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entirely new work, on a scale commensurate with the growing importance of the place, and for investing the management in a board of commissioners. Additional acts were obtained in 1830 and 1836. The consequence has been, that Dundee can now boast of the completion of two wet docks, King William's, of 64; Earl Grey's, of 54; and of a tide-harbour, of acres, connected with them. The breadth of the lock of the former, to which is attached a splendid graving dock, is 40 feet, of the latter 55 feet, made of this width to admit steamers.

A crane, of 28 feet, from the face of the quay wall, a

on which it is ced, and capable of listing 30 tons, is erected at this dock, so that every facility is afforded for taking out and putting in the boilers, &c. of the largest steam vessels. There is also a Morton slip attached to the tide-harbour, on which three vessels may be placed at once, as the length of the ways for repairing is 330 feet. The vessels are hauled up by a steam-engine of 15 horse power, and a ship of 800 tons may be placed on the slip : one of the Dundee steamers, the Perth, weighing, without her boilers, 596 tons, was lately repaired on it. A wet dock of 14} acres is now being constructed, the lock of which will 60 feet. The harbour plan also embraces another wet dock of 9} acres, and the tideharbour between these docks will be of the extent of ll acres. The quays are wide and spacious, affordin berthage for above 65 vessels at the same time, an there are extensive and convenient carpenters' and other yards for ship-building. The accommodation for the building and repairing of vessels is not surpassed in any port of the kingdom. These splendid works had cost in May, 1839, no less than 447,248l. 1s. 63d., of which 365,150l., 18s, 0\d., had been expended on the works, and 82,0971. 3s.6d. paid as interest of the money borrowed. The amount of shore dues and rents collected up to May, 1839, was 233,675l. 13s.6d., and the sum borrowed 213,5721. 8s. The sum allowed to be borrowed on the credit of the harbour is 230,000l. The revenue of the harbour from Martinmas, 1764, to 15th of July, 1815, when it was put under a parliamentary commission, was only 38,6961. 3s. 4d., and during this period the sum expended in maintaining it was 9,468l. 10s. 9d. The shore dues in 1765 yielded 1261.5 1775, 140l. 5s. ; 1785, 490l. i. 1795, 965l. ; 1805, 1,2721. 10s. ; 1814, 1,7011. 10s. 3d. Their amount in the following years

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In 1839 the average wages paid per day to workmen employed at the harbour were: – Smiths, 2s. 10d. ; wrights, 2s. 9d. ; masons, 2s. 4d.; and labourers, 1s. 10d.

In 1838 the number of British vessels which cleared out for foreign ports was 292, tonnage 46,670; and 49 foreign vessels, tonnage 7,005. In 1839 the number of the former was 297, tonnage 43,933; of the latter 47, tonnage 7282.

There are several shipping companies belonging to this port, such as the whale fishing companies which, in 1825, employed 10 vessels, of about 300 tons each, but from the great depression which has taken place in this trade they are now reduced to 5 : the Dundee, Perth, and 1.3. Shipping Company, &c. This latter company began its operations in 1798, with 4 vessels: it has now 24, including steamers, plying at least, by sailingvessels and steamers, twice a week to London, Glasgow, Leith, &c. A vast amount of black cattle, sheep, and agricultural produce, is now shipped from Dundee for London by the three steamers, two of which were put on that passage in 1834, the other in 1837. They are first class vessels, having cost 64,000l. : have excellent accommodation for passengers; perform the voyage of

