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rated into the first and second divisions: in the former there are 6 lords, in the latter 7. The two divisions form distinct courts, but they may, and on important questions do, sit in judgment together. From the first division are detached 2 judges, called Lords Ordinary, and from the second there are taken 3. Before one or other of these Ordinaries, all cases must be brought in the first instance; but an appeal lies from their judgment to that division before whose ordinary the case was primarily tried. Cases may be o: from the Court of Session to the House of Lords, the decision of the latter being final. The court has a winter term of 4 months, and a summer term of 2 months. Trial by jury in civil cases was introduced into Scotland, under a separate court, in 1816; but in 1830 this tribunal merged in the court of session. In the same supreme court has been invested the jurisdiction of the Teind or Tithe Court, (the peculiar duty of which was to regulate the stipends of the clergy of the established church of Scotland), of the o Consistorial Court, and the Court of Exchequer. he High Court of Justiciary or supreme Criminal Court was instituted in 1672. It is composed of a president called the Lord Justice Clerk, and of other five judges, who must, at the same time, be lords of session, but the crown may appoint any of the other lords to act should such a step thought expedient. (See Scotland.) The edifice which, since the Union, has been the place of meeting of the College of Justice, was the parliament house of Scotland, from 1640, the date of its erection, down to 1707, when the Union extinguished the separate legislature of Scotland. The building is situated in the centre of the Old Town, being separated from the High Street by the cathedral of St. Giles. A small space called the Parliament Square intervenes between it and that church. Nearly half the buildings which formed this square were burnt down in 1824; but both St. Giles and the Parliament House escaped. A new front, though but little in harmony with the surrounding buildings, has been given to the latter, and great changes have been efsected in its interior in the course of the present century. There is in the court occupied by the second division an admirable statue by Roubilliac, of Duncan Forbes, of Culloden, president of the Court of Session; and in the court occupied by the first division is a statue of President Blair; and in the outer house, where the lords ordinary sit, is a statue of Henry Dundas, Lord Melville: the last two are § Chantrey, but they are poor and spiritless compared with the masterly production of Roubil

ac. The faculty of advocates is an association of barristers (but not incorporated), entitled to plead before the supreme or any other courts of record. The society of writers to the signet is an incorporated body, qualified to conduct cases, as agents, before the same courts, and enjoying the exclusive right of preparing such papers or warrants, as are to receive the royal seal or signet, whence their designation. The solicitors before the suFo courts form a body of attorneys incorporated in 797, but of inferior grade and dignity to the writers to the signet. Advocates' first clerks may practise before the supreme courts by undergoing the usual examination, and paying certain fees. The legal practitioners, all ranks included, may be regarded as the most important class in Edinburgh. Public opinion is, to a considerable extent, affected by their influence: they form a very numerous body; but while they have greatly increased in numbers during the last 40 years, the business of the Court of Session, before which almost all of them exclusively practise, has undergone a remarkable diminution. he following table shows the number of new cases enrolled for the first time in the Court of Session at several different periods, with the numbers of advocates and agents, the latter embracing writers to the signet, tand all professional men entitled to practise before the supreme courts : –

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It thus * that while the number of cases annually enrolled for the first time in the Court of Session is nearly a half less than it was in 1798, the number of advocates has almost doubled, and that of agents of all kinds has nearly trebled. As, however, the capital and pop. of the country have nearly doubled within the time ified, it is probable that conveyancing and such departments of business have greatsy increased, but not nearly to the same extent as the number of lawyers. It is owing to the unprosperous state of the Fo of the law in Edinburgh, and to the falling off

the amount cf students at the university, that the

stationary or declining state of the city, and the consequent fall of house rents, must be imputed. In immediate connection with the parliament house are numerous apartments, some of them spacious and highly ornamented, fitted up for the libraries belonging to the faculty of advocates, and the writers to the signet. The library of the former body was established in 1682. This collection, which exceeds 150,000 volumes, is by far the most extensive and valuable in Scotland, and is, in fact, a very noble national library. . The library of the writers to the signet is also large and very valuable. Places of amusement. — Among these may be specified the theatre, which is tolerably well attended ; the assembly rooms, &c. he former, situated at the N. end of North Bridge-street, is a plain building externally, but is handsomely and conveniently fitted up. The assembly rooms in George-street are large and elegant. Golf is a favourite game; and curling and skating are very favourite amusements in winter, when the lochs ol Duddingstone and Lochend happen to be frozen over. Manufactures. – Edinburgh can scarcely be regarded as a manufacturing town. The brewing of ale has for upwards of two centuries been established in Edinburgh ; and