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lanes, which are mostly steep and difficult of passage, being rarely more than 6 ft. in width, and in general very dirty. Those of the greatest width, or which admit of a cart or o are termed wynds, as Blackfriars' Wynd, St. Mary's Wynd, &c., while those which admit foot passengers only, are called closes. A few have no thoroughfare, being in the form of culs de sac. The High Street, which (including the Castle Hill, Lawn Market, and Canongate) stretches in nearly astraight line from the Castle to the Palace, a distance, as already stated, of more than 1 m., is a truly magnificent street; it is about 90 ft. in breadth, the houses, which vary from five to six or seven stories in height, have been mostly rebuilt; but a few, especially those on the Castle Hill, are of great antiquity. This street, with its shelving lanes and appendages, constitutes the whole of what is properly the “old town.” It is connected with the southern districts by the Cowgate, and by two bridges which stretch over the valley in which that street is built, viz. the South Bridge, opened in 1788, and George the Fourth's Bridge, opened in 1836. On the other hand, the Old and New Towns are connected by the North Bridge, which spans the North Loch, and forms a continuation of the line of the South Bridge, and by the “Earthen Mound.” The North Bridge, which consists of 3 central arches, with several smaller ones at each extremity, was opened in 1768; while the Mound, which was beun in 1784 from the accumulation of the rubbish rom the excavations of the New Town, was formed into a thoroughfare about the beginning of the present century, but it has since received great additions. It is supposed to contain 500,500 cubic yards, or about 1,500,000 cartloads of earth. W. of the Cowgate lies the Grass Market, a wide, open street, used as a marketplace for the sale of horses, sheep, corn, &c. The New Town, which, as well as the more modern parts of the southern districts, is built of light-coloured freestone, procured in abundance in the immediate vicinity of the city, stands on an eminence, which slopes to the Water of Leith, the small river at the mouth of which Leith is built. The leading streets run in straight lines from E. to W., and are crossed at the distance of about every 250 yards, o streets running in an opposite direction; so that great regularity, elegance, and beauty, characterise this lo. of the city. George's Street, which stretches along the top of the ridge, is terminated on the E. by St. Andrew's Square, and on the W. by Charlotte i. Great King Street, which lies considerab y down the declivity, and nearer the Water of Leith, has, in like manner, the Royal Circus on the W., and Drummond Place on the E. There are, also, James's Square (the oldest in the New Town), and Rutland Square, recently built. Nor is variety, in other respects, entirely wanting. Another New Town may be said to have lately (1822-3) risen up, covering about 30 acres of ground, having Moray Place in its centre, and Randolph Crescent on the W. This is by far the most elegant and fashionable part of the city. The feus, or building leases, in this quarter fetch from 20s, to 40s. annually per foot of frontage. This portion of the city is terminated by the steep banks of the Water of Leith, and is connected with the grounds N. of that stream by the Dean Bridge, an elegant structure, consisting of 4 arches, each 96 ft. span, the height of the road-way above the bed of the river being 106 ft. One of the most celebrated streets in the New Town is Prince's Street, forming a

