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settlers (who sometimes kill a wild cow merely to get the tongue), there are still many thousand head of all kinds. The wild bulls and horses are very fierce, and apt to attack individuals, who are never secure unless they be well armed, or protected by well-trained dogs. All the wild cattle are very large and fat. The horses are lightly built, and average about 14 hands 2 in, in height. {r}. only formidable wild land animal is the warrah, or wolf-fox. This is as large as an English mastiff, and very fierce; according to Captain Fitzroy, however, it appears to be only a variety of the l’atagonian fox. Sea-elephants and seals (both fur and hair scals) abound on the shores in great numbers, and whales are frequent around the coasts. Birds and fish are amazingly numerous. Amerigo Vespucci has been commonly reputed the discoverer of these islands, but it is most probable that he never saw them. They were in reality discovered by Davis in 1502; Hawkins sailed along their N. shores in 1594; and Strong, in 1610, anchored between the two large islands in the channel, which he called Falkland Sound. In 1600, the Jason or Sebald Islands were dis. covered by the Dutch. The Falklands were visite during the sirst half of the 18th century by many French vessels; and in 1763 they were taken possession of by France, who established a colony at Port Louis on the E. island, from which, however, they were in 1765–07 expelled by the Spaniards. About the same period the English settled at Port Egmont, Saunders' Island, though in 1770 they also were obliged to evacuate the Falklands by the Spaniards. A war with the latter was nearly the consequence of this proceeding ; but in 1771 Spain gave up the sovereignty of the islands to Great Britain. ... Not having been colonised by us, in 1820 the republic of Iłuenos Ayres assumed a right to the Falklands, and a colony from that country settled at Port Louis, which increased rapidly, until, owing to a dispute with the Americans, the settlement was destroyed by the latter in 1831. In 1833 the British flag was again hoisted both at Port Louis and Port Egmont, and a 15 ritish officer has since been continually resident at the former station, which, however, now comprises only a ruined fort, state house, and a few other houses, gardeils, &c., and about 45 settlers (Oct. 1839). The possession of the Falkland Islands undoubtedly offers us some advantages. They are situated in a part of the world where we have no other colony intermediate between England and Australia and New Zealand; their harbours are good and easy of approach, and they go far to command the passage round Cape Horn. . are capable of affording a pientiful supply of live stoc and good water to ships touching at them. But it seems idle to suppose that they should ever become an intrinsically valuable colony. (See Fitzroy's Joyage of the Adrenture and Beagle, ii. 227–281. ; Mackinnon's Falk. Islands; Whitington's Falk. Islands ; }} eddeil's Voyage,

c. & PALMouth. a parl. bor. and sea-port town of England, co. Cornwall, S.W. division, hund. Kerrier, on the W. side of Falmouth harbour, about 2 m. from Penryn, and 15 m. N. N. E. the Lizard Point; lat. 50° so N., long. 5°2'45” W. Area of old bor. 40 acres: pop. of do. in 1831, 4,761 ; but the old bor. did not include much more than half the town, which extends about 1 m. along the sea, partly in the par. of Falmouth and partly in that of Buddock; in both of which “extensive streets have been built, containing houses of a description superior to those within the old bor.” (Boundary Report.) It is, speaking generally, well built ; is lighted with gas; its entire pop, in 1831, might be about 7,500. It has a church, dedicated to Charles the Martyr, with chapels belonging to the Baptists, Wesleyans, Bryanites, Friends, Unitarians, and Rom: Cath. ; a Jews' synagogue, a market

house, town hall, a gaol, built in 1831, good public rooms, a fine hall, belonging to the Cornwall Polytechnic

Society, a custom house, a good quay, and numerous schools and charitable institutions. It is lighted with gas, and has with its environs a cheerful and picturesque appearance. The inlet of the sea, called Falmouth Harbour, is one of the finest asylums for shipping in England. Its entrance, between St. Anthony's Head on the E. and

Pendennis Castle on the W., is about 1 m. in width, and

it thence stretches inland about 53 m. Falmouth is si. tuated on a creek on its W. and St. Mawes on its E. side, immediately within St. Anthony's Head. It has deep water, and excellent anchorage ground for the largest ships ; they may also anchor without the harbour, having it in their power to retreat into it should the wind come to blow from the S., which gives a great facility to ships getting to sea. , Ships of large burden unload at the §. at Falmouth. Near the middle of the entrance to the harbour is a large rock covered at high water; but a beacon has been erected upon it to point it out: the usual entrance is between this rock and St. Anthony's Head, on which is a lighthouse. The harbour is defended by Pendennis Castle on its W., and that of St. Mawes on its E. side. The former is constructed on a rock more than

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300 ft. above the sea. They were built by Henry VIII.: but have since been much improved and strengthened. “The advantage of being the principal station for the packets to the W. Indies, N. and S. America, Spain, Portugal, the S. of Europe, &c., has clearly contributed to the increase of the town. Villas, also, have been built in various parts of the par, of Falmouth, by persons who have retired from the service, or who are still employed in it.” (Bonnotary Report.). The mail-packets for the Mediterranean, Spain, the W. Indies, and S. America, have been despatched from Falmouth for about a century and a half; but the establishment of steam packets has nearly superseded the employment of sailing-packets; though, as the steam-packets from London generally call here on their outward and inward voyages to receive and put on shore passengers, and get supplies of coal, the town has not been much injured by the change. Its exports are coloper, tin, tin-plates, woollen goods, pilchards, and other fish, &c.; a considerable coasting trade is carried on between Falmouth and London, Ply. mouth, Jersey, Bristol, &c. In 1836, Falmouth had $6 registered vessels of the aggregate burden of 6,732 