without referring to the breweries in the vicinity, the number at present in operation in the city is 28; the number of persons employed, exclusive of masters, about 600; and the produce 193,100 barrels a year. There are only two distilleries of whiskey ... connected with Edinburgh : Lochrin, which employs 236 men, and annuall produces 740,000 gallons of spirits; and Sunbury, whic employs 105 men, and produces 566,000 gallons yearly. There are 16 coach-making establishments in Edinburgh, which employ about 600 hands. Figured shawls, in imitation of those of Cashmere, were first successfully made at Edinburgh, where they are still produced in great perfection. This took place about 1805, and the honour of it belongs to a Miss Bowie, who, with her father, had been for a number of years engaged in the gold lace manufacture, and who then “attempted to make square shawls of the most simple patterns, in imitation of the Cashmere, by means of the sewing needle, from a fabric made of silk, o from the waste made in reeling the finest Italian silk. This plan was tedious and expensive, and in effect fell short of the originals.” (Ib.) But how clumsy soever, this was the origin of a manufacture now of great importance. The invention of the Jacquard loom gave for a time the superiority in shawl-making to our French neighbours. But a knowledge of the invention having reached this country, produced a reaction in favour of the Scotch manufacture; and while this business was being cultivated with greater or less success in France, it established itself at Norwich, and at Paisley and Glasgow. Edinburgh, from the commencement of this manufacture, has taken the lead in most of the improvements connected with it, always producing the best goods of the kind; but from the circumstance of labour .*. kinds being lower in Paisley and Glasgow, the manufacture has mostly been transferred to these places. At one time there were about 1,000 hands employed in Edinburgh in this manufacture; now (1840) it scarcely gives work to 100.” (Encyc. Britannica, art. Shatrls.) Literature has long been not only the principal glory of Edinburgh, but has also ...?a principal source of employment to the population. The great works of Hume, Robertson, and Smith, were not indeed printed or published in Edinburgh : but from their aera the o began to attain to great distinction in the literary world, and several valuable works soon after began to issue from her press. The publication of the Edinburgh Review, which commenced in 1802, added greatly to the celebrity of Edinburgh as a literary mart, which was not long after still farther extended by the appearance of the earlier productions of Sir Walter Scott. Since then a a vast number of works of the highest eminence, in almost every department of literature, !". and science, have appeared at Edinburgh: and it is not going too far to say, that her press has contributed ten times more to the instruction, the amusement, and the glory of the country, than all the other presses of the kingdoin put together, that of the metropolis only excepted. In this respect, indeed. Edinburgh need not fear a competition with any city, either of ancient or modern times. Her press presents at this moment no symptoms of decay , and biosides the Edinburgh Review, and other standard works, it furnishes two widely circulated mor whly magazines, a journal (Chambers’), the best by far, and the most extensively read, of the class of cheap publications ; and 18 newspapers, 2 of which appear three times a week, 3 twice a week, and the others weekly. There are now (1840) in Edinburgh 55 printing offices, employing from 950 to 1,000 workmen, exclusive of masters. The number of ersons, men and women, young and old, to whom the so of bookbinding gives direct employment, is 518, exclusive of masters. †. with regard to the bookselling department, the following contains a minute synopsis : —

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From this table it appears that there are 110 different bookselling establishments in Edinburgh, of which 49 are copartnery houses; that of these copartnery houses, 20 employ no clerks; that there are 47 separate ksellers, of whom 17 employ clerks, and 30 not ; and that there are 14 booksellers on a small scale, who have neither clerk, apprentice, warehouseman, nor porter: the total number of persons to whom the bookselling business gives o being 318, and o; for the copartnery houses about 350. Most, or all of these booksellers, deal in stationery; but there are, besides, 18 o, properly so called, who employ about 80 individuals. The linen manufacture, both as respects the coarser and finer fabrics, long flourished in Edinburgh. “The number of looms,” says Arnot, “employed in Edinburgh in the linen trade is extremely fluctuating ; the largest number that has been known is about 1,500; at present (1779) it is supposed there are upwards of 800. This city has long been famous for making the finest damask table linen, and linen in the Dutch manner, equal to any that comes from Holland.” (Hist. p. 461.) But so thoroughly has the linen trade ..o.o. that there are not at this moment 50 looms employed in the city. Dunfermline and Dundee have become the chief seats of the manufacture, the former devoting itself chiefly to damask and diaper, the latter to Osnaburghs and the coarser fabrics. The first of the Scotch banks, the Bank of Scotland, was established in Edinburgh in 1695. e office now occupied by this bank, was erected in the course of the present century: it is situated in the street leading from the High Street to the S. end of the Mound, and is a large handsome edifice, occupying a conspicuous place among the public buildings of the city. #. next k instituted in the city was the Royal Bank of Scotland, in 1727; the third, the British Linen Company, was set on foot, in 1746. There are now eleven banks in the town (of which four are branch banks), which, with a single exception, are all joint-stock establishments, with