which it commands a fine view, which, especially % moonlight, is probably unequalled. Waterloo ridge connects this street with the Calton Hill, being thrown over a deep ravine occupied with ancient, but shabby buildings, called the Low Calton. The line of road, to which this bridge leads along the E. side of the Calton Hill, forms a grand approach to the city in this direction. The Queen Street Gardens, a piece of ground which extends from E. to W., about 3 of a m., and are about 200 yards in width, may be regarded as bisecting the New Town. Elegant streets have, at different periods, been built W. of Prince's Street and Charlotte Square, of which the most important are Athol and Coates's Crescents: the greatest length of the New Town, from Athol Place to the termination of Waterloo Bridge, is 14 m. The situation of the southern districts is considerably more elevated than that of the New Town; but the buildings are of an inferior order, nor has much regularity been observed in the laying out of the streets. The houses are high, mostly four stories, and common stairs prevail, with partial exceptions, particularly in George's Square; this, which is the most elegant and fashionable place in this quarter of the town, was built above 70 years ago, and is of large dimensions. It has on the W. the public walk leading to the Meadows; and on the S. it is separated from them by Buccleugh Place. The principal line of buildings is Nicolson Street, which stretches from the South Bridge, already mentioned, to the country on the §: and now forms the main approach to the city in this direction. The former approaches on this side were parallel to Nicolson Street, being an old street, called the Pleasance, on the E., and the Causeway Side on the W. While the Meadows bound the southern districts on the W., a valley or ravine, fronting Salisbury Crags, forms their termination on the E. Not a few of the ublic buildings, including the University, are in this district. The original royalty, or “borough roods,” embraced only the Old Town, excluding even the Canongate, which intervenes between it and the Palace. But the “extended royalty,” as it is called, obtained from Parliament in 1767, while it excludes the o: embraces the whole of the New Town, with the exception of a few streets which have stretched beyond its limits. The suburbs of Edinburgh may be briefly enumerated: – the Canongate, including the Calton, a contiguous hamlet at the base of the hill of that name, the superiority of which is vested in the city of Edinburgh. e town council of the city possesses a veto on the election of two resident bailies for the Canongate: that body, besides, appoints one of its own members as baron-bailie. Wester and Easter Portsburgh, the former lying W. of the Grass Market, and the latter, now called the Potter Row, S. E. These two places, which are of considerable antiquity, and which took their names from ports or gateways in the Old Town Wall, are also subject to the city of Edinburgh, being governed in a similar way as the Canongate. Leith was formerly in the same predicament; but it has of late years been rendered entirely free and independent. Broughton, a burgh of regality under the same jurisdiction, and lying on the site of the streets in the New Town, which now bears its name, has been nearly obliterated, and will soon entirely disappear. Its separate jurisdiction was destroyed when the Act for extending the royalty was Edinburgh was first walled in 1450. But the wall was confined to the town as it then existed; that is, it did not embrace the Canongate, nor did it extend so far S. as the site now occupied by the Cowgate. But after the fatal battle of #. in 1513, a new wall was built, comprising not merely the Cowgate, but the acclivity S. of that street, and running parallel to it throughout its whole length. Some remains of this wall, which enclosed the ground now occupied by the workhouse, the University, Infirmary, Old High School, &c., are yet standing. A number of ports, or gates, gave access to the city in different directions, the last of which was removed in 1785. The Netherbow port, between the High Street, and the Canongate, removed in 1764, was ornamented with a spire.

species of terrace, and facing the Old Town, of obtained.

Public Buildings, – Of these the castle deserves the first notice. The date of its foundation is unknown. It was originally called Castrum Puellarum, because the daughters of the Pictish kings were educated and kept in it till their marriage—a necessary precaution in these barbarous times. Queen Margaret, widow of Malcolm Caenmore, died in this fortress in 1093. James VI. of Scotland, and afterwards I. of England, was born here in 1556. The fortress, which corresponds with none of the rules of art, being built according to the irregular form of the preciice on which it stands, is any thing but o e. It }. been successively taken and retaken by contending arties, and was often in the hands of the English. It is, n short, of little or no strength, and is interesting only from its romantic situation on the top of a rugged rock, perpendicular on all sides except on that next the Old Town, the splendid view which it commands, and the many historical associations connected with it. It was occasionally used as a royal residence. In an apartment called the crown room were deposited the Scottish regalia at the Union in 1707: these relics, which consisted of the crown, sceptre, sword of state, and the lord treasurer's rod of office, were long supposed to have been removed or lost, but they were discovered, in 1818, in a large oaken chest in the crown room, by royal commissioners appointed to conduct the search. hey are now open to the gratuitous inspection of the public. The Palace of Holyrood, which stands at the E. extremity of the city, next claims our attention. It is a fine castellated edifice, of a quadrangular form, with an open area in the centre, 94 ft. square. The most ancient parts of the present palace were built by James V. in 1528. It was partially §. by the English during the minority of Queen Mary, and again by the soldiers of Oliver Cromwell; but after the Restoration it was repaired and altered to its present form by Charles II. The Pretender took up his residence here in 1745. George IV., on his visit to Scotland in 1822, though he resided at Dalkeith palace, held levees and drawingrooms in this ancient abode of his ancestors. Meetings of privy council were also held here. The Count d'Artois, erwards Charles X. of France, and other royal and noble French refugees, obtained a refuge here in 1793; and in 1831 the same apartments served a second time as an asylum for nearly the same individuals. It has a peculiar interest, from the circumstance of the apartments occupied by Queen Mary having been carefully preserved in the state in which she left them. Her bed is an object of interest to all strangers ; and many relics of her majesty's needlework exist in the rooms. The spot where Darnley, and his accomlices murdered her favourite, David Rizzio, piercing É. body with fifty-six wounds, and other interesting localities, are carefully marked. The closet in which Mary was at supper, with the Countess of Argyle, Rizzio, and others, when this tragical scene was acted, is only 12 ft. square. In what is called the picture gallery, a hall 150 ft. in length, and 274,in breadth, are hung the portraits (most of them fanciful) of l l l Scottish monarchs, painted towards the end of the 17th century by De Witt, an artist of the Flemish school, by order of James II. of England, when Duke of York. In this hall the election of § 16 Scottish representative peers takes lace. p In immediate connection with the palace on the N., are the ruins of the Abbey of Holyrood, founded by David I. in 1128. The king conferred a large endowment and other privileges on the monks (of the order of St. Augustine) whom he established here; among these, the privilege of erecting a burgh between the abbey and the town . Edinburgh. Hence the origin of the Canonate, the superiority of which at the Reformation passed rom the hands of the monks to the Earl of IRoxburgh,

