual regatta takes place in the harbour. It claims to be a bor, by prescription, under the name of Clifton-Dartmouth, Nardness, &c. It regulally sent 2 incums. to the H. of C. from the 14th
Edw. III. down to the Resorm Act, which deprived it of one mem. ... The elective franchise had been previously vested in the corporation and in the freemen made by them, the inhab. of the bor. not being entitled to their freedom in right of birth, servitude, or residence. (Boundary Report.) But the Reform Act, besides giving the franchise to the 10t. householders, extended the limits of the bor. to the dimensions already stated. Registered electors, 1837-38, 262. The agricultural part of the parl. bor. is cycluded from the municipal bor., which is now overned by a mayor, 4 aldermen, and 12 councillors. The income of the corporation, chiefly derived from lands and houses, is about 1,100l. a year. The scenery around 1)artmouth is extremely picturesque. Flavel, an eminent Calvinistic writer, and Newcomen, the inventor of the atmospheric engine, were natives of this town; which also §§§§ the title of earl to the Legge family. I)A VENTRY, a town and par. of England, co. Northampton, hund. Fawsley. The town, situated on the high road from London to Birmingham, near the source of the Nen, is 68 m. N.W. of the former, and 12 m. W. Northampton. The par., which comprises 4,000 acres, had in 1831 a pop. of 3,046, of whom 3,586 belonged to the town. “It is clean and respectable in appearance, with some good houses and ol. The chief or only trade is that of shoe-making, which, however, is not carried on to any extent.” (Municipal Boundary Report.) It has a good modern church; a free school founded in 1576; 5 boys are also educated by means of a legacy of Lord Crew, bishop of Durham, and 12 at the expense of the corporation. The remains of a priory founded in 1090 are now occupied as dwellings by the poor. Though incorporated at an early date, the bor, does not appear ever to have been represented in the H. of C. Market-day, Wednesday. On a neighbouring losty eminence, called Brough hill, is an encampment occupying the whole of the summit. A spring rises in the outer ditch of the encampment, which, according to Dr. Stukeley, is one of the highest in England. (Stukeley's Itinerarium Curiosum, ii. 18. ; Boundary Report, &c.) DAVID'S (ST.), a small decayed city of Wales, co. Pembroke, hund. Dewisland, near the extreme W. point of the principality, on a small stream called the Allan, about i m. from the Sea, and 16 m. N.W. Milford Haven. The par., an extensive one, had in 1831 a pop. of 2,388, of which the city had about 1,000. A bishopric was established here at a very early period ; and to that circumstance the place is most lo indebted for its origin. The cathédral, the bishop's palace, St. Mary's college, and other buildings appropriated to purposes coolnected with the establishment and the residence of the clergy, are enclosed within a lofty wall above 1,200 yards in circ. The cathedral, which occupies thc site of one more ancient destroyed by the Danes, was completed in the reign of King John. It is a cruciform structure, 307 ft. in length within the walls, with a square tower at the W. end ; it has many interesting monuments, but is in great part in ruins. The bishop's palace, reckoned one of the most magnificent edifices of the kind in the kingdom, is also in ruins ; as is St. Mary's college, founded by John of Gaunt in 1365. The cathedral contains the tombs of St. David, the patron saint of Wales, Giraldus Cambrensis, bishop Anselm, &c.; and these, and the great antiquity of the place, conferred on it a peculiar sanctity, which in the middle ages made it be resorted to by crowds of pilgrims. The bishop now resides at Abergwilly, near Caermarthen : his nett revenue amounted, at an average of the 3 years ending with 1831, to 1,8971. a year: the revenue .*. dean and chapter amounts to 1,3621. The town is at present inhabited b the few clergy who perform the duties at the cathedral, and by the farmers and others who hold land in the immediate vicinity. There is very little trade, and the place may be said to be neither increasing nor falling off. The country round is for and unimproved, and the access to it is very bad. The poor's rate is high, but house rent is extremely low ; so much so that a house that would bring 150l. in the vicinity of London would not let here for 81. The inhab. elect a mayor annually, whose duty it is to see that no encroachments be made on a common held under lease from the bishop and chapter, and to collect a rate for payment of its rent. (Beautics of Wales ; Boundary Report, &c.) i) A Vis's §§. the sea stretching N.N.W. and S.S.E., and uniting Battin's Bay with the N. Atlantic Ocean, having Greenland on its E., and Cumberland Island on its W. side. Where narrowest, under the arctic circle, it is from 150 to 160 m. across ; but its length is not accurately determined. It derives its name from Davis, by whom o was discovered between 1585 and 1587. Strong currents set towards the S. from this strait, which is also much encumbered with ice and icebergs. It has been for many years past the principal resort of the ships engaged in the N. whale fishery; the whales having been nearly exterminated in the seas round Spitzbergen, the original seat of the fishery. (See art. BAPFiN's BAY.)