wide constituencies; they have in general large capitals, and vast sums in deposit. . They are, with the exception in question, all banks of issue. Ten years ago there were seven private banks in Edinburgh, but now only the one just referred to. (For an account of the Scotch system of banking, see Scotland.) A savings’ bank was established in April, 1836. Its deposits amounted, on 7th Feb. 1840, to 183,010l. 9s. 4d. ; the number of its depositors being, at the same time, 18,410. The Union Canal, which commences at Port Hopetown, on the W. of Edinburgh, and joins the Forth and Clyde Canal, near Falkirk, forms a continuous line of water communication between the Scottish capital and Glasgow and the W. of Scotland. The course of the Union Canal is 311 m., its depth 5 ft., its width at the surface 40 ft., and at the bottom 20 ft. An act was obtained in 1839 for the construction of a railway between Edinburgh and Glasgow ; and it is supposed the work will be completed in TsA2. The length of the line is 46 m. A railway is now being made between Edinburgh and Newhaven, a distance of 2 m. Edinburgh is connected with the coal district, S. of the town, by the Edinburgh and Dalkeith railroad, which has branches to Leith, Follo, and Fisher-row, in all 15 m. It was opened n 1832. For a lengthened period, Edinburgh was very indif. ferently supplied with water. There are no springs of any importance within the city; the water required for its consumption being conveyed in pipes from a considerable distance. The first of these pipes was laid in 1681 ; and additions were made to it in 1722, 1787, and 1790. Still, however, the supply, owing to the increase of population, was very defective, and it became necessary to take more efficient measures for increasing its quantity. In this view a joint-stock company was established by act of parliament in 1819, which has conveyed into the town, the water, of the Crawley and Glencorse springs, about 7 m. S.W. from the city. The works that have been constructed to effect this object are on a scale of great magnificence, and do honour alike to the skill of the engineer, Mr. Jardine, and the public spirit of the company. The whole cost of this great work amounted to nearly 200,000l. ; but the city has now the inestimable advantage of an abundant supply of the most excellent water. he cost is defrayed by a water rate charged on all property. Edinburgh is extremely well lighted with gas; and

the pavement of the streets and lanes has long been celebrated for its excellence. The best material for so is found in the neighbourhood. Some of the eading streets are now macadamised. Advantages and Disadvantages of Edinburgh as a Place of Residence. — As a place of residence for persons in the upper ranks, to whom the expenses and excessive distractions of a London life may not be quite suitable, Edinburgh seems to hold out greater advantages than any other city perhaps in the empire. Not being to any great extent a seat of trade or manufacture, there is neither that eager and restless pursuit of gain, nor that occasional ostentation and misuse of new riches, which have a tendency to lower the tone of society in such places, and to make them, for the most part, uncomfortable for the habitation of those who take no share in the prevailing occupations; while there is still such an assemblage of educated persons in easy circumstances, as to constitute a society, at once unusually intelligent, and reasonably polite. The upper classes of this society, consist chiefly of the most distinguished members of the legal and other learned professions; avery unusual proportion of accomplished artists, engineers, and men of science, with a certain admixture of landed proprietors, or other persons of independent fortune, who have come with their families for the purposes of education or amusement, which may both be here found of better quality, and at easier rates, than in most other places. At the High School, and the New Academy in particular, every thing that is taught at the great public schools of England may be as perfectly acquired at an infinitely less expense, and with less hazard, in many respects, to the moral habits of the pupils; being all dayschools only, and the lads continuing therefore to reside in the bosom of their own families, or in others into which they have been individually adopted, and never collected promiscuously in large boarding-houses. There are also excellent teachers for all the modern languages, music, drawing (for which last there are also two public academies), dancing, fencing, and other accomplishments, on far more moderate terms than in the metropolis. There is a regular theatre royal, and other inserior dramatic establishments; an annual exhibition of painting and sculpture, by native artists; out of which there have been purchases made (chiefly by means of a very extensive association) to the amount of more than 3,000l. for each of the last five years; frequent professional concerts, very numerously attended; and, besides public assemblies, a great deal of dancing and music in private houses for about half the year. There are no regular residents of great fortune; and the style of living is pitched, therefore, on a comparatively moderate scale of expense. There probably are not four or five families that spend so much as 4,000l. a year; and for half that sum an establishment may be maintained (with good management) on the highest level of the place. There probably are not more than 150 private carriages kept, exclusive of cabs or flies. But, from the shortness of the distances, and old frugal habits, this is by no means considered as so indispensable to a complete establishment, as in many societies of no higher pretensions. These remarks are applicable, of course, only to those who may wish to live and receive company on the best and handsomest footing. Much comfort and respectability may no doubt be obtained on far inferior incomes; nor is there any place perhaps in the