tons. Market-day, Thursday, for provisions generally. Previously to the late Municipal Reform Act, the bor. was limited to the old town, which comprises only about half the modern town ; but its limits were then extended so as to embrace the whole town and some adjacent territory, with l'endennis Castle. For parliamentary purposes, the Reform Act added Falmouth to the bor. of Penryn, which see. It is governed by a mayor, 4 aldermen, and 12 counsellors. Corporation revenue about 2851, a year. In the early part of the 17th century, Falmouth consisted only of a few fishermen's huts : it owes its subsequent rise to the patronage of the Killigrew family, and the establishment of the packets ; which last is a consequence of the excellence of its harbour, and its situation so near the Land's lond. (Bounda, y and Municipal Reports.) FALSTER, one of the Danish islands in the Baltic, separated by narrow straits from Zealand on the N., Moen on the N.E., and Laland on the W. Length, N., to S., 27 m. ; breadth very variable. Area, 180 sq. miles. Pop. 19,400. o The surface is almost entirely, flat, but it is considerably elevated above the sea, and is comparatively healthy. It is well watered, though it has no stream deserving notice. Its S. portion, a projecting tongue of land, is mostly occupied by the lagoon of Bottöe. . It is the pleasantest of all the 1)anish islands , is richly wooded, fertile, and well cultivated, and produces so much fruit that it is called the “Orchard of Denmark.” More corn is grown than is required for home consumption ; and flax, hemp, hops, &c. are cultivated. Cattle, hogs, and poultry are plentiful ; bee-hives are numerous, honey and wax being inportant articles of produce. Turf, chalk, and building stone are found. Some vessels are built but the few ma– nufactures of the island are wholly domestic. Nykiobing, on its W. side, is the principal town ; it has a cathedral, an ancient castle, and 1,400 inhab. (Dict. Geog.; Brem: nor's Donmark, and Norway, &c.) FAMAGUSTA, a sea-port town of Cyprus, in what is now a bleak and barren district on the b. shore of the island, a little S. from the mouth of the Pedara, and 40 m. E. Nicosia ; lat. :5° 7' 40" N., long. 330 o' E. It was formerly well sortified; and its works, which are now dismantled, cover a circ. of about 2 m., and consist of a rampart, and bastions, defended on the land side by a broad ditch hewn out of the rock. The entrance to the harbour, which appears not to be more than from 80 to 100 yards across, is defended on one side by a bastion, and on the other by a ruined tower. This port once ad. mitted vessels of a considerable draught of water ; but since its conquest by the Turks, sand and rubbish have been suffered to accumulate to such an extent, that none but small craft now enter it in safety. The town, which is poor aid in ruins, has numerous deserted and choked | streets and decayed churches; indeed, for the number of the latter, Kinneir says it might be compared to Old Goa, though not on so superb a scale. In its centre are the remains of the Venetian palace, near the cathedral of St. Sophia, a respectable Gothic building, in rui rid in part converted into a mosque. Only a few Turkish families are found in Famagusta, most of its inhab. being Greeks. Iluring the Venetian régime, it was one of the most populous, commercial, and richest towns in the Levant. Its ruin was completed by an earthquake in 1735. About 5 m. N. E. are the ruins of Constantia, occupying the site of the ancient Salamis, now called Eski, or Old Famagusta. These ruins consist of the found. ation of the ancient walls, about 3 or 4 m. in circuit; with cisterns, broken columns, the foundations of buildings, &c., which lie scattered along the sea-shore, and near the mouth of the Pedaea. Guy of Lusignan was here crowned king of Cyprus, by order of Richard I., in 1191. It remained in the pos. session of his family till 1460, and, then successively belonged to the house of Savoy, and the Venetians. Selim II. took it after a long and memorable siege, in 1571, when its gallant governor Bregadint, met with the treacherous and inhuman treatment already noticed. (See Cyphus, and Kinneir's Asia Minor, &c.) FANO (an. Fanum Fortunae, from a temple dedicated to the goddess Fortune), a sea-port town of central Italy, Papal States, deleg. Urbino, on the Adriatic, at the mouth of the Metauro, and on the Emilian Way, 7 m. S.E. Pesaro, and 29 m. N.W. b w. Ancona; lat. 439 51’ 10” N., long. 130 1' 20" i. Pop. 8,000. It presents a lofty bastioned wall towards the sea; and has a large square ornamented with a fountain and a bronze figure emblematic of the town; a cathedral in an enriched style of architecture, which, like some of its other churches, contains paintings by Domenichino, &c.; many convents, a college of Jesuits, public school, public library, and a theatre, said to be one of the most elegant in Italy. On the road to Fossombrone is a triumphal arch, erected in honour of the Emperor Augustus, besides some other remains of antiquity. Fano has some fabrics of silk stuffs and twist, and some trade in corn, oil, &c.; but its harbour admits only small vessels. It received a colony under Augustus: in its vicinity the Romans gained an important victory over Asdrubal, anno 207 B. c. . It had some extensive suburbs destroyed by the Turks in 1487. (Rampoldi; Dict, Géog.) oiáší. a market-town and par. of England, co. Hants, Portsdown div., hund. of Fareham. The town is situated on a creek at the N.W. extremity of Portsmouth Harbour, 4 m. N. N.W. Gosport, and 64 m. S.E. London. Area of par. 6,670 acres. Pop., (1831) 4,402. The town consists principally of one broad street; and has a church and 2 dissenting chapels. During the summer months, it is resorted to for sea-bathing, and has every accommodation for the convenience of visiters. It has manufactures of sacking, and ropes for shipping, which are sent to Portsmouth, and vessels of large burden are built. Market, Wednesday. The government is vested in a bailiff, 2 constables, and 2 ale-conners. FARING DON (GREAT), a town and par. of England, co. Berks, partly in hund. Faringdon, o in that of Shrivenham, at the base of Faringdon Ilill, in the vale of the White Horse, about 2 m. from the lsis, and 67 m. W. by N. London. Area of par., 6,910 acres. , Pop: (183153,033. It is a very neat town, paved, lighted, and amply supplied with water from the noted spring of Portwell. The church is an interesting structure; its E. end is of #'. o: the remainder is in the Gothic style of different periods: its spire was destroyed during the last civil war. There is also a chapel of ease at Coxwell, in the par., and a dissenting chapel in the town ; a national school for 200 children, and an infant school. Market, Tuesday, a large one for corn; fairs, February 13., Who. October 29., for horses, sat cattle, and pigs. Statute fairs are also held the Tuesday before and after Old Michaelmas day. The chief trade of the town is in bacon, several thousand pigs being annually killed by its butchers. Its position at the junction of 2 main lines of road also occasions a good deal of business and activity. The line of the Great Western Railway passes within 3 m, of the town. FARNHAM, a town and par. of England, co. Surrey, hund. Farnham : 38 m. S.W. London. Area of par., 10,510 acres. Pop. of ditto (1831), 5,858. The town, situated near the Wey, on the main line of road from London to Southampton, consists of 2 principal streets, with a market-place at their intersection, and some smaller streets. It is paved, lighted, and well supplied with water, from s |. in the neighbouring hills, conveyed by pipes to a o reservoir in the town. The church, a spacious building in the later Gothic style, was formerly a chapel belonging to Waverley Abbey, in the vicinity. There are also 2 dissenting chapels; almshouses for 8 poor people, founded in 1619, and endowed with lands now producing 80t. a year: a free grammar-school, with an endowment producing 30l. a year, and a national school supported by subscription. Market. Thursday : it was formerly one of the largest corm markets in the kingdom, and is still a considerable oat market. Fairs, Holy Thursday, June 24, and November 13., for horses, cattle, sheep, and pigs. The town was anciently noted for its cloth manufacture, but this is quite extinct. It is now celebrated principally for its hops, those produced in the vicinity being of a very o: quality. On the Wey are several large flour mills, whose produce is mostly sent to the metropolis by the Basingstoke canal, which ses within 4 m. of the town ; and the line of the Southampton railway is about 5 m. N. from it. Farnnam, which was a bor. ly prescription, returned 2 mems. to the H. of C., from 4 Edward II. to 38 Henry VI., subsequent to which the privilege has not been exercised: it received two charters from the bishop of Winchester, but virtually lost the distinction of being a bor. from about 1790, or earlier. Petty sessions for the div. are held in Farnham, and there is also a court for recovery of debts under 40s, which sits cvery third week. Farnham Castle,

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on a hill N. of the town, is a residence of the bishops of Winchester, and contains a good library and some valuable o it is surrounded by an extensive park, in which is an avenue nearly 1 m. in length, commanding a fine prospect, and much resorted to as a public promenatie. It stands on the site of a castle built during the reign of king Stephen, o his brother Henry of 1810is. and was built subsequently to the Restoration. Some interesting remains also exist in the vicinity of the abbey of Waverley, founded in 1128, for Cistertian monks, and subsisting till the general dissolution under Henry VIII., when its annual revenue was estimated at 1741. 8s. 3d. There is a handsome modern mansion contiguous to the site, amidst fine park scenery. * FARO, a sea-port city of Fortugal, on the S. coast of the prov. of Algarve, cap. comarca of same name ; on the Valsermosa, near its mouth, 45 m. E.S.E. Lagos, and 20 m. W.S.W. Tavira; lat. 36° 59' 24” N., long. 12° 31' 18" E. Pop. 8,440. (Minamo, 1826.) It is surrounded with walls, said to have bech constructed by the Moors; and is well built, the streets being wide, and the houses good, and, to appearance, mostly new. It has a cathedral, four convents, a house of charity, seminary, military hospital, custom-house, and arsenal. It is the seat of a corregidor for the comarca, a military governor, of a bishopric, transferred thither from Silves in 1580; and of town and district judicial courts. The harbour is shallow and inconvenient ; but it has a good roadstead, formed by three islands, opposite the mouth of the river. It exports figs, raisins, almonds, dates, and other dried fruits, oranges, lemons, wines, cork (the produce of its territory), sumach, baskets, and anchovies. Many of the inhab. are fishermen. This town received its first pop. from the city of Osonova, which stood not far distant, destroyed by the Moors on their entrance into the country. It was raised to the rank of a city by John III. in the 16th o, (Miñano, Diccionario, iv. 128. ; Balbi, Portugal, i. 221.) FAROE, FEROE, or FEROE ISLANDS, a group of 22 isl. belonging to Denmark, in the Northern Ocean, between lat. 61° 15' and 62° 21' N., and long. 69 and 8° W., about 185 m. N.W. the Zetland Isles, and 320 m. S.E. Iceland. The o island, Stromoe, in the centre, is 27 m. long about 7 broad ; the other chief islands are Osteroe, Vaagoe, Bordoe, Sandoe, and Suderoe. Total area, 495 sq. m., Pop. about 7,000. Only 17 islands of the group are inhabited. The shores are every where bold and precipitous ; and though there are numerous harbours, most of them are beset with rocks, or exposed to the violence of the winds and waves, so that they afford safe anchorage only in the summer. The whole surface of the land is a succession of hills, the highest of which, Skoelling in Stromoe, is 2,240 ft. in elevation. (Landt.) There are no valleys of any extent, neither are there any streams but such as are generally fordable throughout the year; small fresh-water lakes exist in several of the islands, the largest of which, in Vaagoe, is about 2 m. in circ., Climate very variable; but, notwithstanding the height of the lat., it is said to be milder and more equable throughout the year than in the S. provs. of Ş.a. the snow seldom }* for more than eight days at a time. Rain and ogs are very prevalent, and the islands suffer greatly from the violence of the winds and storms. Principal rocks, granitic trap, felspar, clay-slate, &c.; basalt in columns is frequent, peat and coal are abundant, and traces of iron, copper, and some other metals, besides opal, chalcedony, zeolite, &c. are found. Soil very thin, being no more than 4 st; in depth even at the bottoms of the valleys, and, to render it productive, it must generally be manured pretty highly ; the proportion of