DAUPHINE’, one of the provs. into which France was divided previously to the revolution. It is now dis* among the deps. of Isère, Drome, and Hautes
cap. arrond., in a fertile plain on the Adour, 29 m. S.W. Mont-de-Marsan. Pop. (1836) 4,776. It is pretty well built, is surrounded by walls of Roman construction, and has an ancient episcopal palace, cathedral, hall of justice, and prison. Dax is, however, chiefly celebrated for its numerous hot saline springs, accounted efficacious in rheumatism, paralysis, &c.; and which being known to the Romans, they gave it the name of Aquae Augustae. The principal of these springs pours its waters into a large basin in the centre of the place, and the evaporation from it is so great, that in cool mornings the whole town is sometimes involved in a fog. There are several bathing establishments contiguous to the town. Dax communicates by a bridge across the Adour, with a suburb on the opposite side of the river. It has a tribunal of primary jurisdiction, a chamber of commerce, a communal college, and a theatre. Manufactures of earthenware, ". oil, thread, vinegar, leather, &c., and some trade in corn, wine, brandy, and wood. Dax was erected into a bishopric as early as the 5th century, was taken by the Saracens in the 10th, and held by the English from ; 12th o the 15th century. (Hugo, art. Landes ; Dict.
Io :* SEA (Lat. Lacus Asphaltites, Arab. Bahr Lout), a lake of Palestine, celebrated in scripture history, between 31° 5' and 31° 52' N. lat., 35° 26' and 35° 43' E. long. Its dimensions have been variously stated, but it is probably about 55 m. in length, and 20 in extreme width. On the E. and W. it is bounded by exceedingly high mountains; on the N. it opens to the plain of Jericho and the valley of the Jordan; on the S. the valley of El-Ghor extends, as if it were a continuation of its bed, to the gulph of Akabah. (See Joad AN.)
Nothing can be more dreary than the scenery round this famous lake; the soil, in o with salt, is without vegetation, the air is loaded with saline particles, and the bare crags of the surrounding mountains furnish no sood for either beast or bird. Hence its neighbourhood is deserted by animated beings, and the dreary stillness of the place is increased by the nature of the lake itself. Intensely salt, its waters are not moved by a gentle breeze, and, owing to the hollowness of its basin, being seldom affected by a strong one, its usual appearance is that of stagnation, agreeing well with the death-like stillness and desolation around.
This absence of life has given to the lake its popular designation of Dead Sea, * is the source of the common tradition that its waters are fatal to fish, and its exhalations to birds and other animals. This is, however, incorrect; straggling birds fly over its surface uninjured; and Maundrell found upon its shores some shells, which seemed to imply that it was not altogether tenantless. The water is very limpid, but extremely bitter and nauseous, the substances held in solution amounting to one fourth part of its whole weight.” It has also a strong petrifying quality, which accounts for the want of any great variety of fish ; and it is peculiarly buoyant, though the assertion that nothing sinks within its bosom is wholly fabulous. Asphaltum (whence its classical name) floats in great quantities on its surface; and a bituminous stone, very inflammable, and capable of receiving a high polish, is found upon its shores.
The Dead Sea is one of the class of lakes that have no visible outlets; it receives six streams besides the Jordan, but gives forth none; the surplus water being carried off by evaporation. Its depth varies in the dry and rainy seasons, but is never very great ; at its narrowest part, about 8 m. from its S. extremity, it is usually fordable.