480 miles at all seasons of the year with remarkable follo; and in the short space of from 36 to 42 hours. The capital employed in the concern is 80,000l. Previously to 1819 the ferry over the Tay from Dundee to Newport, on the opposite coast of Fise, a distance of two miles, was plyed by sail boats. The inadequate accommodation aloa to the public, and the inconvenience experienced from the want of low water piers, were such as induced some spirited indiyiduals to form a company to improve the ferry, and for that purpose to obtain an Act of Parliament. Under it, at an expenditure of 35,000l., the ferry has been improved, and low water piers erected, so that a passage may be effected at all times of the tide. There is now a regular passage boat, impelled by steam, that plies once an hour. The thoroughfare is great, there being about 100,000 passengers a year, besides black cattle, sheep, horses, carriages, &c., the proceeds being about 5,000l. er annum. Were the ferry across the Forth improved n the same manner, the intercourse would be greatly increased, as it would then become the great road to the north of Scotland. There were, on the 6th of April, 1840, 10 steam vessels registered in Dundee, tonnage 1806. There are other two steamers belonging to the port, the George IV. ferry-boat, and the Caledonia iron steamer, which are not registered. Dundee has seven banks, of which three are parent establishments. Also a savings' bank, established in 1815. In Nov. 1838, it was placed under the national security system. The amount of deposits on the 20th Nov. 1839, belonging to 1,933 depositors, was 19,248l. 1 1s. 3d. The other more important branches of industry carried on in Dundee are, tanning, sail-making, rope-making, and ship-building. There are also various foundries, machine-factories, sugar-refineries, candle-works, &c. We may state, that Dundee is remarkable for the adoption at different times of different kinds of industry and speculation. The manufacture of coarse woollens, cottons, and glass, was successively tried and abandoned. Leather was at one time a principal article, and 7,0' (1. worth of shoes were annually exported : this trade is also extinct. The linen manufacture now forms the great staple, to the exclusion of almost every branch of Dusiness not connected with it. There are two railways connected with this town, those of Dundee and Newtyle, and Dundee and Arbroath. The former, which was opened in 1832, is 10} m. in length, and cost upwards of 90,000/. It passes through a hilly country, has three inclined planes, wrought by steam-engines, and a tunnel, 340 yards in length. ranches are now open to Cupar-Angus and Glammis. The number of passengers in is39 was 68,169, and the traffic in goods, 47,930 tons. The latter, on the Dundee and Arbroath, line, which is 163 m. long, will, when completed, cost about 120,000l. The formation of the road averages an expence of about 6,0501. per mile. It was partially opened in 1838, and was completed to and opened from the harbour of Dundee on the 2d of April, 1840. The revenue drawn from the 160,663 passengers who travelled on it in 1839, was 8,1041. 15s. §t., and from parcels 2711. 16s. 5d. They will now coinmence carrying goods. The line is almost a dead level. Dundee is of great antiquity. It was made a royal bor. in 1210; and afterwards became so important as to be occasionally a royal residence, It was twice occupied by the English under Edward I., but was as often retaken by Wallace and Bruce. At the Reformation, it espoused the new faith so warmly that it acquired the name of “ the Second Geneva; *... and many of the persecuted Presbyterians were at different times in the habit of seeking refuge in it. Dundee was formerly a walled town; but of its walls and gates no traces remain, except the Cowgate Port, preserved from respect to the memory of the famous George Wishart, who, during the dreadful plague of 1544, preached from the top of this gate, the diseased being removed to the outside, while the healthy were in the inside. The town was besieged and taken by the Duke of Montrose in 1645, and by General Monok in 1651 ; and on both occasions it was sacked and plundered. Alexander Scrymgeour, one of the companions of Wallace, was created constable of Dundee by that brave patriot, a dignity which the family enjoyed till the direct line failed in the time of Charles II. Sir John Scrymgeour was created Viscount 1)udhope in 1641 ; and his grandson, the last of the family, Earl of Dundee in 1661. The lands and constableship of Dundee were then conferred on Maitland of Hatton ; but he being deprived of all his privileges in 1686, they were bestowed on John Graham of Claverhouse, who, in 1688, was created Viscount Dundee, only a few months before his death in the battle of Killiecrankie. The estates were next conferred on the noble family of Douglas, who still hold them. The castle of Dudhøpe, now used as a barrack for soldiers, stands between the town and the Law. There were three monasteries and a nunnery at 1) undee, but no traces of them are now to be secu.


The town was visited by spasmodic or Asiatic cholera in 1832; and of 80.8 persons seized, 512 died. It revisited the town next year, but was not generally diffused, and its ravages were comparatively limited. Previously to the passing of the Reform Bill in 1832, 1)undee was united with Forfar, Perth, Cupar, and St. Andrews, in sending a mem. to the H. of C.; but since that period it has enjoyed the privilege of having a representative for itself. The registered voters in 1839-40 were 2,740. (Parl. Reports; New Stat. Account of Scotiland. But the recent and most valuable information has been obtained from the best private sources in I) undee. DUN FERMLINE, a royal and parl. bor. and eminent manufacturing town of Scotland, co. Fife, 3 m. N. Frith of Forth, 15 m. N.W. Edinburgh, and 6 m. N.W. North Queensferry. It is about 300 ft. above the level of the sca, and occupies an agreeable, but rather inconvenient situation, being placed on the face of an extensive eminence, difficult of ascent on the S. for heavy carriages. Pop. of town and suburbs, 1801, 5,484 ; 1831, 10,625; but, including the parish, 17,068: inhab. houses, 2,347, giving about 74 persons to a house." The pop. has not increased much since 1831, and is not at present supposed to exceed 18,000. The town stretches fully a mile in length from E. to W., and its average breadth is about 3 of a mile. The main street, which is handsome and substantially built, is pretty regular. Almost all the other streets are more or less irregular ; and while some are handsome, not a few are of an opposite description. A large suburb having risen up on the W., and being separated from the town by a deep ravine, formed by the Baldridge Burn, a bridge was thrown over the rivulet in 1770; and the ravine having been so far filled up, buildings have been erected on both sides. The only very distinguished public building is the parish or Abūey church, being part of a monastery sounded here by Malcolm III., surnamed Caenmore, and which served as the parish church till 1821, when a new church was erected to the E. of the old building, and in immediate connection with it: the old, in truth, serves as the vestibule of the new place of worship. When digging in what is called the o: churchyard (on which spot the choir formerly stood), for a proper site for the new edifice, the tomb of the most illustrious of the Scotch sovereigns, Robert Butch, was discovered in 1818. His skeleton, which was pretty entire, and 6 ft. in length, was disinterred, and a cast of his skull taken. It was re-interred, amidst much state, by the barons of exchequer, the bones being placed in a new coffin, filled up with bituminous matter, calculated to preserve them. The spot is below the pulpit of the new church. This building, which is of Gothic architecture, harmonises well with the old structure, of which it is a continuation; and is surmounted by a high square tower, round the sides of which, in open hewn work, are the words “King IRobert the Bruce,” in capital letters 4 ft. in height. The Abbey church of Dunfermline is, in short, one of the most imo: and magnificent structures of the kind in Scotland. t has 2,051 seats; but is only available, from the obstruction of pillars and otherwise, for about 1,500 hearers. There are numerous other churches and chapels in the town, but none of them seems to deserve any special notice. The other public buildings are the town-hall, gaol, guildhall, and grammar-school. The town-hall consists of three stories, and is surmounted by a steeple 100 ft. high. The 3d story is occupied as a gaol for all sorts of prisoners, and is one of the most inconvenient and most unsuitable in Scotland. The greater part of the building which forms the guildhall serves as an inn, and is called, owing to the lofty spire (132 st;) that distinguishes it, the Spire Inn. Many elegant villas, surrounded by garden ground, adorn the declivity S. of the High Street. The means of instruction are ample: there is a grammar-school, established prior to the Reformation, and of which Robert Henryson, an ingenious poet of the time of James 1., was once master; also an institution of a similar kind under the patronage of the guildry, both partially endowed. A teacher of music, termed “master of the song,” has also a small endowment. There is no parish school; but the total number of schools in the town, male and female, is about 20. There is a mechanics' institute, and a scientific association for popular lectures on science and literature. This last institution is perhaps the most flourishing of its kind in the empire. The audiences at the different courses of lectures are never under 500, and have been as high as 800, of whom nine-tenths are of the industrious classes. There are several subscription libraries. A legal assessment for the poor was introduced so recently as 1839 : Pok to this, the poor were supported by means of a “Voluntary Association,” which raised contributions for the purpose, in addition to the * The weavers, no will be afterwards seen, work in their own , no small portion of which is no econrily occupied by the looms,.