from whom it was purchased in 1636 by the city of Edinburgh, which still retains it. At the Reformation, the buildings connected with this abbey suffered much ; and it is now in a state of ruin, the roof having fallen in so long ago as 1773. The area of the royal chapel, which formed the nave of the Abbey church, has long been used as a burial-place by several of the Scotch nobility. In the S.E. corner of the chapel is the royal vault, in which are deposited the remains of several of the Scotch sovereigns, and branches of their families. The precincts of the Abbey of Holyrood, including Arthur's Seat and Salisbury Crags, constitute a sanctuary for insolvent debtors. The buildings of the Royal Institution, an edifice in a pure classical style, situated at the N. termination of the Earthen Mound, and fronting Princes Street, have a range of Doric pillars on each side, and another range surmounted with a pediment in front. The Royal Institution, under whose auspices this structure was founded, was incorporated by royal charter in 1827, for the purpose of encouraging the fine arts in Scotland. Its leading object, is the annual exhibition of pictures of living artists, as also occasionally to offer exhibitions of pictures by the old masters. In 1826 a separate establishment was founded by a body of artists, with similar objects in view, entitled the Scottish Academy of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture, which has since had regular annual exhibitions, and recently, obtained a royal charter, and apartments in the Royal Institution. An off-shot from this body, we may here mention, took place in 1838, entitled the Society of Scottish Artists, which has had two annual exhibitions. The Royal Society of Edinburgh, the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, the Society of Arts, and the Board of Trustees, which last was instituted in 1727, for encouragement of trade and manufactures in Scotland, have also apartments under the roof of the Scottish Institution. The Board of Trustees, besides the primary object for which it was founded, pays 500i. a year to the Royal Institution for the encouragement of the fine arts. The Calton Hill is the site of several interesting monuments; that of Nelson, though by no means in the best taste, is the most prominent; it stands on the edge of a precipice, and consists of a lofty circular hollow tower, having a stair inside, and battlements at the top. Here, also, is the National Monument, in commemoration of the naval and military glories of the late French war. The foundation stone of the latter was laid in 1822, when George IV. was in Scotland; but from the want of funds, only 15 columns have been finished. It is meant to be a fac-simile of the Parthenon in the acropolis of Athens, except that it is of sandstone, whereas its great prototype is of marble, and to contain both a church and a place of sepulture. On the same hill are monuments to Dugald Stewart, the celebrated o and Professor Playfair ; the former singularly chaste and beautiful, being a reproduction, with some variations, of the choragic monument of Lysicrates at Athens. . On the S. of the hill, on a detached eminence overlooking the Canongate, is a monument to Robert Burns, belonging to the Corinthian order. The form of the cupola is an exact representation of that of Lysicrates. The Calton Hill is also the site of the Observatory and of the High School. On the S.W. corner of the hill, along the right of the road leading from Princes Street to the ...} on the E., stand Bridewell and the Gaol, two heavy and plain but well arranged buildings. There are various other monuments in different parts of the town: that to the late Lord Melville, in St. Andrew's Square, consists of a column, surmounted by a statue, total height 153 ft., after the model of Trajan's pillar at Rome, but the shaft, instead of being ornamented with sculpture, as is the case with its archetype, is fluted. Bronze statues of George IV. and William Pitt, by Chantrey, are placed on granite pedestals in George Street, at the crossings, respectively, of Hanover Street and Frederick Street; and a bronze statue of the late earl of Hopetoun, by the same artist, is placed within a vacant space, opposite to the office of the Royal Bank, in St. Andrew's Square. Another bronze statue, by Campbell, of the late Duke of York has recently been erected on the Castle Hill, between the High Street and the castle. Ample subscriptions have been obtained for monuments to Sir W. Scott and the Duke of Wellington; that to the latter to consist of a triumphal arch and an equestrian statue; but the site for neither has et been fixed. The monument of David Hume, the istorian, within the old Calton Hill burying-ground, is a conspicuous and interesting object. The Register Office, a building erected to preserve the public records of Scotland, was constructed after a plan designed by Mr. Rob. Adam, and though begun in 1774 was not completed till 1822. It is situated at the E. end of Princes Street, and fronts the North Bridge. The building, which is of two stories, exclusive of the basement floor, consists of a square of 200 ft., with a quad