Its Arabic name, Bahr-Lout (Sea of Lot), refers to the connection between the history of this lake and that of the nephew of Abraham, in whose days its bed, then the fertile vale of Siddim, was considered by the sacred historian as worthy to be compared with the “garden of the Lord.” (Gen. xiii. o It certainly contained 5 cities (Gen. xiv. 2.); and according to Stephen of Byzantium (art. Xo3o42) 10, and Strabo (xvi. cap. 2. 764.), 13. In the visitation by which they were all destroyed, with the exception of Zoar (Gen. xix. 23, 24.), the neighbouring country underwent an extraordinary change; so much so, that Moses in another place (Deut. xxix. 23.) describes it as “a land of brimstone, and salt, and burning,” characteristics by which it still continues to be marked. Ruins of the overthrown cities are said to have been seen on the W. side of the lake, but the fact
* In 100 parts, as follow:Muri
ate of lime - - 0.020 magnesia - - 10-2 16
* - - 15-360 Sulphate of lime - - 0-054 21:580
DEAL, a parl, bor. and sea-port town of England, co. Kent, lathe St. Augustine, hunds. Cornilo and Bewsborough. It is also a member of the cinque port of Sandwich. Area of par., 1,120 acres; pop. §io ), 6,81 l ; (1831), 7,268. The town, situated on the E. coast of Kent, opposite the Goodwin Sands, and about half-way between Ramsgate and the S. Foreland, is 66 m. E.S.E. London: it consists of o Middle, and Lower Deal. The latter, containing the great bulk of the pop., is built, principally in ... streets, close to the shingly . extending along the roadstead called the Downs. Streets mostly narrow and irregular, but paved and lighted. A row *ś connecting the lower with the upper village constitutes Middle Deal: in these last the houses are detached, and are mostly occupied by the wealthier class. The par. church is in Upper Deal: there is a chapel of ease in the lower town, 4 dissenting. chapels, and a national school. Walmer forms a continuation of Lower Deal, and owes its rise to the naval arsenal, hospital, and barracks, formed there during the last war. Its pop. in 1831 was 1,779. Since the Municipal Reform Act, it has been included in the bor. of Deal (of which it forms a ward); and the Reform Act conferred on both parishes, in conjunction with Sandwich, the privilege of returning 2 mem. to the H. of C. Deal was probably annexed to the cinque ports soon after the Conquest; a decree exempting it from co. taxation shows it to have been so in 1229; a charter of 11th Wm. III. made it a bor. independent of Sandwich. Previously to the Municipal Reform Act, the corporation consisted of about 370 free mems., and the government vested in the mayor, 12 jurats, and 24 common-councilmen, the jurisdiction being co-extensive with the par. Walmer is now included ; and there are 3 wards governed by 6 aldermen and 18 common-councilmen. There is a court of requests for debts under 40s., whose jurisdiction comprises Deal and 9 other pars. Market,Tuesday and Saturday : two small fairs, April 5., Oct. 12. There are no manufactures, the inhabitants being mostly shopkeepers, pilots, fishermen, boatmen, &c., mainly dependent on the resort of shipping to its famous roadstead, the Downs. The latter is a spacious and convenient anchorage, bounded seaward by the Goodwin Sands, and tolerably safe, except in heavy gales from the N. and E. Most outward and homeward-bound vessels touch here to take or land pilots, letters, passengers, &c. This business, however, has greatly fallen off since the last war, when the Downs was much resorted to by men-of-war and merchantmen waiting for convoy; and, in consequence, the town is in a very depressed state, and many houses are unoccupied. Coals form almost the only article of import. Of late years, Walmer has been resorted to as a sea-bathing o and there are several good lodging-houses for the reception of visiters during the season. Deal Castle, on the W. side of the town, is a round tower, built by Hen. VIII., with a moat, and drawbridge; Sandown, and Walmer castles are on either side of it, close to the sea, at the extreme limits of the bor. Deal is supposed by some to be the spot where Caesar effected a landing, but this is doubtful.
DEBRECZIN, a town of Hungary, and, next to Pesth, the largest in the kingdom, cap, co. Bihar, in a flat, sandy, and arid plain, 114 m. E. Pesth, and 110 m. §§. ‘....": lat. 47° 30' N., long. 219 6" 157° E. Pop., together w th its suburbs, 45,730 (Oest. Encyc. 1835), nearly 44,000 of whom are Calvinists. This is one of the most singular places in Europe. Notwithstanding its size, its general appearance is rather that of a large village than a town ; and notwithstanding its manufactures and trade, both of which are considerable, none of the advantages ordinarily met with in large commercial cities are here to be found. Its streets are broad, unpaved, and in rainy weather a mass of liquid mud. “Scarcely any of the houses are above one story in height, and few are built on any regular plan. The greater part are thatched, which has rendered Debreczin subject at various times to severe ravages from fire. In the spring of 1811 not fewer than 2,000 habitations were reduced to ashes in the course of six hours.” (Bright's Trap. p. 200.) There are, however, 5 churches, 3 hospitals, 2 infirmaries, an orphan asylum, and a townhall. The principal college of the Calvinists in Hungary, with a library of 20,000 vols., and upwards of 2,000 students (Paget), is at Debreczin. It has also a Piarist college, a Catholic high-school, and a monastery. Shoes are manufactured in large quantities, there being as many as 500 master-workmen; tobacco pipes to the number of 11,000,000 (Cannabich), red clay pipe-bowls about 1,800,000, prepared sheep-skins about 25,000 annually; coarse woollen cloth, a §".” kind of soap greatly es