cultivated to uncultivated land is only about 1 to 60. . Some barley is grown, but neither oats nor rye will come to much perfection; and what corn is grown has to be dried under cover by means of fires. Most of the supply of corn is therefore brought from Denmark. Turnips and potatoes succeed pretty well, and are important articles of food. As might be expected, agriculture is very backward, and is principally carried on by the spade. Hay is one of the chief o: products; there is no timber of any description. The chief wealth of the inhab. is in their flocks of sheep, of which a peasant often possesses from 200 to 300 head; next to their flesh, they are chiefly valuable for their wool and fat ; the ewes are never miiked. The wool, which is coarse, is principally used in the domestic manufacture of hose and cloth. The cows, are small, and no care is taken to improve the breed; every peasant is the owner of at least one. The horses are small, and used only for burdens, the steepness of the country not admitting of their being employed for draught. Hogs are rarely kept. As great numbers of sea-fowl, valuable alike for their flesh and their feathers, build round the coast, fowling is an important pursuit. It is also an extremely hazardous one, and requires great nerve and dexterity. The rocks are in many parts so precipitous that the fowlers have to be let down from the suium, it by a rope 100 or 200 fathoms

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in length. In the most inaccessible places the fowls are frequently so tame that they may be taken by the hand; but elsewhere they are taken by a net thrown over them by the fowler. Seáling, whaling, and fishing also employ a good many hands in the season. Manufactures almost wholly domestic; the chief are those of coarse woollen fabrics, woven by a loom of the rudest kind, and knit woollen stockings. Hats, combs, furniture, and other articles of prime necessity are made, and good boats built in many places; dyeing, fulling, tanning, &c., are also conducted in the country. Principal exports, – hose, tallow, fish, train oil, feathers, skins, and botter : inports, – corn. pulse, bread, malt, spirits, colonial produce, iron, lead, gunpowder, lime, bricks, timber, tar, glass, linen cloth, shoes, books, &c., About 109,000 pairs of hose are exported annually. Barley bread, dried meat, fish, soup of oatmeal, fat, and water, milk, and turnips. compose the chief articles of food. The people are of Scandinavian origin, and speak a dialect similar to old Danish. These islands have a civil governor, called amtmann, a judge or landrogy, and a provost with superior authority in resigious matters. The country is divided into 7 arishes, and 39 congregations; The only town is I'horshavn, at the S.E. end of Stromoe, which is defended by a fort, and has about 1,600 inhab. The land partly belongs to the inhab, and partly to the crown ; the public revenue, derived from the royal domains, quit rents, taxes on flocks, fisheries, &c., is paid mostly in kind. There are no schools, except one o Thorshavn ; but most of the pop. possess the rudiments of education. The Faroe isles are supposed to have been discovered by the Norwegians in the 9th century; since the union of Norway with Denmark, in the 14th century, they have belonged to the latter country. (Landt's Feroe Islands, c.) & FARS, or FARSISTAN, a prov. of Persia, which, by the change of the s into so as, in European languages, ... its name to the whole country in the S. part of which it is situated, between lat. 27° 40' and 32° N., and long. 49° 30' and 55° E., having N. the prov. Irak, E. that of Kerman, S. Laristan and the Persian Gulf, and W. the latter sea and Khuzistan: length, N. to S., nearly 300 m. ; breadth, m. Area, perhaps about 55,000 sq. m. Pop. uncertain. A mountain chain, which is a continuation of Mount Zagros, extends, from N.W. to S.E., through this prov., dividing it into the hot and cold regions (Germaseer and Sirhud); the former of which, the smaller division, extends with a variable breadth inland along the whole coast; while the latter comprises most of the N., E., and mountainous parts of the prov. The mountain ranges in some places rise to from 2,500 to 3,000 ft. above the sea; they are interspersed with numerous plains from 15 to 100 m. in length, though seldom more than from 8 to 10 m. in breadth. These plains are in general fertile, sufficiently well watered, and afford abundance of pasturage and wood ; some of them are tolerably well cultivated, but they are, for the most part, and particularly to the N. and W., destitute of inhabitants. In the E. part of the prov. the plains are of f. extent, the soil is more sandy, and water is less plentiful. The central mountain chain divides the rivers into those which flow into the Persian Gulf, and those discharging themselves into Lake Bakteghan. The principal of the former is the Tab (an. Arosis), and of the latter the Bendermeer, or rather Bund-emeer (an. the Cyrus or Arares). Besides the Lake Bakteghan, which is 70 m. in circ., there are several other lakes, the chief of which is in the neighbourhood of Shiraz. These, as well as some of the rivers, are salt, the soil of Fars being strongly imo. with that mineral ; and the bed of the lake akteghan affords in summer, when it is nearly dry, great quantities of fine salt. The climate of the hot region is unhealthy; fevers, ophthalmia, and other diseases are prevalent ; famine for want of rain is not uncommon, and the people are poor, and live wretchedly in mud huts. In the cold region, on the contrary, the climate is temperate and healthy, and agriculture is not in so had a state as in some other provs. of Persia. The E., though less highly favoured than some other parts of Fars, is that best cultivated ; and great quantities of the finest tobacco are raised there. A great deal of corn, and especially rice, dates, raisins, and various other fine fruits; opium, saffron, hemp, cotton, &c., are among the chief agricultural products; silk is produced; the cactus seeding the cochineal is plentiful; and great numbers of roses are cultivated for the manufacture of attar. The wine is of a rather superior quality, and that of Shiraz, has attained. perhaps, more celebrity than it deserves. Many cattle and sheep are reared; the horses, asses, and camels are good; fish, game, and other wild animals, are abundant. There are said to be mines of lead and iron, and uarries of marble and alabaster ; borax is obtained, and there are some very productive springs of naphtha. The inhab. are, generally speaking, among the most civilised and industrious in Persia. They manufacture fine wool