kingdom, where individuals enjoying any reputation, or possessing any accomplishment or social recommendation, may find access to the best company with less necessity of expense. Persons engaged in literary undertakings, have facilities for obtaining loans of books from the great public libraries already mentioned, that are wholly unknown in London. Ordinary provisions, or at least fish, poultry, and vegetables, and in a more particular manner fuel, the keep of horses, and house rents, are very greatly lower than in London; but bread, wine, groceries, servants' wages, ordinary clothing, and household furniture, are nearly the same. There are very good coach-building establishments, and on an extensive scale; from which very substantial articles are furnished very much under the London prices. " There is nothing to be called gaming now in Edinburgh society; a good deal of literary and political conversation; much dining out, with excellent wines, still perhaps too liberally partaken of; and rather more than the London opportunities for love-making, with quite as few rash or unsuitable marriages. Party politics run higher, perhaps, and are more bitterly asserted, than in the larger society of the metropolis, and to an extent which still interferes too much with the natural operation of social affinities; though less, certainly, than during the first heats and panics of the French revolution. The Episcopal chapels are very well attended, and chiefly by the higher classes. The clergy of the (Presbyterian) establishment go less than in former times into general society; and are mostly occupied in the zealous and meritorious exercise of their sacred duties: though, undoubtedly, some religious acrimony and uncharity may be occasionally found to disturb the harmony of societies which would be otherwise delightful. There is a greater turn for read ing, and even for scientific study, among the middling and lower orders, than in any other place of the same extent in the empire; and more lectures and subscription libraries for their use, and mostly maintained entirely by their contributions. It cannot be denied, however, that, in consequence of causes that will be afterwards noticed, the condition and habits of the poorer part of the population have been lowered, and that local misery and destitution prevail to an extent which seems to call on the justice as well as the feelings of the community for some effectual relief. Edinburgh is also to be considered as a garrison town; having generally a foot regiment quartered in the castle, and a regiment, or part of a regiment of horse, in the cavalry barracks at Piershill; besides a station of ordnance or engineers at Leith fort; establishments which, together with the habitual residence of the commander of the forces in Scotland, and his suite, tend, in some degree, to diversify and enliven its general society. The only other places within the realm which can be named in competition as places of residence, are Bath and 1)ublin; but Edinburgh seems entitled to the preference over either:

* Bath is still but a great watering-place, with

little of a settled population, and far less original intellectual activity. Nobody will imagine that the Edinburgh Review, or Blackwood's Magazine, could have originated or been supported in that great resort of gouty canons and cardplaying dowagers. As to Dublin, again, few British families, it is thought, have ever taken up a voluntary residence in any part of the sister island; and iii. would scarcely appear the

most attractive part. The extremes of fortune and of party are too much blended there. The pomp. of the vice-regal court contrasts painfully with the squalid misery of the poorer quarters; and the bitter Orangeism of its corporation and university, with the fiery and turbulent zeal of the Catholic body: while the ghost of recent independence stalks frowningly across the path of the avatar of impossible repeal.

The Scotch metropolis had long the unenviable reputation of being one of the dirtiest towns in Europe; and though vast improvements have been effected in this respect, the reproach is not yet completely obviated. The dirtiness of the Old Town seems to have been mainly attributable to the crowded state and height of the buildings, and to the want of water. These circumstances hindered the formation of water-closets, and of common sewers; and down to the commencement of the American war there was probably not a dozen of the former, and certainly not one of the latter, in the city. Both are now universal in the New Town, but they are still wanting in very many parts of the Old Town ; and notwithstanding the regulations laid down and enforced as to the casting of filth on the streets, they can never, under the circumstances, be o clean. In very many, too, of the stories (flats) or houses, especially those in the narrow closes or wynds on each side the High Street, there is no supply of water, save what is obtained from the public pumps in the vicinity; and this circumstance, combined with the want of ventilation, and with the poverty and usually crowded state of the inmates, render them the abode of filth, misery, o * to an extent that would not easily be beleved. None but burgesses were till lately entitled to carry on any trade or manufacture within the royalty. But we are not aware that there now exists any such p.ohibition or exclusion. None, however, but burgesses or their children have a claim on the charity of the Trinity Hospital, and none but the sons of burgesses are entitled to admission to Heriot's Hospital. There are eight incorporated crafts within the burgh – hammer-men, tailors, wrights, bakers, shoemakers, weavers, fleshers, and barbers—all nominally enjoying exclusive privileges, and all possessed of #. appropriated to the support of decayed members and the widows of members. Being situated near the sea in a rich well-cultivated country, the markets of Edinburgh are extremely well supplied with all sorts of provisions