teemed throughout the Austrian empire, with leather, furs, combs, coopers' and turnery wares, are amongst the rincipal manufactures. There is an extensive market or all these articles, as well as for oxen, sheep, horses, hogs, wheat, millet, wine, tobacco, water-melons, lard, wax, honey, and various other kinds of produce, . cially at the fairs held at Debreczin every three months. On these occasions the country round the town is cowered to an extent to which the eye can scarcely reach, with flocks and waggons, bales and cases, tents and huts, round which thousands of people are constantly, gathered ; presenting, in fact, all the so. of an immense herd of nomades. A great deal of business is transacted at these fairs. Debreczin is, indeed, the great mart for the produce of the N. and E. parts of Hungary. By far the greater part of the pop. are Magyars; and it is here that the true Magyar character may be most advantageously studied. “The language is here spoken in the greatest purity: the costume is here worn by rich as well as poor; and those national peculiarities which a people always lose by much admixture with others, are still prominent at Debreczin.” (Paget's Hungary and Transylvania, ii. 20, &c.; Czaplovics Gemalde von Ungarn, i.; Bright's Travels in Lower Hungary, &c.) DECCAN (Daks-hina, the South), a term of Sanscrit origin, and formerly applied to the country comrising all that part of India to the S. of the Nerudla river; but since the Mohammedan invasion, the term has been restricted so as to apply only to the countries between the Nerbudda and Krishna, that is, between the parallels of lat. 16° and 23° N., extending from the Arabian Sea to the Bay of Bengal, and including the provs. Candeish, Aurungabad, Beeder, Hyderabad, Bejapoor, Berar, Gundwanah, Qrissa, and the N. Circars. British Deccan comprises the collectorates of Candeish, Ahmednuggur, Poonah, and Darwar, under the presidency of Bombay; and the ceded districts on the §.}. under the presidency of Bengal The remainder of this region is mostly comprised within the dominions of the rajah of Berar, the nizam, the rajah of Sattarah, the guico war, and scindia. For farther particulars, see the various provs., districts, and states reserred to under their respective heads. DEE, a river of England, which has its source in Bala Lake, co. Merioneth, N. Wales. At first it pursues an easterly course through the beautiful vale of Llangollen, till it passes Yo It then takes a northerly direction, and forms the line of demarcation between the cos. of Denbigh and Flint in Wales, and Cheshire in England. It nearly encompasses the ancient city of Chester, and is thence conveyed by an artisicial channel, about 8 m. in length, to its spacious aestuary on the Irish Sea. Its principal tributary is the Alwyn, which unites with it at Holt. Its astuary is much encumbered with sand banks. The Dee is also the name of two considerable Scotch rivers, one of which falls into the N. Sea at Aberdeen, and the other into the Irish Sea at the Little Ross, about 6 m. below Kirkcudbright. The latter is navigable as far as Tongland-bridge, 2 m. above Kirkcudbright, for vessels of large burden. DELAWARE, one of the U. S. of America, and, excepting Rhode Island, the smallest of the Union. It occupies a part of the peninsula, lying between the bays of Chesapeake and Delaware; extending from lat. 3830 to 399 50° N., and long. 74° 55' to 75° 47' W.; having N. Pennsylvania, w and S. Maryland, and E. Delaware bay and river. Length, N. to S., 95 m. ; average breadth about 22 m. Area, 2,068 m. É. 1830) 76.748, of whom 3,292 were slaves. Surface hilly in the N., more level in the S., and low alluvial, and marshy along the coast. One of the most elevated ridges in the peninsula passes through this state, dividing the waters that flow into either bay. The chief river, the Delaware, rises in New York, runs mostly S., and, after dividing that state and New Jersey from Pennsylvania, falls into the Bay of Delaware, near the N. extremity of the state, after a course of about 310 m. It receives several tributaries, and is navigable for ships of the greatest burden to Philadelphia, 55 m. from its mouth ; and for small steam-vessels and boats, to nearly 135 m. higher. The other rivers are inconsiderable. There are no harbours on the sea-coast; the only one in the state is that of Newcastle, 5 m. above the mouth of the Delaware river. The climate is healthy; but the degree of cold experienced in the N. is much greater, compared with that of the S., than could be expected from a ... in lat. of only 1920'. The foil in the N. is a rich clay; in other parts, and o: cially along the shore, it is sandy, and of inferior fertility; but it is every where well cultivated, at least for America. Principal crops, wheat, Indian corn, rye, barley, oats, flax, buckwheat, &c. The flour is of superior quality, and much esteemed for its softness and whitemess. The Cypress Swamp, a tract 12 m. in length and 6 in breadth, in the S. part of the state, has supplied a great deal of fine timber. Few minerals have been met with, excepting large masses of bog iron along the banks