len, silk, and cotton stuffs, camel skins, &c., for exportation. The trade is principally with Hindostan. Chief towns, Shiraz, the cap., Bushire, Firozabad, Darab-jerd, Kazeroum, Bender-rigk, &c. In this prov. are also the ruins of Persepolis, Pasarga, and Shakpoor. Fars was the ancient patrimony and kingdom of Cyrus the Great, previously to his fossindation of the Persian empire. (Kinneir, Mod. Trav.; Dict. Géographique.) FA VERSHAM, a bor., par., and sea-port town of England, co. Kent, lathe of Scray, hund. Faversham, 45 m. S. E. by S. Lond. Area of par., 2,270 acres. Pop. (1831) 4,429. The town, situated near a branch of the Swale, and within 3 m. of the main road from London to Dover, consists chiefly of two irregular streets, crossing at right angles, with a market-place and town-hall at the point of intersection. A suburb called Brent Town consists of cottages built within a recent period; and Ospringe Street, on the above line of road, is another suburb, that will probably be ere long united to the town. The village of Preston is also quite contiguous. Faversham is paved and lighted. The church, a spacious structure, with a fine tower and spire, was rebuilt in 1755, on the site of a structure of the reign of Edward II. There are also two dissenting chapels; a free grammar school, founded by Elizabeth, for 8 boys; and 2 other free schools, one for 12 boys, the other for a like number of girls; almshouses for 12 poor people; a theatre, and assembly rooms. Market, Wednesday and Saturday : fairs, Feb. 25., Aug. 12. There are gunpowder-mills in the vicinity belonging to private individuals, but the government mills have been discontinued. At present the oyster fishery forms the most important staple of the place, and is conducted by a o company, admission to which is obtained by birth, or apprenticeship to a member ; but the claimant must be a married man. There belonged to the port, in 1836, 229 vessels, of the burden of 8,270 tons, besides a great number of halfdecked craft and open boats. Since the Municipal Reform Act it is governed by 4 aldermen and 12 counsellors. Average annual corporation revenue, 1,0001. The limits of the old borough (which did not comprise the entire town) have been extended so as to include that, and the whole of Ospring Street. There is a court of requests for debts under 40s., and a union workhouse has recently been built in the parish. FAYAL, one of the Azores, which see. FA YOUM", a famous valley and prov. of Central §§§ anciently the nome of Arsinoe. At about 15 m. .S.W. Benisonef: there is a depression in the Libyan or most westerly of the two chains, which accompany the Nile out of Nubia. From this gorge — about 6 m. in length – the hills diverge, making a circular bend to the W. and N., and enclose the valley of Faioum; which is of an oval figure, and forms a low table-land, gradually sloping towards the N. and S. ; the N., depression occupied by the Birket-el-Kerlin (the lake Moeris of the ancients), and the S. depression ty lake Garah. Thus, unlike other basins, the valley of Faioum has its greatest depressions, not in the middle, but at the sides ; its central portion forming a low, slightly convex plateau, extending towards the W. Upon this Col. line runs an arm of the great canal of Egypt, the Bahr Iuscof (given out at the narrow pass mentioned above), which at a short distance from Medinet-el-Fatoum, the capital of the province, spreads out into various small branches, and gives a fertility to the valley which, though comparatively great, has been much overrated by some travellers. Faioum is about 40 m. in length from E. to W., and 30 m. in breadth from N. to S. Towns, villages, and canals. – At the entrance of the ravine, which affords the only communication between this isolated province and the Nile, stand the vilkage of Iliahoun, on the N.E. bank of the canal, and the town of Hawarah-el-Kebyr, on its S.W. bank, connected by a bridge of three arches, and provided with a number of reservoirs to regulate the masses of water during the inundation. Near lllahoun is a dilapidated pyramid 60 ft. high, with a base of 197 ft. square, consisting of calcareous stone, that supports a pile of unbaked bricks. At the other extremity of the gorge, where the valley fairly opens, is Hawarah-el-Sogair, near to which two ancient branches of the Bahr Iusof diverge in opposite directions. The waters of the main canal are turned into these branches by means of bridge-dykes, built upon foundations above the ordinary level of the stream, so that at high Nile the current continues its course through the arches; but these canals are so encumbered with mud that their waters never reach the lake except during the inundation. 13etween lol Sogair and Medinet-el-Faioum are strewed the remains of the celebrated Labyrinth, consisting of, first, a brick pyramid, 122 yds. square and 197 ft. high ; under

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which the French discovered a subterranean passage, a sarcophagus, and a salt spring ; secondly, the remains 9f a temple to the E. of the pyramid, presenting the fragments of huge columns of granite, with several seulchral excavations. A large mass of ruins are buried n earth and rubbish, and have never been explored; the whole forming an oblong parallelogram 984 ft. in length, with nearly as great a breadth. Among another series of ruins, to the N. of Medimet, and occupying an area of about : m., Belzoni found two immense stone pedestals, to which the name of “Pharaoh's feet” have been given; various granite statues, some wrought iron, and a quan: tity of half melted glass. At some distance from these stands a syenite obelisk with a circular top, and though 43 ft. high, is covered with a profusion of sculptures. A portion of these remains are believed to have belonged to the Labyrinth, but most of them to the ancient city of Arsinoe, now replaced by Medinet-elFatoum...This capital is divided by a branch of the Bahr-el-Wady into two parts, connected by five bridges, and much of it is built of the remains of the ancient city. In 1824 Medinet contained 5,000 inhab., partly Copts and partly Moslems. It is the residence of the provincial governor. Some ruins at a short distance from the E. point of Birket-el-Kerun accord very nearly with the ancient Bacchis or IBanchis. 