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rangular court in the centre, covered by a dome of 50 ft. diameter. It has great architectural beauty. Its front is ornamented with Corinthian pilasters, supporting a sediment, within which are the royal arms of Great ritain, with a fine entablature of the same order, It is disposed in nearly 100 small arched apartments entering from long corridors on both stories; and, though heated by slues, is, from the total absence of timber, proof against fire. Churches, &c.–Edinburgh originally consisted of one parish, and John Knox was, for a time, the only minister of the city, that is, of the ancient royalty, independent of the suburbs.... The single place of worship at that time was St. Giles's, or the High church. In 1625, the royalty was divided into 4 pars. ; in 1641, into 6; and now (1840) into 9; but including the extended royalty, the number of pars. is 14, of which 4 are collegiate, or have each 2 clergymen; onto the number of parochial ministers in the city is 18. 'I his is exclusive of the Canongate, whose church is collegiate, and of the par. of St. Cuthbert; which latter, after having had 4 of the city pars. formed out of it, still contains no fewer than 58,887 inhab. Its par. church is collegiate. But in addition to the parishes recognised by the civil law, there are no fewer than 13 quoad sacra, or ecclesiastical pars., each having a distinct church and clergyman : most of these have been formed since 1834. The most important ecclesiastical edifice is St. Giles, so called after the tutelary saint of Edinburgh. It stands in the High Street, and forms the N. side of the Parliament Square. It is an ancient Gothic building, the date of its erection being unknown ; and is built in the form of a cross. Its length is 206 ft., its greatest breadth 129. It is adorned with a lofty square tower, the top of which is encircled with open figured stone-work, whilst from each corner of the tower springs an arch, which meeting together in the centre, form a magnificent imperial crown. A pointed spire, elevated 161 ft. from the ound, terminates this stately tower. Shortly aster the eformation, St. Giles was divided into separate places of worship. In 1822-23 it was thoroughly repaired, with the exception of the tower, renovated, and greatly improved in appearance by an entire casing of new freestone walls, its ancient character being at the same time carefully preserved. It now contains only two churches; but an aisle intended as a place of meeting for the General Assembly of the church, and not answering that purpose, is used temporarily for a place of worship. The High church, or Easter St. Giles, has a highly ornamented seat for the sovereign, with a canopy supported by four handsome columns. This seat was occupied by George IV., who attended divine service here when in Scotland in 1822. In the church are also the official seats of the magistrates of the city, and of the judges of the court of session. The next church, in respect of antiquity, is Trinity College church, founded in 1462, by Mary of Gueldres, widow of James II. The building, which is Gothic, and in the cathedral form, appears never to have consisted of more than the choir or E. part, and the transept or cross, the W. part having been begun but not finished. The Tron church, which stands at the point of intersection of the South Bridge Street and High Street, is also of Gothic architecture, blended with ltoman oriaments and details. The present spire of this church is 160 ft. high ; the former spire, which was of wood, was burnt down in 1824. Among the other and more modern churches, are St. Andrew's, erected in the extended royalty, in 1781, with a spire 16S st. high : St. George's, opened in 1814; St. Mary's, in 1821; St. Stephen's, in 1828; and Greenside, in 1839. St. George's, on the W. side of Charlotte Square, is a large, heavy, tasteless square fabric. From the centre rises a tower surmounted with a dome 150 ft. in height, in imitation of St. Paul's : the building cost 33,000l. The town council of Edin. burgh are the patrons of the 14 city pars. The chapels, seven in number, belonging to the Scotch Episcopal church, are generally handsome structures. f these, the principas are, St. John's, at the W., end of Princes Street, in the florid Gothic style, with a beautiful square tower 120 ft. high ; St. Paul's, in York Place, of tasteful Gothic architecture; and Trinity chapel, at the N. extremity of Dean Bridge, also in the Gothic style. The Rom. Catholics have two handsome places of worship, both Gothic ; one in the new town, and the other in the old. They have also recently instituted a convent of nuns, called St. Margaret's, at the head of Brunts field Links, attached to which is an establishment at Milton House, in the Canongate. The chapels of the various dissenting denominations are all respectable, and many of them spacious, elegant, and .."; The following is the number of places of worship in the city and suburbs (exclusive of Leith), it. the denominations to which they severally be. ong:

Established Church, including the quoud sacra
parishes - - - - 29
United Associate Synod - - - 9
Relief Synod - - - - 5
Cameronians - - - - l
Associate Synod of original leaders - - 2
Total number of Presbyterian congregations 45
Independents - - - - 5
Episcopalians - - - - 7
Roman Catholics - - - - 2
ptists - - - - 5
Methodists k U. i rians, J N. J - 4
Glassites, Quakers, Unita cows, New Jerusa-
lensites, o: 1 each - “. - 6
- 27
Total number of churches and chapels - 73

About a half of the seats let or apportioned (about 20,000), belong to the estab. church ; the other half let or . belong to one or other of the various dissenting denominations specified in the foregoing table. Notwithstanding the cry that has recently been raised about church extension, there are about 20,000 seats unlet, including all the churches and chapels in Edinburgh. (First Report of the Church Commissioners, 1837.) The city parochial clergy, 18 in number, are o chiefly by an assessment (called annuity tax) of 6 per cent. levied on all houses and shops within the ancient and extended royalty, with the exception of the dwelling houses of the members of the College of Justice, that is, of the legal practitioners before the court of session. A bill is at present (1840) before parliament, the object of which is to extend the annuity over the classes hitherto exempted from its payment, and proportionally to reduce its amount. As the rental of d. city has declined (as was previously shown) about a third within the last 14 years, the income of the city clergy has fallen off in a similar ratio. . The annuity being also a very unpopular impost, its payment is often evaded, even at the risk of imprisonment or distraining of goods, so that great defalcations are experienced in its collection. The clergy drew, till 1838, certain shore dues at Leith, and other trifling imposts; but, by an act of parliament o in that year (Edinburgh and Leith Agreement ill, cap. 55.), the sum of 2,000l. was secured to them, in lieu of all such claims. Their average income of late years has hardly reached 5 (1. Education. – Edinburgh is not more celebrated for any thing than for her literary and educational institutions: of these, the university deserves the first notice. The building of this seminary, the only foundation of the kind established in Scotland since the Reformation, began in 1580, after many unsuccessful efforts had been made by the citizens of Edinburgh to obtain for their city the advantages of such an institution. It received a charter from James VI. in 1582; and in 1583 the college was opened for the reception of students, the number of whom was 48. (Cransura's History of the University of Edinburgh, p. 31.) On the first institution of the college there was but one professor or regent; a second was soon afterwards added, then a third, and so on, till there were six – a principal, who was also professor o divinity; four regents o o and a regent or humanity. Each of the regents o philosophy conducted his class for four successive years, including, in his course of study, almost every department of science and literature — the classics, logic, metaplysics, ethics, mathematics, and physics. A division of labour in teaching was gradually introduced, as new professorships were sounded; but it was not till 1708 that the old system was entirely superseded. In the .. just mentioned, the number of professors, including the principal (from whose duties the office of regent of theology had been withdrawn in 1620), was 15; but such has since becr the increase, that it is now 32. The medical school of Edinburgh, of late years so famous, had its origin so recently as the end of the 17th century, there being no professor. of medicine previously to the year 1685. The magistrates, whose predecessors may be regarded as the founders of the university, and who have been at all times its munificent guardians, are its general patrons, and have power to institute mew professorships, and to alter or modify the academical discipline. Out of the 32 appointments, they possess the exclusive right of presentation to the offices of principal and of 14 professors; they unite with other parties in the right of election to 7 other chairs; the crown enjoys the patronage of 8; while the principal and professors are invested with the patronage of 1, namely, music, instituted in 1839. The chair of clinical medicine is taught in rotation by certain of the medical professors, according to an arrangement among themselves. The crown is the patron of those chairs only instituted by itself. No party except the crown (and even that was at one time disputed), has a right to found a professorship without the sanction of the magistrates. The incomes of the o o: chiefly (some of them entirely) on the ees paid by the students. The crown gndowed most of the chairs which it has founded; while stuch of the others as have salaries attached derive them either from the patrons of the university, their respective founders, or the bequest of privat individuals. The chair of music, founded and endowed by General Reid, has attached to it the comparatively large salary of 300l. The following table (Report of Scottish University Commissioners) contains a view of some not unimportant particulars : —