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funds which were otherwise provided. The aggregate sum disbursed by the association was about So?: annually. A savings’ bank has existed here since 1814, and has been very successful. In addition to the Abbey church, which is collegiate, are two quoad sacra churches belonging to the establishment: there are 4 chapels belonging to the United Associate Synod, 1 to the Relief. 1 to the Baptists, and 1 to the Independents. The Secession, which took place in the established church in 1732, may be said to have originated here. Of the Messrs. Erskine, justly regarded as the fathers of the Secession, one of them, Mr. Ralph Erskine, was minister of the Abbey church of Dunfermline. More than half the inhab. of the par. are Presbyterian dissenters. 1)unfermline is eminent in the linen manufacture, particularly for the finer sorts of diapers, damasks, &c. The linen manufacture here is of considerable antiquity, having been introduced towards the end of the 17th century; but the original fabrics were of a coarse description, namely, ticks and checks. , Damask and diaper were afterwards introduced, mainly through the ingenuity of James Blake, an artizan, who learned the mechanism of the damask loom at Drumsheugh, near Edinburgh, where the business had long been established. Blake died about a century ago; but the trade continued steadily to increase. In 1778 a new epoch commenced in the manufacture, o the introduction of the fly-shuttle, by John Wilson. Various improvements were also effected in the damask-loom mounting, and in other respects, chiefly by Mr. David Bonar and Mr. John Philp. “Thus,” says Mr. Fernie, “owing to successful inventions and improvements, all the different kinds of table-linen, diaper, back-harness (a species of diaper), and damask, are now woven by one person, and with as much expedition and ease as originally by three.” (Fernie's History qf Dunfermline, p. 53.) The weavers carry on their branch of the business generally in their own houses. Almost every man is master of his own loom ; sometimes an individual owns two or more looms, in which case he lets them out to others at so much per week. In some few instances the loom belongs to the manufacturer. Previously to the beginning of the present century, all the yarn was spun by the ‘....ho. but at that time machinery was introduced, and has now entirely superseded the former clumsy and o: system. The manufacturers are supplied with the finer sorts of yarn chiefly from Yorkshire and Ireland, and the other sorts from the neighbourhood, l)undee, and elsewhere; but in 1836 there were seven spinning-mills in the burgh and parish, which employed 160 men, and 533 girls, the wages of the former being 15s. weekly, of the latter 5s. The quantity of flax purchased by these mills is about 1,000 tons annually. The quantity in 1835 was 1,059 tons; its value, before being spun, 58,350l. These mills do not spin exclusively for the local market, but prepare such articles as linen thread, shoe thread, twist, &c., for the general market. The power-loom is not thought applicable to the IJunfermline manufacture, but the Jacquard loom, introduced in 1824, and now universally used, has occasioned a great saving of time as well as comfort in working. The fineness, too, and general fabric of the goods, have been vastly improved, as well as the manufacture itself proportionally extended. The following table shows the progress of the manufacture within the burgh and parish, and in the neighbouring villages of Torryburn, Leslie, Culross, &c., in which places the work is carried on for the IXunfermline manufacturers.

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No. of Average
Trades. Persons | W ges

werk sy. s. d. Weavers (men and boys) - - - 3,517 1o o Winders and pirn-filsers (women and girls) 1,100 4 0 arpers, warehousemen, and lappers (men) 150 15 0 Yarm-boilers (chiefly women) - - 29 7 o Bleachers of yarn (chiefly women) - - 135 7 0 Bleachers of cloth (men and women) - 150 8 6 Lappers (chiefly men) - - - 29 9 6 Pattern-cutters (men and women) - - 12 10 a Dyers (men) - - - - 10 18 o