18 m. W.N. W. of the village of Nazleh, and 3 m. from the lake, stands a temple, known as Kasr-Kerún, 94 ft. long, and 63 st. high, with 14 chambers, having on either side a long passage whose end wall is divided into 3 narrow cells. (Wilkinson's Tonog. of Thebes, pp. 352, 353.) Jomard penetrated one of these avenues, and, finding it skilfully adapted for the conveyance of the voice, inferred that it was designed for the utterance of oracles. This temple is manifesty of Roman origin, as is a smaller one 130 paces to the S.E. of it. We pass over the less noticeable villages of Faioum, of which there are o: not quite 70. (Encycl. Britannica, art. Egypt; Ritter's Africa, vol. iii. p. 35–50., French edition; Letronne's Nouv. Annales des Poyages, vi. pp. 133–154. ; Belzoni’s Researches, &c. ii. 145., &c.) Lake Maeris. – According to the statement of Herodotus, confirmed by that of other historians, this lake occupied in his time a large proportion of the valley, having a circumference of 450 m. (3,600 stadia), and a maximum depth of 150 ft. The basin was filled by the waters of the §. conducted to it by canals, for it had no springs. The statement as to the size of the lake in antiquity is not inconsistent with its present contracted dimensions: the supply of water has been gradually lessened by the raising of the bed of the Nile, and by the filling up of the lakes and canals, so that very little reaches it at present, even during the inundation ; not enough to countervail the copious evaporation which in this hot climate is continually going on. Hence, last century, the lake was 50 m. long and 10 m. broad (Pococke's Travels, i. 62.), whereas it is now only 30 m. long and 6 m. broad in the middle or widest part. Herodotus states that the Lake Moeris was artificially excavated o order of the kin whose name it bears; but by this he no doubt referre to the excavation of the canals by which the lake was filled, and perhaps also to some excavations made in the lake itself. He says that for six months the waters flowed from the Nile to the lake, and that during the other six months they flowed from the lake to the river; but the level of the lake must always have been too low for the waters to have returned to the Nile; while that of the canals does so to this day. (Herod. lib. ii. § 149. : Encyc. Brit., art. Egypt; Wilkinson's Topog., Thebes, . 351.) p The Labyrinth. This extraordinary structure is said by Herodotus, by whom it was visited, to have surpassed . the works of the Greeks, including the temples of Ephesus and of Samos, and to have been superior even to the pyramids. (Lib. ii. § 148.) It was divided into 12 courts, corresponding to the 12 nomes or provinces into which Egypt was then distributed, and is said to have ton's 3,000 apartments, 1,500 above, and as . below ground. Herodotus visited those above ground, and speaks of them from his own observation ; but he was refused admittance to the others, and informed that they were used as sepulchres for the sacred crocodiles, and the kings who had constructed the edifice. (Ubi supra.) The disferent chambers were connected by an infinite number of winding passages, so artfully contrived as to give the structure its name. The ceilings, walls, and ło, were of the whitest marble, all adorned with sculpture. In fact, one's belief is almost staggered by the accounts of this extraordinary edifice ; and nothing less than the authority of the venerable father of history could have made us believe in the existence of such a structure. For farther information as to this extraordinary lan, see the notes to Larcher's Herodotus, tom. ii. 494– 5., 2d ed. There can be little question that the ruins strewed about near Medinct, and between it and El Soair, are those of the Labyrinth, though the position of § Kerün was assigned to it by early European tra. vellers.

Fajoum is chiefly inhabited by two branches of the Samiuaton tribe of Arabs from the W. states of Barbary, who wore able at the end of the last century to ...; 2,970 soldiers. (Girard, “surles Habits de Faiourn,” 1joso. de l'Egype, tome iii. p. 350.) Near the capital large quantities of roses are cultivated, which are converted into rose water of a highly esteemed quality. The land capable of cultivation in Faioum has been estimated at 45.59 m ... of which scarcely the half is at present tilled. FECAMP, a sea-port town of France, dép. Seine inférieure, cap. cant., between two ranges ...ii. at the mouth of a small river of the same name, 48 m. N.w. Rouen; lat. 49° 45' 24” N., long. 0° 23' 3" E. Pop. (1836) 8,350. It consists of little more than a main street, not well built, but upwards of 2 m. in length from the church to the port. Its church, a handsome edifice, is the sole remaining part of a celebrated abbey, founded by Richard I., duke of Normandy, in 988, and destroyed during the revolution. Fecamp has an exchange, hospital, chamber of commerce, and a gratuitous school of navigation. Its port, though small, is one of the best on the Channel; and latterly it has been very greatly improved by the construction of an inner port, with a fine quay, a magnificent lighthouse, &c. It has two roadsteads: the Great Road, lying opposite to Cricqueboeuf, about 2 m. off shore, with 13 fathoms, and a good clay bottom, mixed with sand ; the Little Road lies off the W. side of the harbour, and has from 10 to 7 fathoms. It manufactures cotton yarn, linen fabrics, seamen's shoes, hardware, rapeseed-oil, candles, and soda ; and has sugar refineries, tanneries, and building docks. It also fits out vessels for the cod, mackerel, and herring fisheries, and is an entrepôt for colonial produce, salt. brandy, &c. The air of this town is celebrated for its Purity, its men for their healthy appearance, and its women for their beauty. (Hugo, art. Seine 11 serieure, Purdy's English Channel, &c.) FE LEG Y HAZA, a town of Hungary, between the Danube and Theiss, cap. distr. of Little Cumania, on the road between Pesth and Temeswar, 55 m. S.E the former. Pop. 15,000. It has a Roman Catholi church, and gymnasium ; and a court of justice, in which the archives of the distr. are preserved. Some Roman antiquities have been discovered in its neighbourhood. The country round produces corn, wine, fruit, &c., and large cattle markets are held in the town. (Oesterr. Naf. Encyc.) FELIPE-SAN, formerly JATIVA, or XATIVA, (an. Saetabis), a town of Spain, Valencia, cap. prov. of same name, on the declivity of a hill, near the