Offices. When founded. Salaries. First Regent - - 1585 Second Regent - - dit to Principal - - 1586 L. 151 2 2 Third Regent - - ditto Fourth kegent - - 539 Chair of Humanity - 597 87 4. Divinity - 6:20 196 2 Hebrew - - 6.42 15 o Mathematics - - 674 148 6 8 Botany - - - 676 127 15 6 Theory of Physic - - 685 None. Practice of Physic - t;s6 None. Church History - - 695 200 0 0 Anatomy and Surgery - 705 50 0 0 Public Law - - 1707 Unknown. Greek - - - 1708 87 4 Natural Philosophy - 1708 52 4 4 Moral Philosophy - - 1708 102 4 4 Logic - - - 17 52 4 + Civil Law - - 710 100 o 0 Chemistry - - 713 None. Universal History - 7 19 100 0 0 Scotch Law - - 72? 100 0 0 Moo - - 726 None. Clinical Medicine - 74.1 None. hetoric - - 762 100 0 0 Natural History - - 7 100 0 0 Materia Medica - - 768 None. Practical Astronomy - 786 120 0 0 Agriculture - - 790 50 o o Clinical Surgery - - 803 100 0 0 Military Surgery - - 806 100 0 0 Medical Jurisprudence - 1807 100 0 0 Conveyancing - - 1825 120 0 0 General Pathology - 1851 None. Music - - - 1839 300 0 to Total amount of salaries, exclusive of the class of Public Law - - L.2,759 4 2

The above sums include, in the case of the older chairs, allowances for house rent, as the professors and also the students originally lived within the walls of the college; but such is no longer the case. Both parties now live wherever they choose; and no discipline is exercised over a student, except when within the walls of the college. The professorships are divided into the four faculties of philosophy, law, medicine, and divinity. The students wear no particular academical dress. The principals of the University, of whom the most illustrious by far was Dr. Robertson, have, till the recent appointment of Dr. Lee (1840), been ministers of Edinburgh ; so that the smallness of the endowment was less felt. It is supposed that government and the magistrates will now combine to raise the income of the principal to at least 500t. For most part of last century the duties of principal were consined to his officially presiding as chairman at meetings of the senatus academicus, or body of professors. But it is o: that the system of general superintendance of the seminary, and the delivery of a weekly or occasional lecture, will again be revived. There is no such officer as a chancellor or rector, except that the functions of the latter are said to be officially vested in the lord provost of Edinburgh. A standing body, called the college committee, appointed by the town council out of their own number, has charge of the seminary. There is but one session annually, from the 1st of November till the end of April. There are, however, a few summer classes for three months, such as botany, natural history, &c.

The exhibitions, or bursaries, attached to the university are 34, their benefits being extended to 80 students; their aggregate amount is 1,1721. a year. Three are of the annual value of 100l., six of 30l., ten of 20l., four between 20l. and 15l., one of 15l., five between 15W. and 10l., forty-two between 10l. and 5l., and three under 51. The fees paid by the students, are—for each class in the faculty of divinity, 21. 2s. ; in that of arts, 31. 3s. ; in those of law and medicine, 41.4s. There is, also, ll. paid annually on matriculation:

The number of students increased pretty regularly from the institution of the university till 1823, when it was at its maximum. The number attending the class of each regent, previously to 1646, ranged from 13 to 70 ; the average being 35. (Craufurd, passim.) The aggregate attendance during that period, includ

ing divinity, the only other department then taught, § not probably exceed 180. The number did not exceed in 1753 (Maitland, p. 370.): it was 1,279 in 1791-92. The rapid diminution of attendance since 1823, will be seen from the following table: –

Years. No. of Students.

1822-5 - - 2,344

1850-1 - - 2,023

1836.7 - - 1,304

1839-40 - - 1.282 Decrease since 1822-3 1,062

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Counties, &c. from which the
Students come. Males. Arts. Law. || Total.
Edinburgh, county and city . 104 208 55 367
Iłumfries, county - - 21 28 4 53
Berwick, county - - 24 3. 35
All other parts of Scotland, - . 133 200 85 418
Uncertain - - 1 1 l s
England - - - 167 34 s 204
Ireland - - - 58 7 0. * 65
Colonies and other countries 82 15 I 98.
574 517 152 1,243
Students in divinity - - - - || '13;
Total attendance - - - - - 1,400

The proportion of medical students is great, though the decline in this faculty is nearly as considerable o the other o: But it is a curious fact, that, despite this decline, the number of graduates in medi. eine has been more than maintained. Reckoning from 1726 to 1826, the total number of graduates amounted to 3,070, or to an average of 30 per annum. But the average for the last 25 years is considerably above 100.