Total number of persons - 5,052

The patterns were till lately conceived in a wretched taste, were ill-drawn, and in every respect far inferior to foreign specimens. They consisted chiefly of the British flag, the national Scottish arms, gentlemen's coat of arms; sometimes flowers, birds, &c.; all very unnatural and extravagant. But now the patterns display equal ingenuity and taste in design and execution, and are exceedingly rich and varied, and considered equal if not superior to the German ; besides, the damask loom is capable of producing any figure, however complicated. There are now four persons, exclusive of assistants, wholly devoted to design o to encourage the art, a number of the table-linen manufacturers, in 1826, instituted an academy for drawing, but this has since been discontinued. The other manufactories in Dunfermline are, 3 breweries; 1 soap-work, which produced, in 1837, 346,960 lbs. of hard soap ; 2 candle-works ; 2 rope-works; 1 tanwork ; 1 flour-mill, with steam-engine; 4 manufactories of tobacco. In 1837 there were sold of oil tobacco 49,568 lbs., and of British rappee snuff, 33,856 lbs. There are three branch banks in the borough, viz. Bank of Scotland, British Linen Company, and Commercial Bank of Scotland. There are three harbours in the parish of Dunfermline, each about 3 m.srom the town, namely, Charleston, Bruce. haven, and Limekilns. The last, which takes its name from lime having been burnt here previously to its being a village and harbour, cannot admit vessels of more than 200 tons burden. Its pop. is 1,100. Charleston, which was founded in 1761, and contains about 900 inhab., admits vessels of 400 tons. Its basin is capacious, and perfectly sheltered from every wind. It forms the chief port of Dunfermline; but as the United States take about a third part of the whole goods, manufactured in the burgh, this large portion is shipped, not at Charleston, but at Greenock. A railroad, the private property of the Earl of Elgin, connects Dunfermline and Charleston. The parish of Dunfermline abounds in mineral wealth, viz., coals, lime, and ironstone. The coal has been wrought for upwards of 500 years. There are pits in the vicinity of the burgh on the N. E. and W. sides; but there is no workable coal under its foundations. The quantity worked in the parish is nearly 200,000 tons yearly. The two harbours referred to were originally constructed by Lord Elgin, whose collieries and lime-works are on a very extensive scale. There is a railroad running from some of the coal and lime works in the E. of the parish, to Inverkeithing, on the Frith of Forth, about 5 m. E. of Charleston. From what has already been said, Dunfermline, it is evident, can boast of great antiquity. . A tower or fort, built here by Malcolm Caenmore in the 11th century, gave origin to the burgh. The same king also founded a spacious Benedictine monastery, which ultimately became one of the most wealthy and important institutions of the kind in Scotland; and ordained that its precincts should form the burying-place of the Scottish kings. His own remains and those of his consort, Queen Margaret, were interred there, as also those of eight others of the royal line, including Robert Bruce. Dunfermline continued to be a favourite royal residence as long as the Scottish dynasty existed. Charles I. was born here ; as also his sister Elizabeth, afterwards queen of Bohemia, from whom her present majesty is descended ; and Charles II. paid a visit to this ancient seat of royalty in 1650. The Scottish parliament was often held in it. The date of the erection of the palace is unknown ; but it was much extended by James IV. in 1500. Nothing now remains of it but the S. wall, and a vaulted apartment which was the king's cellar, having the kitchen above. Of the tower, erected by King Malcolm, only a mouldering fragment is now seen. ... Of the monastery, which was once of great extent, nothing remains entire except the S. and W. walls of the fratery, or refectory, in the latter of which is a sine Gothic window ; and the nave of the old abbey church, which, as above stated, forms the vestibule to the new church. But enough remains both of the abbey and palace to indicate the extent and magnificence of the original buildings. We may conclude by mentioning, that, ancient as the place is, it was not

made a royal burgh till 1588. The constabulary force of the town is of very old standing ; the force is 20 in num| ber, chosen by the council; one of them, elected by themselves as chief, is dignified with the title of “My Lord.” Dunfermline unites with Stirling, Inverkeithing, Culross, and Queensferry, in sending a mem. to the H. of | C., and in 1839-40 had 571 registered voters, being about the half of the whole constituency. (Fernie's Hist. of Dunfermline ; Mercer's ditto ; Keith's Cat. of Sc. | Bishops, New stat. Acc. of Scot. § Dunfermline; Private | Information.) UNGANNON, an inland town and parl, bor. of Ireland, co. Tyrone, |''. Ulster, 12 m. N. by W. Armagh, and 7 m. W. Lough Neagh. Pop, in 1831, 3,515; pop. of par., in 1834, 6,236, of whom i,784 were of the estab. church, 500 Prot, diss., and 3,952 Rom. Cath. The town consists of a square, with several good streets branching from it along the sides of a hill. "It is not increasing, but, on the contrary, on the decline, if we may judge from the average proportion of uninhabited houses. The linen trade has declined very considerably, and that in grain is not so good as formerly.” (Boundary Report.) The ar. church is a large ancient building, and it has also a om. Cath. chapel, and meeting-houses for Presbyterians, Seceders, and Methodists; a classical school, founded in the . of Charles 1., well endowed, and capable of accommodating 100 o: pupils; a dispensary, and a mendicity institution. The corporation, under a charter of Jas. I., in 1612, consists of a portreeve, burgesses, and commons. The town returned 2 mems. to the Irish H. of C. till the Union, since which it has returned 1 mem. to the imperial H. of C. Previously to the Reform Act the franchise was vested in the portreeve and burgesses. The ancient liberties of the bor. comprised 836 acres, but the parl. bor, has been restricted to 224 acres. Registered electors (1838-39), 167. A manor court, with jurisdiction to the amount of 20/., is held every three weeks; as also general sessions twice in the year, and |. sessions every fortnight. The court-house, with a ridewell attached, is a handsome modern building: a party of the constabulary is stationed here. The linen manufacture, though much fallen off, is still carried on pretty extensively, and there are several bleach-greens in the neighbourhood: earthenware and pottery are also manufactured, and there are iron-works, a brewery, and a large distillery. . It is supplied with coal from the neighbouring mines of Drumglass and Coal Island, and also by the Newry Canal from England. Markets held Tuesdays and Thursdays, in a spacious and convenient market-house: fairs on the first Thursday of every month. Post-office revenue increased from 857l., in 1830, to 1,308l. in 1836. Branches of the Provincial and Belfast banks were opened here in 1834, and of the Agricultural in 1836 his place was the chief seat of the O’Neals, chieftains of ū. and suffered much in the struggles made by that family to maintain their independence against the English. In the war of 1641, Dungannon was taken by Sir Phelim O'Neal, and afterwards by the parliamentary forces, by whom the castle was dismantled. In 1782 delegates from all the . of Ulster volunteers met here, and published a manifesto declaratory of the independence of the Irish parliament. (Stat. Surv.;