confluence of the Montesa and Albayda, 44 m. S. by W. Valencia, and 195 m. S. E. Madrid. Pop, about 12,000. It is well built, and well o No. public fountains, and fine public walks. It has a cathedral, 3 par. churches, 10 convents, an hospital, and an asylum for widows. The ancient city stood on the summit of the hill, near the foot of which the modern town is built. It had a stron fortress; and having been a Roman station, containe some Roman edifices, as well as others erected by the Moors, all of which are now in ruins. Inglis, speaking of the latter, says, “ The magnificence and extent of the Moorish remains struck me with astonishment, even after having seen the Alhambra. These crown the hill that rises immediately behind the city; this hill is twice the height of that upon which the Alhambra stands, and the remains at San Felipe are also greatly more extensive. They are not, indeed, like the Alhambra, in preservation, nor do they present the terraces, and ..!. and columns, that at once point out its Moorish origin; but they are seen covering the summit of a mountain ridge, 1,000 or 1,200 ft. high, and presenting in fine relief, against the sky, an irregular line of not less than 2 miles in extent of massive and imposing ruins.” (Spain in 1830, ii. 243.) In 1706, during the war of the succession, Xativa, after it had held out a long time against the French, was taken and burned ; it was rebuilt on its present site by Philip V., who gave it his own name. he Moorish style, however, which prevailed in the former city, seems to characterise the edifices and manners of the present one. “Passing along the streets, I observed many signs of Moorish days, more than either in Seville or Granada: in a court ard which I entered, mistaking it for that of the posada, } noticed that the walls were arabesque; and looking in at the doors of the shops and houses, I scarcely saw a single person seated upon a chair, or even upon a stool ; every one was squatted upon a mat.” (Inglis, whi supra.) San Felipe has no manufactures; all its inhabitants are said to find employment and subsistence from its contiguous hoterta, or irrigated valley. (Inglis's Spain, vol. ii.; Swinburne, Mod. Trav., vol. xviii.; Dict. Géog.) FELIPE (SAN). a town of the repub. of Venezuela, Colombia, do Venezuela, on the Yragui, not far from the Gulph of Triste, and 136 m. W. by S. Caracas. Pop. 7, to 2 It is regularly laid out with wide and straight streets, and has a good parish church. Cocoa, cotton. findigo, coffee, &c., grow abundantly in its neighbourhood, and are the chief articles of export. Its climate is, however, oppressive, damp, and unhealthy. (Dict. Geogr.) FELTRE (an. Feltria), a town of Austrian Italy, deleg. Belluno, on a hill at the foot of the Alps, and near the junction of the Colmeda with the Piave, 16 m. S. W. Belluno. Pop. 5,500. It is partially fortified, and is tolerably well built; streets broad and well paved. It has a handsome market-place, a cathedral, many other churches, an Episcopal . a seminary of theology and philosophy, an hospital, and an orphan asylum. It has silk twist, and some wax-bleaching factories; and trades in silk, wine, oil, &c., the produce of the adjacent terrio, §§§ ; Oest. Nat. Encyc.) ERMANAGH, an inland co. of Ireland, prov. Ulster, having S. Cavan, E. and N. Monaghan, Tyrone, and 1)onegal, and W. Leitrim. Area, 471,348 imp. acres; of which 101,952 are unimproved bog and mountain, and 48,797 water, principally consisting of Lough Erne. This, which #. rly consists of two lakes, joined by a left and winding channel, is a noble sheet of water. It stretches the whole length of the co., which it divides into two nearly equal portions. Sce ERNe (Lou GH). Surface varied, and in Follo. better wooded than most Irish cos. Farms of all sizes; but the great majority very small. In the N. part of this co., agriculture is in pretty forward state; but elsewhere, it is very backward : a good many cattle are bred on the high grounds. Mr. lnglis says that he found the occupiers of land in this co. in a better condition than in most other parts of Ireland. Oats, barley, wheat, flax, and potatoes are the principal crops. . Average rent of land, 12s. 3d. an acre. Iron ore is found in different places. Manufactures un: important. Fermanagh contains 8 baronies, and 18 parishes, and sends 3 mems. to the imperial parliament, viz. 2 for the co., and l for the bor. of Enniskillen, which is the principal. In 1831, Fermanagh had 25,781 inhab. houses, 28,132 families, and 149,763 persons, of whom 73,117 were males, and 76,646 females. FERMO (an. Firmum Picenum), a city of central Italy, Papal States, cap. deleg. of same name; on a hill, about 3 m. from the Adriatic, and 32 m. S.S.E. Ancona; lat. 43° 10' N., long. 13° 43' E. Pop. 19,000, chiefly in the suburbs. It is surrounded by a wall, of little importance as a means of defence; and has a cathedral, 10 other churches, 15 convents, a palace, built by Jerome Bohaparte, a university founded in 850, and 2 fine collections of statuary and paintings. The harbour on the Adriatic, called Porto di Fermo, is small, and frequented only by a few trading vessels. . The exports consist chiefly of corn, silk, and woollen cloth: it has an annual fair, lasting from August 18. to Sept. 5. Fermo is the seat of the delegate, of an archbishopric, and of a court of rimary jurisdiction, with appeal to a superior tribunal at acerata. It was founded by the Sabines, before Rome existed ; and colonised by the Romans towards the beo, of the first Punic war, and has been plundered by Alaric, Attila, and other, barbarian chiefs; it, however, continued during a blockade of 11 years to hold out against Alboin, and was only obliged, through famine, to yield to his successor, Antharis. Since the 8th century it has, with few intermissions, belonged to the see of Rome. Lactantius and Galeazzo Sforza were both natives of Fermo. (Rampoldi; Dict. Géogr., &c.) FERMOY, an inland town of Ireland, co. Cork, prov. Munster, on the Blackwater, 118 m. S. W. Dublin. Pop. in 1831, 6,976; the Cath. being to the Protest. in the proportion of about 8 to 1. The town which, till 1791, when r. Anderson commenced his improvements, was but a station for carriers, consists of a square, and several wellbuilt streets on each side the river, which is here crossed by a fine bridge: its rapid improvement is owing to its having been made a military dépôt during the last war with France. It has a par. church and a R. Cath. chapel, both