of the smaller streams. Manufactures have made con. siderable progress. The mills situated on Brandywine Creek are considered the finest in the U. States; vessels are built, and there are iron-soundries and other extensive works at Wilmington. Wheat and flour are the principal articles of export. The foreign trade of this state is quite inconsiderable. The state is divided into three cos. Dover is the cap, but yields to Wilmington and Newcastle in size, trade, and pop. There is no college in the state; one planned in 1803 at Wilmington has not come into operation ; but there are good academies in this and in several of the other towns. The state has a fund for the support of free schools, which in 1834 had a capital of 170,000 dollars; and the objects of which are assisted by voluntary contributions from the different districts. A railroad, 16 m. long, from Newcastle to Frenchtown, was completed in 1832; and another, 33 m. in length, between Wilmington and Susquehannah, which com. municates with the Baltimore and Port-Deposit railroad, was finished in 1837. A canal 14 m. in length, and navigable for small sea-vessels, unites the Delaware river near its mouth with the head of Chesapeake Bay. The legislature consists of a senate and house of representatives, each co. sending 3 senators and 7 representatives; the former are elected for 4, and the latter for 2 years, by all the free white male citizens above 21 years of age who have resided in the state for a year, and paid taxes for six months preceding the election. The executive power is exercised by a governor chosen by the citizens, who retains office for 4 years, but is not reeligible. Judges retain office during “approved conduet.” Most of the pop. are Presbyterians and Methodists. Delaware was colonised by the Swedes in 1627. In 1655 it was acquired by the 'pool. and in 1664 came into the possession of the British. In 1704, when under the proprietorship of the celebrated W. Penn, it became a separate colonial establishment, and as such remained until the independence of the States. Its constitution, formed in 1776, was amended in 1831. It sends 1 rep. to Congress. IXELAware BAY is an arm of the sea between the states of Delaware and New Jersey, 65 m. in length, and about 30 m. wide in its centre, and 18 at its mouth, between Cape Henlopen, lat. 38° 47' N., long. 75° 5' W., and Cape May, lat. 38°57' N., long. 74° 52' W. It has deep water throughout, and a line-of-battle ship may ascend the river Delaware to Philadelphia, 55 m. above the head of the bay, and 120 m. from the ocean. A magnificent breakwater has been commenced at the entrance of 1)elaware Bay, near Cape Henlopen, to form an artificial harbour for the protection of vessels from the winds from the E. to the N.W., round by the N., and from the floating ice descending the bay from the N.W. This breakwater, which is to consist of two parts, one 1,200, and the other 500 yards in length, will, when completed, be a very great, as well as a most useful work. It is formed, like the breakwaters of Plymouth and Cherbourg, by sinking blocks of granite in the sea. (Encyclopædia Americana; Darby's Joew, &c.; Aroorican Almanack, &c., 1834–1840.) DELFT, a town of S. Holland, on the Schie and on the canal between Rotterdam and the Hague, 4 m. S.S.E. the former, and 8 m. N.W. the latter town; lat. 52° 0' 4° N., long. 49 21° 46' E. Pop. (1837) 15,987. “Delft is an old-fashioned brick town, as Dutch as possible in its appearance, with old gateways, and lines of trees and havens in the middle of the streets. You at once see that the place is not what it has once been—no shipping, no trade, and no bustle in its almost empty thoroughfares. Its lines of leasy trees, once prized for their delightful shade, now bend over green-mantled pools undisturbed by traffic, and only apparently kept up for the fashion of the thing. or for the accommodation of a passing 1 recischuit. But with all its dulness, the town is both meat and cleanly in a very high degree.” (Chambers.) It contains few places or buildings interesting to strangers: the Principal are—the palace, in which William I., the most illustrious of all the princes of the house of Orange, and the founder of the independence of his country, was assassinated, July 10, 15-3 ; it is a plain brick building within a court yard, and is now used as a barrack. The new church, at the E. end of the market-place, is a fine old Gothic edifice, with a conspicuous lofty tower, and one of the best peals of bells in Europe: this church contains the tomb of William I., one of the most magnificent objects of art in Holland. “It consists of a highly ornamented canopy, supported by a number of black and white marble pillars. In the centre, on a sarcophagus, lies, the figure of the prince, in his robes, beautifully sculptured in white marble; and at his feet lies the figure of his faithful dog, which on one occasion saved his master's life in a midnight attack. There are several good figures in bronze round the tomb: that which is most admired is a figure of Fame blowing a trumpet, and