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ford. Pop. in 1821, 5,105; in 1831, 6,519: pop. of par. in 1834, 13,372, of whom 335 were of the estab. church, and 13,037 Rom. Cath. As vessels of above 150 tons cannot come up to the town, it is not a place of much trade, though some corn and other produce is shipped for England. Recently it has been much im ... o .. the exertions of the Duke of Devonshire, who has built, at his own expense, a handsome bridge, connecting the main body of the town with the suburb of Abbeyside, on the opposite bank of the river. It has a meat appearance, and is a good deal resorted to for sea-bathing ; but is not rich in proportion to its population, because of the vast numbers of small houses that have been erected, for the purpose of qualifying voters, the occupiers of which are mostly dependent on fishing, or some such precarious employment. The public buildings are the par. church, a new and splendid Rom. Cath. chapel, with three others belonging to convents, a school-house for 800 pupils, a court-house and bridewell, a barrack, and a fever hosital and dispensary. It returned 2 mems. to the Irish Hor C. till the Union, since which it has returned 1 mem. to the imperial H. of C. Previously to the Reform Act, the franchise was vested in the occupiers of 5/. houses in the town. and the resident 40s. freeholders of the manor. The latter comprised about 10,000 acres, and had in 1831 a pop. of 1,858. But the extent of the existing parl, boundary, as fixed by the Boundary Act, does not exceed 430 stat. acres. !o of parl. bor. in 1831, 8,387 ; registered electors (1838-39), 460. A manor court is held every three weeks ; also general sessions in Jan., April, and Oct., and petty sessions on Thursdays. Mar

kets on Wednesdays and Saturdays; fairs Feb. 7, June
22. Aug. 27., and Nov. 8. The deep sea fishery was
formerly carried on here pretty extensively, but has lat-
terly much declined. Post-office revenue in 1830, 5841. ;
in 1836, 760t. Branches of the Provincial and National
banks were opened in 1835. (Bouadary Report ; Smith's
"of c.)
DUN KELD, a bor. of barony and market-town of
Scotland, co. Perth, on the N. bank of the Tay, 15 m. N.
by w. Perth, and 49 m.N. by W. Edinburgh. Pop. (1838)
1867. Little Dunkeld is a suburb, though in a different
arish, being divided from the bor. by the Tay, which is
here crossed by an elegant bridge of 7 arches, built in
1800. Except a handsome new street leading from the
bridge into the town, the houses, are generally, old
and of mean appearance. But the situation of Dunkeld
and the surrounding scenery are the most beautiful
imaginable, and have long been objects, of admiration
to every stranger. The town is situated in the centre of
a valley surrounded by mountains of considerable ele-
vation, presenting a great variety of picturesque forms,
and covered to their summits with trees of every o
It is, besides, regarded as the great pass to the Highlands
on the E. : the bulk of its inhab. are of Highland origin,
and speak the Gaelic language. The banks of the moun-
tain stream Braan, which joins the Tay nearly opposite
to Dunkeld, present some of the most striking scenery
connected with the place. Dunkeld House, the resi-
dence of the ducal family of Atholl, is on the verge of
the town, and the style, extent, and natural and artificial
beauties of the pleasure-grounds are not equalled by any
in Scotland. he late duke began a new mansion on a
scale of great magnificence, but his death in 1830 put an
end to the undertaking. But perhaps the most imposing
object in or about Dunkeld is its cathedral, delightfully
situated on the banks of the Tay; an edifice partly
Saxon and Gothic, and the remains of which, owing to the
care of the family of Atholl, are both extensive and in
good preservation. The choir of the building is used as
the pārish church. Different portions of the cathedral
were erected at different times, but the oldest portion,
the choir, was built in 1350. , Gavin Douglas, who trans-
lated Virgil's “ Fneid,” and Henry Guthrie, author of
“Memoirs of Scottish Affairs from 1637 to the Death of
Charles I.,” were both bishops of this see... The Culdees
had a monastery here so early as 729. When Iona, the
original and chief seat of that order, was ravaged by
the Danes in the 9th century, the primacy resided for
some time in Dunkeld, but was afterwards transferred
to St. Andrews. “But the rank of the abbots of Dun-
keld,” says Pinkerton, “one of whom was the father
of a royal race in Scotland, and another, Ethelred, the
son of Malcolm III., sufficiently marks the estimation in
which that dignity was long held.”, (Parly Hist, of Scot-
land, ii. 271,272.) The o however, was changed
by David I. into a cathedral in 1127, at or about which
period the system of the Culdees was superseded through-
out Scotland by that of the Roman Catholics. (Chambers's
Gaz of Scotland ; Keith's Scottish Bishops, Dunkołd.)
DUNK1RK (Fr. Dunkerque, the Church of the
Dunes, or Sand Banks), a sea-port town of France,
and the most northerly in that kingdom, dép. du
Nord, cap. arrond., on the Straits of Dover, 40 m.
N. W. Lille, and 47 m. E. Dover; lat. 51° 2' 9” N.,
long. 22 22° 37' E. Pop. (1830) 23,808. It is well
built, and has broad and well-paved streets. The
Champ-de-Mars, and the Place Jean, Bart, are large
and fine squares; the latter, which is planted with trees,
has a bust of the brave sailor whose name it bears,
and who was a native of Dunkirk; but this is said by
Ilugo to be petit et mesquin. The greatest drawbac
upon the town is its want of good water; it being in-
debted for this necessary wholly to the rain-water col-
lected in cisterns. Its defences consist of a rampart
and ditch, a citadel, and Fort Louis, about 3–4ths of a
mile distant: the fortifications were formerly more for-
midable, but having been demolished, according to the
stipulations in the treaty of Utrecht, they have not
been o re-established. . Principal public build-
ings are the church of St. Eloi, with its fine portico,
the naval storehouses, barracks, town-hall, college,
&c. The Tour des Pilotes serves for a landmark,
and was one of the positions whence Cassini, and
more recently Biot and Arrago, conducted their observ-
ations relating to the map of France, and, the measure-
ment of the earth: it has a very fine chime of bells.
Dunkirk has also a communal college, a public library
containing 18,000 vols., a school of hydrography, a
theatre and concert-hall.
The harbour of Dunkirk, though in a great degree
artificial, is large and commodious ; but a sand bank,
which dries at low water, being interposed between the
town and the roadstead, it is rather difficult of access,
and is apt to fill up ; but these inconveniences have
been to a considerable extent obviated by works con-
structed in 1826. Dunkirk has both an inner and an
out or roadsteau, defended from the violence of the sea by