at a reasonable rate. Fish, in particular, is both abundant and cheap. Coal, which is the ouly fuel, is brought from near loalkeith, by railway, on the one hand, and from near Linlithgow, by canal, on the other: it is not so good as that used in London, but costs less than half the price. Notwithstanding its picturesque beauty, the situation of Edinburgh has several very considerable disadvantages. Owing to the unevenness of the ground on which it is built, a large expense has had to be incurred in the formation of bridges and roads between the different arts of the city, and in the lower parts of many of the ouses. The town is also very much exposed ; and is probably more subject to ...no of wind than o other great city in the empire. he E. winds in April, May, and June are unusually piercing, and not unfrequently bring with them thick fogs: owing to the disliculty of watering the streets they are often infested with dust so as to be extremely unpleasant. But, on the other hand, the views from the Calton Hull and the Castle, embracing, as they do, the Frith of Forth, the opposite shores of Fife, and a vast extent of fine country bounded by distant mountains, are of almost unrivalled beauty and variety. No where else, perhaps, can such varied and extensive prospects be commanded within the precincts of a large city. Condition of the Poor, Rate qf Moss, &c.—The condition of the lower classes in Edinburgh has been progressively declining for several years st, and is, at this moment, exceedingly depressed. We have already glanced at the sudden stoppage of the building speculations, and other circumstances that have conspired to produce this state of things. We may here add, that during the period that the Union Canal was being excavated, a great number of Irish labourers were employed upon it, many of whom settled in Edinburgh i and having since received large accessions from Ireland, now form a colony of several thousands, injuring the Scotch labourers by their competition, and far more by the pernicious example of their low estimate of what is necessary for comfortable subsistence. In consequence of these and other concurring causes, the pauper pop. of Edinburgh has become very considerable, and is, we are sorry to say, subjected to extreme suffering. The poor here, as in most other Scotch towns, are partly supported by assessments, partly collections at o church doors, and other voluntary ...: and partly by the interest of money in mortmain. At an average of the three years ending with 1837, the permament paupers on the roll amounted to 2,911, the lunatics to 140, and the occasional poor to 542, making an aggregate of 3,593 individuals. The total sum collected, at an average of the same three years, for the relief of the poor, including the expense of management, amounted to 17,674. a year, of which 14,0307, were raised by assessment. (Report of Committee of Assembly on the Poor, 1839, p. 2.). But there is, and has long been on the part of the magistrates and parochial authorities of this and most Scotch towns, a great disinclination to admit the claims of paupers for relief, and a strong determination to confine the allowances, when granted, within the narrowest possible limits. We shall elsewhere state the reasons (erroneous, as we believe) that have led to this practice (see Scotland); but, in consequence of their operation, many persons in Edinburgh to whom relief should be extended, have been excluded from the poor's roll, and the provision made for the others has been most inade* These conclusions have been fully catablished by r. Alison, in his important tract on the “Management of the Poor in Scotland.” Edinburgh, 1840. The authentic information given in this tract as to the state of the pauper pop. of .*.*.*. loš Owing to the inadequate supply and quality of their food, and the crowded and intolerably filthy state of their lodgings, the lanes and closes of the Old Town are hardly ever free from malignant fever; and the mortality is, in consequence, o great. It is most probable, as already stated, that the pop. of Edinburgh has been about stationary since 1831 ; and in that year the pop. of the city and St. Cuthbert's par., excluding the Canongate, amounted to 136,100: now it appears that the burials in these districts in the year ending May 1838, amounted to 4,856; showing, o: the pop. to be stationary, the mortality to be as high as 1 in 28; but in the city itself, with a pop. of 55,218, the mortality during the same year seems to have been as high as 1 in 21, or 1 in 22, — a tremendous mortality for a town in a healthy situation, without manufactures, and consequently but little exposed to fluctuations of ..". and not subject at the time to the ravages of cholera, or of any other peculiarly destructive disease. Such a state of things calls for the prompt and vigorous interference of the city authorities and of the government; and no time should be lost in making a more adequate provision for the necessities of the poor, and in enforcing regulations as to cleanliness. It is usual to ascribe a great deal of this misery to the prevalence of habits of intemperance; but we believe that dram-drinking is a consequence more than a cause of poverty—that it is resorted to as an antidote to despair, and as a means of effecting a te rary escape from misery and wretchedness. Besides, it is not true that drinking has increased; on the contrary, it has materially diminished. It is no doubt greatly to be wished that it were decidedly less prevalent; but it is not the source of a tenth part of the misery and destitution met with in this and other great towns. Before the passing of the Reform Bill, in 1832, the towncouncil of Edinburgh, which consisted of 33 members, may be said to have been self-elected. With the exception of #. who were returned by certain incorporated trades, the council for the time being had the exclusive right of nominating their successors, the public having no voice or right to interfere in the