spacious and elegant buildings, a convent, a Methodist meeting-house, several large schools, and a court-house : a workhouse, which was formerly barracks for 3,000 men, cavalry, infantry, &c. Races are held annually in the neighbourhood. There are here extensive flour-mills; and a considerable trade in flour and agricultural produce, mostly sent to Youghal, whence coal and other produce is received in return. There are also 2 follo. and a brewery; duty was paid in 1836 on 22,055 bushels of malt, and the town is the centre of a considerable retail trade. Markets on Saturdays; fairs on 21st June, 20th August, and 7th November. General sessions are held in January ; petty sessions every Monday. Post-office revenue in 1830, 9221, ; in 1836, 1,1861. I}ranches of the Agricultural and National banks were opened in 1835. (Stat. Surv.; Railway Report.) FERNANDEZ. See JUAN FERNANDEz. FERNANDO-DE-A PURE (SAN), a town of the repub. Venezuela, Columbia, dep. Orinoco, on the Apure, near its junction with the Portuguesa, 164 m. E. by N. Varinas. Pop. 6,000. P FERNAND O-PO, an island in the Bight of Biafra, 20 m. from the African coast, about 40 m. in length by

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20 m. in breadth, now abandoned, but formerly occupied by Great Britain, it having been selected as a military and naval station from its supposed salubrity and from the facilities afforded by its situation for the suppression of the illicit slave trade. “It is about 120 m. in circ., and, like the adjacent part of the mainland, is exceedingly mountainous; Clarence Peak, the most elevated point, attaining the height of several thousand feet (10,700 ft.). The S. extremity is also intersected by several steep mountains, varying from 1,000 to 3,000 ft., which, with the intervening valleys, are covered with dense forests of large and valuable timber, and watered by numerous rivulets. The wet season commences at the latter end of May, and continues till the end of November: the annual quantity of rain and the temperature are much the saume as at the other stations on the coast. The sea breeze is regular, but the land breeze generally deficient, being Hotel by the high range of mountains on the mainallol. “Clarence Town, the principal settlement (on the N. side of the island), lies in lat. 32 53° N., long. 79 40' E., and is built close to the sea upon an elevated plain from 100 to 200 ft. in height, embracing two small peninsulas, Point William and Point Adelaide, with a semicircular space extending about a mile in length, and forming a cove well adapted for shipping. All the ground in the immediate vicinity is covered with forest trees and jungle, except to the extent of about 6 sq. m., which was partially cleared on the formation of the settlement. The soil, which is generally argillaceous, resting on a bed of freestone, gives proofs of abundant fertility when cultivated. The water, both of spring and brook, is of the best quality, and there are no marshes in the vicinity, the hilly nature of the ground not admitting of their formation.” At this settlement part of a company of black troops, belonging to the Royal African corps, was stationed with some civil officers of government, in 1827-28; and a number of European mechanics went out in those and the succeeding years to aid in the erection of barracks and other buildings, &c. But the climate was soon found to be quite as pestiferous as that of the other settlements on this part of the African coast. Most Europeans were attacked by fever, and the instances of recovery were very rare. We are glad, therefore, to have to state, that in 1834 the detachment of troops was withdrawn, and that this pest-house has ceased to be a military station. (Tulloch's Report on the Sickness, &c. of the Troops in Western Africa, p. 21.) FERN EY, a village of France, dep. Ain, 6 m. S.S. E. Gex, and 5 m. N.W. Geneva. Pop. 1,000. 2 This lage is indebted not merely for its celebrity, but even existence, to its having been for a lengthened period the residence of by far the greatest littérateur of modern times. Voltaire purchased this estate in 1758. The seigniory enjoyed an exemption from all public taxes and burdens; but it would seem that Voltaire wish d to establish himself in this retreat, not so much from its enjoying the privilege now mentioned, and its agreeable situation, as from the facility which its vicinity to Geneva afforded of placing himself in a safe asylum in the event of any measures being taken to interfere with his freedom. Voltaire conferred the so advantages on Ferney. Instead of a paltry village, consisting of a few miserable cottages, he constructed a neat little town, in which he established a colony of industrious artizans, principally consisting of watchmakers, from Geneva : he also rebuilt the church ; drained and planted the a ing grounds; defended his vassals in their contests with the revenue officers and the church, and did all that a rich, enlightened, and really benevolent landlord could do to promote the comfort and happiness of those around him. The château, to which a meat little theatre was attached, was fitted up in a styte of elegant sin plit and his hospitalities were on the most liberal scaic. Voltaire resided here with little interruption or more than 20 years. During the whole of this period, Ferncy was to the literary and refined what Mecca is to the Mohammedan jå. and the most distinguished personages of the time eagerly resorted to Ferney from all parts of Europe, to pay their respects to its illustrious master. Voltaire quitted Ferney for the last time on the 6th of February, 1778. His château is, or was not long since, preserved nearly in the state in which he lost it. He expired at Paris on the 30th May, 1778. (See Condorcet, Vie de Voltaire, 203. ; Biographie Universe/le, art. I'oltaire, &c.) FERRARA, a famous city of Italy, N. part of the Papal States, cap. deleg. of same name, formerly an independent duchy, in a low o on the left bank of the Volano, 5 m. S. from the Po, to which it is united by a canal, and 26 m. N.N.E. Bologna ; lat. 44° 49' 56” ., long. 11° 36' 25” I. Pop. 25,000, including about 1,800 Jews. It is the most N. city belonging to the pope; is well fortified and defended on its W. side by a strong pentagonal citadel, garrisoned, conformably to the treaty of Vienna, by Austrian troops. While it was under its native princes of the * of Esté, Ferrara was 3

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