sand-banks parallel to the shore, and having deep water and good holding ground. Being connected, by means of numerous canals, with a very fertile district, ń. is a considerable emporium. The inhabitants have always been distinguished for enterprise During the late and former wars between England and France, great numbers of privateers were fitted out here, that inflicted very serious injury on our trade. At present several vessels belonging to the port are engaged in the herring-fishery, and in the cod-fishery on the Dogger bank, and the banks of Newfoundland. Dunkirk was made a free port in 1825, since which its commerce has materially increased, particularly its trade in French wines destined for the supply of Belgium, of which it is a depot. It has extensive soap-works, with starchworks, rope-works, tanneries, and iron-soundries. It has also considerable. Geneva distilleries, breweries, sugar-refineries, &c. It has a general and a foundling hospital, a military and civil prison ; and is the seat of a sub-prefect and of tribunals of primary jurisdiction and commerce. . It is said to have been founded by Baldwin, count of Flanders, in 960; in 1388 it was burnt by the English ; and in the 16th and 17th centuries

lternately belonged to them and to the Spaniards and French. Charles II. sold it to Louis XIV. for 200,000l., who, aware of its importance, had it strongly fortified at a vast expense. But, as already stated, Louis was compelled, by the treaty of Utrecht, to consent to the demolition of its fortifications, and even to the shutting up of its port!. It was unsuccessfully besieged by the Puke of York in 1793. (Hugo, art. Nord; Dict. Geog.

non.) 1) UNLOP, a par. of Scotland, celebrated for its manufacture of cheese, partly in the co. of Ayr, and partly in that of Renfrew, 8 m. N. Kilmarnock. The village of Dunlop in the par. has 284 inhab ; the aggregate pop. of the pār. in 1835, was 1,157. Dunlop cheese has for ". a century and a half held a high character. Previously to this date, or between 1688 and 1700, cheese here. as well as throughout Scotland, was made of skimmed milk, as is still the case in various districts. A female of the name of Barbara Gilmour, who had fled to Ireland during the persecuting times of Charles II., returned at the Revolution, and, having married a farmer, was the first to introduce the practice of using the unskimmed milk in the making of cheese. This practice, which succeeded admirably, was for a time confined to the par., but it gradually extended to almost every part of the W. and S. of Scotland, all the cheese made in these districts with unskimmed milk being called Dunlop. The fact, however, is, that cheese made in the par. of Dunlop is not superior, but inferior, to that made in other districts. The number of milch cows in the par. of Dunlop, in 1837, was 910; the average quantity of cheese made during the season from each cow is about 27 stones of 14 lbs., or 24,570 stones from the whole par. annually. In some small dairies, each cow has been known to average 42 stones annually. Besides the cheese produced in the par., a great proportion of what is manufactured in other parts of Ayrshire passes through it on its way to the consumer. Being a convenient entrepôt between the o country to the S. and W., and Glasgow, Paisley, &c., a considerable number of persons resident in Dunlop follow the business of cheese dealers, purchasing it from the farmers, and o: the victuallers in the manufacturing towns and districts. Dunlop cheeses generally weigh between 20 and 60 lbs. each. (New Stat. Account of Scotland, S Dunlop.) D UNMAN WAY, an inland town of Ireland, co. Cork, rov. Munster, near the junction of three streams, which orm the Bandon, 28 m. W. by S. Cork. Pop., in 1831, 2,738; pop. of par. in 1834, 11,649, of whom 1,613 were of the estab, church, 45 Prot. diss., and 9,900 Rom. Cath. It has a par. church, a Rom. Cath. chapel, a markethouse, and a bridewell. The linen trade, after being for some years rather flourishing, has declined; but tanning aud brewing, and the corn trade, are largely carried on. A manor court is held every third Saturday, and petty sessions on alternate Mondays. DUN SE, abor. of barony, and market town of Scotland, co. Berwick, in a plain at the S. foot of Dunse Law, an eminence 630 st. above the level of the sea, 13 m. W. Berwick-upon-Tweed, and 36 m. S. E. lodinburgh. Pop. 2,656, families 630. Dunse is neat and regularly built, but devoid of public buildings, except the town-hall and Dunse Castle, in its vicinity, the residence of the feudal superior of the bor., of Gothic architecture, the greater part modern, but added to an ancient tower said to have been built by Itaúdolph Earl of Murray, in the time of Itobert Bruce. The par. church is a plain building ; as are the three dissenting chapels belonging to the Associate Synod, and the Relief. The means of education are ample; a par. school, an eminent unendowed academy, six other unendowed schools, besides private seminaries for females, and several Sabbath schools. A subscription library was commenced so far back as 1768. There are two circulating libraries, and a reading-room.