matter. Tne town council thus elected possessed the exclusive right of choosing a representative in parliament for the city. Owing to the unpopularity that necessarily attached to this self-elected and irresponsible body, the passing of the Reform Bill was no where more strenuously insisted upon, or received, when framed into a law, with more sincere rejoicing, than in Edinburgh. By this bill 2 representatives were given to the city. The first election of members of parliament under that act took place on the 21st Dec. 1832; and never, perhaps, was so great a concourse of people collected in the streets of Edinburgh. The members chosen on this occasion were Francis Jeffrey, Esq. (now a lord of session), one of the most distinguished citizens of whom Edinburgh has had to boast in recent times, and the Hon. James Abercromby, now Lord I)unfermline. In 1840 the registered voters were 5,195. Under the Municipal Reform Act, Edinburgh is divided into 5 wards, and is governed by a lord provost, 4 bailies, or aldermen, and 28 counsellors. Municipal constituency in 1840, 3,059. Owing partly to the large amount of the debts incurred on account of the excavation of docks at Leith and other improvements, and to the waste of the public money that prevailed under the old irresponsible system of municipal government, the affairs of the city of Edinburgh were recently involved in the greatest embarrassment; and it seemed as if a ruinous bankruptcy would inevitably take place. Luckily, however, an arrangement has been ef

fected under the auspices of government, which has obviated this threatened calamity. The creditors have surrendered a portion o cent.) of their claims, and rovision has been made for payment of the remainder. he corporation revenue amounted in 1834, to 27,3211. The origin of Edinburgh is involved in obscurity. So early as the beginning of the 7th century it had obtained the name of Edwinesburgh, derived, it is supposed, from Edwin, a prince of Northumberland, who overran a great rt of the S. of Scotland. In the year rIQ8, it is called y David I. his burgh of Edinburgh ; whence we infer that it was then a royal burgh. It was not a walled town, as previously stated, till the middle of the 15th century. James IV. encouraged the erection of its first o press, in the beginning of the 16th century; but t was not till the "...# reign that it was recognised as the undoubted capital of Scotland. From this time its history merges in that of the kingdom. It was converted to the Protestant faith at an early period of the Reformation ; and the great bulk of its inhab., in successive ages, and under various forms of persecution, adopted the Calvinistic creed, and adhered rigidly to the Presbyterian form of worship. John Knox was, for some time, minister of Edinburgh ; and the house which he inhabited (at the Netherbow, near the E. extremity of the High Street) is still standing, and is regarded with no ordinary degree of reverence. During the *::::::::: of Episcopacy (1633), in the reign of Charles 1., Edinburg was made a bishop's see : but on Presbytery obtaining the supremacy, in 1638, the Episcopal form of worshi was superseded till the Restoration, in 1660; from whic latter date it continued to be the established church till the Revolution in 1688, when Presbytery finally got the ascendancy. The union of the kingdoms excited great tumults in Edinburgh, with the view of intimidating those members of the Scotch parliament who were favourable to the obnoxious measure. The act, however, was eventually passed (1st May, 1707) without bloodshed. In the rebellion of 1715, an unsuccessful attempt was made by the Jacobites to surprise the castle. In the subsequent rising of 1745, the rebels got possession of the city, a party of the Highlanders having secured the Netherbow Port; and they remained masters of the town from the 15th Sept. to the 31st Oct. But finding it impossible to reduce the castle, they abandoned the city, and proceeded on their march to England. n 1736, a remarkable occurrence took place in Edinburgh, known by the name of the Porteous mob. The circumstances were these: – On the 14th of April, at the execution of a smuggler of the name of Wilson, a disturbance arose, and the executioner and city guard were assailed by the populace. John Porteous, the captain of the guard, having ordered his men to fire on the crowd, 6 people were killed and 11 wounded. Porteous, having been tried for the offence before the high court of justiciary, was condemned to death, but was reprieved by the crown. Resolved, however, that he should mot thus escape the fate which they thought he merited, the mob, on the evening of the day previously to that on which he was to have been executed, broke into the gaol in which he was confined, and, having dragged him out, led him to the usual place of execution, and there hanged him by torch-light on a dyer's pole. It being supposed that the municipal authorities |. neglected their duty on this occasion, the city was ordered to pay a fine of 2,000l. sterling to the widow of Porteous ; and what is remarkable, though a reward was offered for the discovery of the perpetrators, they never were discovered ; and their names continue to be unknown. Few events worthy of notice have since occurred in the annals of Edinburgh. On the 2d of February, 1779, during the parliamentary discussions on the subject of the Catholic claims, an infuriated mob burnt one Catholic chapel, and [...". another. Soon after the breaking out of the French revolution, a number of the inhabitants of Edinburgh, sympathising with the principles which then prevailed in France, formed themselves into societies for obtaining parliamentary reform, and similar political objects. §h. proceedings of these associations, the members of which styled themselves “the friends of the people,” were sometimes, perhaps, neither very wise nor constitutional. At length they attracted the notice of government; and the servility of the judges, and the wretched state of jury trial in Scotland at the time (see antè, p. 463.), afforded a ready means of inflicting on them the utmost penalty of the law. One of the prosecuted parties, named Watt, was beheaded for sedition ; and Muir, Skirving, and others, were transported. The only other important event connected with the annals of Edinburgh was the visit of George IV., in 1822, being the first sovereign who had entered Edinburgh since the year 1650. is Majesty landed at Leith on the 15th August, and embarked for England at Port Edgar, 9 m. W. of Edinburgh, after a visit at Hopetoun House. (See Maitland's Hist. of Edinburgh, fol. 1753; Arnot's Hist. of Edinburgh, edition 1018; Stark's Picture of Famoff ; Stevenson's Annals of 3. 2