- Number of Number of Years. Graduates. Years. o: 1816 76 1836 1:23 1827 160 1837 105 1833 110 1838 98 1839 119

While the number of medical graduates is so great, those in arts are very few indeed. For 50 years’ preceding 1826, the total number was only 168, or little more than 3 a year. The number is .# only about 6 annually ; the fact is, that but little value is attached to the possession of the degree of A.M. The degrees of D.D., and LL.D. are entirely honorary, and are professed to be bestowed only on persons of literary eminence. The right of conferring this honour is vested in the senatus academicus ; and it would seem as if it had not been abused. The number of degrees of D.D. averages about 2 yearly; and of LL.D. only 1. The great diminution of students to which we have referred is owing, it is proper to remark, not to any inefficiency that attaches to the university of Edinburgh, for that seminary could rarely boast of more able and assiduous teachers, and has seldom been in a state of greater proficiency than at present, but to a combination of other circumstances, particularly to the recent institution of several colleges in England, to an increased emigration to our colonies, and to the country having become more commercial, and supplying more advantageous channels of employment than those afforded by the learned professions. The university library consists of nearly 100,000 vols. It is open on payment of the matriculation fee, referred to above, to A. students, who may borrow from it and carry to their lodgings as many books as they please, on depositing a sum equal to their value, which is returned to them when the books are replaced. The library is supported by the matriculation fee, by 51, paid by each professor on his election, and by a portion of the fees of graduates both in medicine and in arts. It was one of the institutions that were entitled to a copy of every book entered in Stationers' Hall ; a right commuted for a certain fixed sum paid by government. The library hall is 198 feet in length by 50 in width, and is certainly one of the largest and finest halls in the kingdom. There are various other subsidiary apartments. The theological faculty has a library, consisting of about 6,000 vols. appropria to the use of its own students. The college museum, which occupies two large and elegant rooms, besides minor apartments, is particularly rich in objects of natural history. The present university buildings, which are on a very magnificent scale, were ë. in 1789, the expense being defrayed partly by public subscriptions, but chiefly by repeated grants from government. The structure is quadrangular, 358 ft. by 255, inclosing a court. A hand


some portico, supported }} massive Doric columns, forms the chief entrance. Thi

dome, the only thing that is now building. The celebrity of Edinburgh as a medical school has of late |. materially on the schools of a number of private lecturers of eminence in their separate departments, particularly in medicine. members of the Royal College of Surgeons, an ance on their courses of lectures is allowed by that body to qualify for examination. diplomas in surgery, but not in medicine; so that a person may obtain the rank of surgeon in Edinburgh without attending circumstance which, of late years, has tended to diminish the attendance in the latter. lecturers, in 1839, united and formed themselves into a body called Queen's College. institution, as well as those delivered under the auspices

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of the Royal College of Surgeons, are recognised by the University of London, and qualify for examination before that body. The Royal College of Surgeons, incorporated by charter, in 1778, has recently built a Hall in Nicolson Street, which ranks amongst the finest specimens of architecture in the city. The Royal College of Physicians was established so early as 1681 by a charter from Charles II. The number of its fellows, resident and non-resident, is about 100. Their Hall is in George-street, a handsome edifice, of the Grecian style, built in 1775. The High School is at once the oldest and most celebrated of all the Edinburgh schools; and is surpassed but by few classical seminaries in the empire. It was instituted in 1519, but having fallen into decay, was reerected in 1577. It now consists of a rector, and four other Greek and Latin masters, each of whom begins an elementary class yearly, and at the end of four years hands it over to the rector, under whom, generally during two additional years, the curriculum of study is completed. The school also embraces teachers of writing, arithmetic, mathematics, and French. The present building, one of the greatest ornaments of the city, is situated on the S. slope of the Calton Hill; it was opened in 1829, is composed of a central body and two wings, and cost 34,000l. The number of scholars has been (1820) as high as 968; but for some years past, the number has been rather under 400. his decline is not, however, ascribable to any falling off in the reputation of the school, but to the institution, in 1824, of a more aristocratical establishment of the same kind, called the Edinburgh Academy, conducted by a committee of subscribers. Considering the excellence of the instruction, the fees charged at the High School are very moderate, not exceeding in all 5l. a year; the fees at the Academy are about twice as much. A Naval and Military Academy, instituted in 1825, embraces all the classes necessary for the two professions from which its title is derived, as well as all the branches implied in a liberal education. The other more eminent schools, to which we can do no more than allude, are the Southern Academy, situated in George-square, embracing not merely classical literature, but all the branches requisite in a commercial or general education ; the Hill-street Institution in the New Town, of which a similar character may be given; the Circus Place School, a seminary for English literature ; the Ladies' Institution for the Southern Districts; the Scottish Institution for the education of young ladies (attendance upwards of 100, whose average may be 16); Dr. Bell's School (attendance 400); Lancastrian School (attendance 600); the Sessional School, supporte by the Kirk Sessions of Edinburgh (attendance 300); so of Arts, or Mechanics' Institute (attendance 450). The following table (Education Inquiry, Scotland, Session 1837, vol. xlvii.) shows the general state of education in Edinburgh, including the number of parochial and of ochial sch and the 1- ...]" hers and of scholars. — (See next col.) This table embraces all the pars. included under Edinburgh, both civil and quoad sacra, as they stood in 1834. The number of par. schools was then 6; and of nonparochial, 302. Some of the returns are defective as to the number of scholars ; but they give, notwithstanding, an aggregate amount of 14,666, showing that 9% per cent. of the § of the capital of Scotland, exclusive of Leith, were being educated at the same time. But if we make allowance for the defective returns, and take also into account the number of pupils, chiefly females, attending private boarding schools, and those whose education is strictly domestic, the probability is that the proportion will be o per cent. instead of 9) : a larger proportion than perhaps any other town of any considerable size can exhibit. These returns do not extend to pupils attending the School of Arts, or the Edinburgh Philosophical Association ; the object of which latter is to afford instruction by lectures to the middle classes after business hours, in winter. The attendance