The assessment for the poor of the bor. and par. is 710/. There are two friendly societies, a savings' bank, and two branch banks. There is a weekly market, three fairs for black cattle and horses annually, and a quarterly fair for sheep. Dunse was erected into a burgh of barony by James IV. in 1489; it was then situated on the N.W. side of H]unse Law ; but having been afterwards burnt by the English, it was rebuilt in 1588, and its |. site adopted, in order that it might be more immediately under the protection of Dunse Castle. After Berwickupon-Tweed was ceded to the English (1482), and ceased to be the co. town, Dunse enjoyed that distinction in common with Lauder. It was afterwards (1600) transferred by act of parliament to Greenlaw; but Dunse was not altogether §. of the privilege till 1696. It is, however, by far the largest and most important town in the co., and more country business is done in it than in both the towns referred to. In 1639, when Charles I. lay on the S. side of the Tweed with the intention of reducing the Scotch Presbyterians to submission, General Leslie took up his station on Dunse Law, with a body of 20,000 Covenanters, to defend the country from lo, After the two armies had continued in this position for three weeks, a treaty of peace was concluded, and both were dissolved. Dunse has given birth to many distinguished men, among whom may be specified, John I)uns Scotus, the Subtle Doctor, descended of the ancient family (not long extinct) of Duns of Duns, or of that ilk; Boston, author of the Fourfold State and other works; I}r. M'Crie, the historian of Knox; Mr. John Black, the learned and able editor of the Morning Chronicle, &c. (New St. Acc. of Scotland, Dunse; Chambers's Gaz. of Scotland.) DUNSTABLE, a town and par. of England, co. Bedford, hund. Manshead: area of par., 520 acres. Pop of ditto, 2,117. The town, situated on the S. acclivity of the Chiltern Hills, near the source of the Lea, on the road from London to Fenny Stratford, 32 m. N.W. the former, has four streets, and is pretty well built. A celebrated priory was founded here by Henry I., in 1131, of which the par. church contains the nave. The Baptists and Methodists have also places of worship. Here is a charity school, founded in 1727, for 40 boys and 15 girls : with 12 almshouses for poor widows, and 6 do. for decayed maiden ladies. Dunstable is the principal seat of the British straw plait manufacture, which ...!!!". many females in the town and so Ladies' straw hats were, and still are, not unfrequent y called Dunstables. (For a full account of this manufacture, see Commercial Dictionary, art. HATs (STRAw). Market-day, Wednesday. DUN WICH, a oil. bor, and par. of England, co. Suffolk, hund. Blything, on the E. coast of the co., 90 m. N.E. London, and 26 m. N.E. Ipswich. Pop. in 1831, 232. Though now a poor fishing station, this was once an important sea-port, having an extensive trade, a large population, 2 abbeys, and several churches. It has been reduced to its present state of insignificance by repeated inroads of the sea; and would probably have been totally abandoned, but for its having had the privilege of returning 2 mem. to the H. of C. The encroachment of the sea began previously to the Conquest. In the reign of Edward III., an inundation swallowed up more than 460 substantial houses. The last great encroachment was in 1740; but the sea has continued progressively to encroach on the land; and at present there remains only the ruins of one of its many churches. It was disfranchised by the Reform Act ; and no longer attracts any attention, except from those who visit the coast to study the great natural revolutions of which it has been the theatre. (Campbell's Survey, i. 277. ; Lycil's o i. 403. 3d ed.) DURANGO, a town of Mexico, cap. of the state of the same name, in the Sierra Madre, 6,848 st. above the level of the sea, 450 m. N.W. Mexico, and 150 m. N.W. by W. Zacatecas; lat. 24° 25' N., long. 1080 15' W. Pop. 22,000. (Ward.) It is regularly built, and contains a cathedral and other churches, several convents, a mint, and a theatre. It is the seat of a bishopric. Its inhabs. are industrious : they manufacture many wooden articles, woollen goods and leather, and have a considerable trade in cattle. Iron mines are worked in the viciuity. ( Ward's Craco. ###Azzo (an. Epidamnus and Dyrrachium), a seat town of Turkey in Europe, Albania, on the E. shore of the Adriatic, and on the S. side of a projecting tongue of land, 7 m. S. Cape Pali; lat. 41° 17'32° N., long. 19926’ 44' E. Pop. 5,000. ” This town, which has greatly declined from its ancient importance, is surrounded by walls, and is indifferently fortified. It has some trade in the export of corn. The bay, on the N. side of which it stands, is 5 m. broad from N. to S., with from 7 to 3 sa’homs water, the best anchorage being about 13 m. S by E. from the town. According to Plautus, the inhab. of Dyrrachium were immersed in every sort of debauchery and vice ; wherefore, says he, –