Edinburgh, Craufurd's IIist. of the University of Edinburgh; Creech's Fugitive Pieces ; Chambers' Gaz. of Scotland, and Traditions of Edinburgh, Chalmers' Caledonia ; Pennant's Tour, &c.) fost (Boh. Cheb), a town of Bohemia, ranking third in that kingdom, near its W. frontier, circ. Elbogen, on a rock on the Eger, 94 m. W. Prague; lat. 50°5' N, long. 129 23' 15” E. Pop. (1834) 9,890. It was formerly an important fortress; but its walls are now almost destroyed, and its ditches gradually filling up. It contains some handsome buildings, inclusive of a fine par. church and town-hall. In the centre of the town is a large market-place, at the E. end of which is the Burgomaster's house; in a bed-room of which, Wallenstein was assassinated in 1634. In an angle of the sortifications overhanging the river, stand the ruins of the imperial castle, o an ancient square tower built of black lava, supposed by some to have been constructed in the time of the Romans, a sinular double chapel, and the hall in which the principal riends of Wallenstein were treacherously put to death at the same time with their master. Eger has a gymnasium, 2 convents, a high school, a school for the children of soldiers, 2 hospitals, an orphan asylum, 3 workhouses, a foundation for 12 old men, and manufactures of chintz and cotton fabrics, wool, hats, soap, &c. (Berghaus ; Qesterreischen Encyc.) EGHAM, a par. and village of England, in the N. part of the co. of Surrey, hund. Godley, contiguous to the Thames. Area of par., 7,440 acres. Pop. 4,203, of which the village may have nearly a half. The latter, situated near the Thames, 18 m. W. London, is connected with Staines on the other side of the river by an iron bridge, erected in 1807. The church, though of mean appearance, is ancient, and contains some curious monuments. There are 2 almshouses, one for 5 poor women, and one for 6 poor men and as many women. N. from Egham, between the village and the Thames, is Runnymede, famous in English history from its being the scene of the conferences between King John and the barons, that led to the signing of Magna Charta by the king, in 1215. In this parish is Cooper's Hill, which commands a fine prospect, and is the subject of the well-known descriptive poem of the same name, by Sir John Denham. EGINA or ENGIA (an. AEgina), an island of Greece, in the centre of the §§ to which it gives name (Saronicus Sinus), 16 m. S. by W. Athens, 34 m. E. by S. Corinth, and 6 m. from the nearest point of the promontory of Methana. It is about 8 m. from E. to W. and 8 from N. to S. : surface diversified with hills and valleys; in the N. part of the island there are rocks of lava. Soil rocky and of a light colour. The low and cultivated grounds are however fertile, and produce good crops of corn, with wine, cotton, olives, figs, almonds, and other fruits. The hilly and uncultivated portions, are deficient in water, and are covered with pines, small cypresses, junipers, &c. The red-legged partridge is very abundant. he pop. may, perhaps, amount to from 5,000 to 6,000: during the revolution, it was much greater, the island having been then resorted to § crowds of emigrants from the adjoining continent and islands, but since the peace these have mostly returned home. The inhab., who are industrious, carry on a considerable trade. The port, and principal town, called Egina, or Engia, is on the W. side of the island, near the extensive ruins of the ancient city of the same name. There are from 15 to 18 fathoms of water in the roadstead, on a tough clay ground. There is another and smaller town in the N. part of the island. Though so unimportant in modern times, in antiquity Fgina was early celebrated for its wealth and population. Its position is very favourable for commercial pursuits; and it was indebted for its greatness to the zeal and success with which it carried them on. At one period its naval power was superior even to that of Athens; and it sent 30 ships to the battle of Salamis, to whom the prize of valour was accorded by the suffrages of the Greeks. But the proximity of Egina to the Piraeus awakened the jealousy, and provoked the vindictive hostility of the Athenians, who, having defeated the Eginetans and taken their city, treated them with the utmost severity— 1)uris etiam Athenienses, qui scirerunt ut AEginetis, qui classe talebant, polices prociderentur: hoc visum est utile ; mimio enom imminebat, so propinquitatem, Egona Piraeus. (Cic. De Offic, lib. iii. § 11.) After various vicissitudes, Egina was restored to a nominal independence oy Augustus; since which period it has usually followed the fortunes of the adjacent country of Greece. The temple of Jupiter Panhellenius in the N.E. part of the island, is among the most interesting of the Grecian ruins. The hill on which it stands, though of no great height, commands the greater part of the island, the whole coast of Attica, with the city of Athens, part of Peloponnesus, and several of the islands in the gulph. It is built on a platform, supported on all sides by terrace walls. The temple, said to have been erected by Æacus, randson of Jupiter, is certainly one of the most ancient n Greece. It is of the Doric order, being 90 ft. in length, measured at the base of the columns, by 45 in breadth.