on the one may be, as stated above, about 400; on the other, 450. Literary and scientific associations, we may here mention, are common in Edinburgh, such as the Royal Society, the Astronomical Institution, the observatory attachéd to which on the Calton Hill is in the purest classical taste, the Society of Antiquaries, the Wernerian Society, the Royal Physical, the Royal Medical, the Cuvierian, the Plinian, the Speculative Societies. There are also various subscription libraries, some of them of great extent and value. Charitable institutions are so numerous in Edinburgh, that we can do little more than barely enumerate them. The most important is George Heriot's Hospital, whose founder was goldsmith and jeweller to James VI. This noble structure, which is of quadrangular form, with a court in the centre, and of Gothic architecture, from a plan of the celebrated Inigo Jones, is devoted to “the maintenance and education of poor fatherless boys, freemen's sons of the town of Edinburgh.” It was opened for the reception of boys in 1659, when 30 were admitted. It now contains 180; but by a recent act of parliament, the governors of the hospital are empowered to erect schools from the surpluses of income, throughout the town, for the gratuitous education primarily of freemen's sons ; but if circumstances admit, to be open to the children of poor parents Fo"; One such school, containing 250 o has been sn operation for two years ; and several others are about to be opened, while still more are contemplated. The management of the charity is vested in ... 18 city clergymen, and in the members of the town council; total 51. The revenue of the hospital is upwards of 14,000l. a year. The other cha: ritable institutions are George Watson's Hospital, sounded in 1741, containing 80 boys ; John Watson's Hospital, founded in 1825, and containing 120 children, male and female; the Merchant Maiden and the Trades' Maiden Hospitals; the Orphan Hospital; Gillespie's Hospital, for the reception of old decayed men and women, and attached to it is a free-school, attended by about 160 §. children; Trinity Hospital, founded by the widow of ames II. in 1461, for the benefit of “burgesses, their wives, or children not married, nor under the age of 50 years;” Cauvin's Hospital for the maintenance and education of the sons of r teachers, and of poor but honest farmers; the Institution for the Deaf and Dumb : Asylum for the Blind; Magdalene Asylum ; Lunatic Asylum ; House of Refuge ; Royal Infirmary, founded in 1736; Society for the relief of the destitute Sick; Lying-in Hospitals; Dispensaries. In addition to these, and other less important charities, three bequests have recently been made for benevolent purposes. James Donaldson, printer, Edinburgh, who died in 1830, bequeathed 216,000l. for the endowment and erection of an hospital for the maintenance of 200 poor boys and girls. Sir William Fettes, who died in 1836, left the greater part of his large fortune to form an endowment for the s e, education, and outfit of young people whose parents have fallen into adverse circumstances: George Chalmers, plumber, who died in 1835, bequeathed 30,000l. for the erection and support of an hospital “for the sick and hurt.” Courts of law. – Edinburgh is distinguished by being the seat of the supreme courts of Scotland, or College of Justice, founded by James V., in 1532. Of these; the principal is the Court of Session, or supreme civil court, which possesses in itself all those peculiar powers exercised in England by the Courts of Chancery, Queen's Bench, Common Pleas, Admiralty, and others, being a court both of law and equity. The constitution of the court has undergone various modifications in its different departments, during the last 300 years. At present it consists of 13 judges, called lords, and sepa* This par. embraces Heriot's Hospital, the school of the charity Workhouse, and the Model Infant School; but the number of scholars is not given in the return. Some of the other pars, include valious similar institutions, but whether the returns comprise the children that attend there does not appear. We bulieve they do.

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