hulcurbi nomen Epidamno inditum est, Quia memo ferme huc sine damno divortitur !” Menarchmi, Act ii. Sc. 1. And certainly, if we may depend on the statements of M. Poucqueville, their descendants at the present day, if they be less luxurious, exhibit few other symptoms of improvement. He calls their town une anarchie, un repaire de pirates, un sojour d'assassins, et le receptacle opter des scélérats qui peuvent s'echapper des cotes de l'Italie 1 (Voyage dans la Grèce, i. 326.) Dyrrachium was founded by a colony from Corcyra, anno 625 B. C. After it fell into the hands of the tromans, it became a place of great importance, from its }..."; the port which vessels from Brundusium, bound for the opposite coast, endeavoured to make ; and from its being the usual place of departure for ships crossing the Adriatic with despatches or passengers from Greece for Italy. It became the seat of some important strateso operations during the struggle between Caesar and ompey, which terminated advantageously for the latter. (Caesar, de Bello Civili, iii. S.41).) It was made a Roman colony by Augustus ; and, after various vicissitudes, was subjected to the Turks, under whose destructive sway it still continues, by Bajazet II. DURHAM, a marit. co, in the N. of England, having E. the German Ocean, N. Northumberland, W. Cumber. land and Westmoreland, and S. Yorkshire. Area, 702.080 acres. In its W. parts it is o by offsets from the Pennine range of mountains, and by black heathy moors. Soil in parts good; but generally it rests on a sub-soil of stiff clay, and is cold and infertile. It is a curious fact, however, that the W. parts of the co., though naturally the least productive, are the best cultivated. Principal crops, wheat, oats, barley, beans, and pease. A mixture of rye and wheat, provincially called massin, is also rather extensively cultivated. Turnips are generally introduced, particularly in the W. districts. Limé, of which there is an abundant supply, is principally used as manure, the quantity applied being from 70 to 80 bushels an acre. Ijrainage is much neglected in the E. parts of the co, which, in consequence, are in a comparatively backward state. The Teeswater breed of shorthorned cattle, so called from the river Tees, which bounds the co. on the S., is admitted to be one of the very best, both for feeding and milking, and is now very widely diffused. Sheep mostly Cheviots; stock estimated at between 200,000 and 250,000 head. A great deal of property belongs to the church, and there are besides some large estates ; but property is, notwithstanding, a good deal subdivided. Farms of all sizes, but the greater number rather small ; and the condition of the occupiers of the small farms is said to be very unfavourable. Average rent of land, in 1810, 14s. 5d. an acre. Durham has some of the most extensive and valuable coal-fields in the kingdom ; and she has also valuable lead and iron mines. , Vast quantities of grind-stones are produced from the quarries at Gateshead Fell. Manufactures various, but not very extensive or important. Principal rivers, Tees, Wear, and I)erwent. Ijurham has 4 wards and 75 parishes, and returns 10 mems. to the H. of C., viz. 4 for the co., 2 each for the city of Durham and Sunderland, and 1 each for Gateshead and S. shields. Registered electors for the co., in 1838-39, 10,305, being 5.325 for the N., and 4.980 for the S, div. Principai towns, Durham city, Sunderland, Gateshead, S. Shields, !)arlington. In 1831, Durham had 40,740 inhab houses, 54,736 families, and 253.910 inhab., of whom 121,748 were males, and 132,162 females. Sum paid for relief of poor in 1838, 61,369t. Annual value of real property in is 15, 885,5801. Profits of trades and professions in do., 253,631/. DURHAM (originally Dunholme, from dun a hin, and holme a river), an ancient and celebrated city of England, cap. co. same name, and nearly in its centre, on a bend of the river Wear, 230 m. N. by W. London, and 65 m. N.N. W. York ; lat. 54° 36' 31° N., long. 1934’ 6” W. Pop. in 1821, 10,282; in 1831, 10,520; but from the latter epoch down to the present }. (1840), there has been a great increase in the pop. of the town and its immediate vicinity, occasioned chiefly by the opening of several new and extensive collieries. %. at next census, the pop. of the city and neighbourhood, within 3 or 4 m. on each side of the former, will be ascertained to be little short of 40,000. The grand objects of interest in the city are the cathedral and castle; their appearance from the surrounding country is most striking, being situated in a rocky peninsula, elevated about 80 ft. above the Wear, by o it is nearly encircled. The first of these structures, begun in the reign of William Rufus, but much enlarged and improved in subsequent ages, is a large and majestic pile of Norman architecture: it is 461 ft. in length, by about 200 in extreme breadth, from the .N. to the S. transept ; it has a central tower, 214 ft. in height; and at the W. end are two low towers, once topped with spires. The inside has much of the clumsy though venerable magnificence of the early Norman style. The pillars are vast cylinders, 23 ft. in circumference, and variously adorned. In the

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