Originally it had 36 columns, exclusive of those in the cella, of which 25 were standing when it was examined by Mr. Dodwell. The greater number of the statues that occupied the tympanum of the pediment, were du up in 181 i ; and having been carried off, were purchas by the present king of Bavaria for 10,000 sequins, and are now in the niuseum at Munich. They are in the peculiar style of sculpture called Eginetan, and are amongst the most interesting relics that have ever been conveyed from Greece. (Chandler's Greece, caps. 3 and 4. ; Dodwell's Greece, i. 558–574.) EGYPT (the Mizraim of the Hebrews, and Aixvrror of the Greeks), a country on both banks of the Nile, occupying the N. E. angle of the African continent; one of the earliest seats of art, science, and literature, and famous asike for the historical events of which it has been the theatre, its magnificent umonuments, and physical character. Boundaries, Ertent, &c.—There have been very discordant statements as to the boundaries of this famous country. There cannot of course be any doubt as to its N. limit, which is formed by the Mediterranean ; and it seems to have been generally agreed from a very remote period that its S. limit should be fixed at Syene, or rather at Philae, in lat. 24° 3' 45' N. But the difficult point is to determine its breadth. From Philae to near Cairo, the Nile in most parts flows through a narrow valley, bounded on either side by a ridge of hills, or inferior mountains: at Cairo these ridges diverge, ‘hat on the E. to Suez, and that on the W. in a N.W. direction to the Mediterranean. Some authors identify Egypt with the tract lying between the mountain chains now referred to ; while others, regarding the Nile as the source of life and vegetation in Egypt, restrict its territory within the limits covered by the inundation of the river. (Strabo, lib. xvii. p. o But from the age of the Ptolemies down to the present day, the desert country lying between the valley of the Nile and the Red Sea has been uniformly included in o: On the W. side the mountain ridge already noticed seems to be its only natural boundary. Still, however, it has been usual to reckon the oases that lie within 100, or even 200 m. of this limit, as belonging to Egypt. From Cape Bourlos, on the coast, lat. 31°36' N., to Philae, the distance N. and S. is 7032° 15', about 452 geoflook or 520 English m. But the distance by water and the extent of the alluvial territory are considerably greater than would appear from this, because of the many and considerable bends of the river. The breadth of the Egyptian coast is 160 m. ; but in ascending to Cairo (104 m. from Cape Bourlos), the cultivated tract tapers off to a point, and the rest of the country is chiefly comprised in the narrow valley of the Nile; which, however, at Beni-sous, 83 (by water) m. higher, spreads to the W. to form the vale of Faiourm, a circular valley of so fertility and beauty, measuring about 40 m. from 2. to W., and 30 m. from N. to S. Thence to Syene, the valley of the Nile is mostly confined within very narrow limits. The whole cultivable territory of Egypt, including its lateral valleys, has been estimated at about 16,000 sq. m., or about half the area of Ireland. (MalteBrun, iv. 21. 23. ; Modern Trav., art. Egypt, l. G.; Heeren's Researches, Engl. ii. 210.) The Nile, so important among the great rivers of the world, is also the most striking object in the general as: pect of a country which not only is wholly comprised within the sphere of its o: is entirely indebted to it for existence. As already stated, the Nile enters Egypt at the island of Philae; and from it to Assouan (Syrne), a distance of about 6 m., it has cut a passage for itself, through a ridge ofoo rocks, with which its stream is much encumbered. At Assouan is the last of the cataracts of the Nile, so celebrated by ancient authors. (Senec. Nat. Quest. lib. iv. § 2. ; Plin. Hist. Nat. lib. v. $9. ; Lucan, lib. x. line 320, &c.). Their statements with respect to it seem to be not a little exaggerated, though there can be no doubt that the cataract must have been much more magnificent 2,000 years ago than at present; as the attrition of the water for so long a period could not fail materially to deepen and smooth its bed: at all events, however, it is now rather a rapid than a cataract. According to Sir F. Henniker, it is not really more formidable than the fall in the Thames at low water at Old London Bridge, previously to its demolition (p. 147.). But it is clear that its height and raW. must depend materially on the state of the river. When the inundation is at its height the fall is hardly perceptible, but at low water it varies from 8 to 10 seet; After leaving Assouan, the river runs on in a placid quiet stream, till a little below Cairo, at Batn-el-Bakara, it divides into two great arms, the most E. of which fall: into the sea at Damietta, and the most W. at Rosetta; but it has other, though very subordinate outlets. For the immense distance of 1 m., - that is, from lat. 17°

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