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where it is kept until it dries sufficiently to be ready for use. When sold wholesale, it fetches about 3}d. per lb. This is considered a very lucrative trade; and the richest people in the canton are cheese manufacturers. A good deal of Schabzieger cheese is exported to America. The so of 20 or 25 cows in Glarus is considered to be n very easy circumstances, and yet his whole property does not amount to more than 160l., the usual price of a cow being 7l., or 8!. at most. But with a single cow, and a little potato land, or with 3 or 4 goats, an individual is above poverty. A person possessing property to the amount of 3,000l. is considered very wealthy, and there is not one in the canton worth 8,0001. (Inglis.) The woods, which chiefly consist of fir and beech trees, belong for the most part to the communes. They have, however, been ill managed, and timber has become dear. Several mines of copper, iron, and silver exist, but they are not wrought. Fine black and other marbles, slate, quartz, gypsum, &c. are found, and there are some sulphureous springs. The inhab. are very active and industrious: they manufacture cotton and linen goods, print muslins, &c., pretty extensively, and are endeavouring to establish silk manufactures. They formerly traded in the more precious European woods, and marquetry-work; but the demand for

these has greatly diminished. The chief exports of Glarus are about 2,000 head of cattle and 200 or 300 horses

annually, Schabzieger and other kinds of cheese, butter, W. i

honey, dried fruits, manufactured articles, slates, &c. The principal imports are corn, wines, salt, metals, wool, colonial produce, i. earthenware, and straw hats, muslins, silks, and Lyonese goods, which the traders sell in the fairs of Italy, Germany, and the N. of Europe. It is estimated that i-30th part of the !'; are engaged in business out of the canton; some travel for Zurich merchants, and others on their own account; and natives of Glarus are settled in many of the large commercial cities of Europe. The cant. is divided into 15 tagwen or communities; chief towns, Glarus, Mollis, Schwanden, and Enneda ; the last has risen up since 1780 to be a place containing 2,000 inhab., the most thrifty in the canton. The constitution is purely democratic. The government is in the hands of the whole body of the male pop. above 16 years of age, being from 6,000 to 7,000, who meet annually on the first Sunday in May, in a general assembly, to appoint their magistricy, &c., and to accede to or reject the laws proposed to them by the executive body. The latter consists of a council of about 80 members, of whom 3-4ths are Protestants, and the remainder Catholics. The two persuasions enjoy the same rights, and alternately elect the presidents of the general assembly and council. Some very singular laws prevail in Glarus. One is, that only a son or daughter can inherit property, unless such have been purchased by the testator. Pro|. so lapsing belongs to the government, by which it is et out to the poor at the rate of 15 batzen (2s. 1d.) for 36 ft. sq. A large proportion of the land is held in this way, and generally planted with potatoes or blue pansy. This law gives general satisfaction. The laws respecting marriage are curious. Whatever may be the age of persons desirous of marrying, they cannot do so without the consent of their respective parents. . “A man of 50 must still remain a bachelor, if his father of 75 should so determine.” (Inglis.) This law is, however, partially neutralised by another. If a young woman is encernte, the person in fault is obliged to marry her; or, in case of a refusal, he is declared incapable of being elected to a -seat in the council : his evidence is inadmissible in a court of justice; and, in short, he is deprived of civil rights. Both the Catholic and Protestant clergy are paid by the government; but the strictest economy prevails in all the public departments; the chief magistrate receives, but 20t, a year ! Taxation is o low ; the state-expenditure is defrayed by a poll-tax of 4 batzen (about 6d.) upon every one above 16 years of age ; a property-tax of 2 batzen upon every 1,000 florins, rent of state-proFo customs, post-office, excise, fines, &c. There s no direct poor-law, but something very like one. On Sundays there are what are called toluntary subscriptions for the poor; but if any one known to have the means of giving be observed not to give, he may be summoned before the council, and compelled to contribute. There are one or more schools in every commune, for the ordinary useful branches of education, the masters of which are paid by government about 35l. a year. Parents are obliged to send their children to school ; but all instruction is gratuitous. Glarus furnishes 482 men to the army, and 3,615 Swiss francs to the treasury of the Swiss confederation. Public revenue (1826) 26,226 florins; expenditure 17,301 florins. As early as the 5th century, the territory of Glarus belonged principally to the abbry of Seckingen on the Rhine; but it fell in the 13th century into the possession of the house of Austria. In 1351, it was occupied by the troops of the confederated Swiss cantons, and soon afterwards joined the confederacy; its independence being consolidated by the memorable battle of Naefels, in 1388. After the reformation, it was the seat of continual religious wars; and in 1799, was the

theatre of a contest between the Austrians and Russians and the French. The historian, Tschudi, was a native of this canton. (Helvetic Almanack, Ebel; Cannabuch; Lutz. Geog. and Statist., Picot; Inglis's Switzerland.)

GLARts, a town of Switzerland, cap. of the above cant., in the narrow valley of the Linth, between two Alpine mountain ranges, 33 m. S. E. Zurich, and 63 m. S. the Lake of Wallenstadt. Pop. 4,320. The town is well built, and cheerful; the houses, many of which are antiquated, are chiefly of stone, and frequently ornamented on the outside with fresco paintin The par. church, an old, Gothic edifice, is used by toh Protestants and Catholics. The Linth is here crossed by two bridges. Glarus has an hospital, town-hall, a free school for 700 children, erected by private subscriptions; public library, and reading-room. Most of its inhab. are engaged in

commerce, and it has a brisk trade; besides manufactures of printed cotton goods, muslims, woollen cloth, and Schalozieger cheese.

(Ebel ; Picot, &c.) GLASGow, a city, river-port, and the most populous and important manufacturing and commercial town of Scotland, co. Lanark, on both sides the Clyde, 42 m. W. by S. Edinburgh, and 18 m. E.S.E. Greenock: lat. 55° 51' 3.2”. N. (Macfarlane's Observatory), long. 4° 17' 54" W., being about 8 m. farther S. than Edinburgh. The greatest extent of the city from E. to W. is nearly 4 m., and from S. to N. nearly 3 m. The site on which Glasgow is built is a dead level on the S. of the river, and also for about 4 m. on the N., after which the ground rises with considerable rapidity, till, at the extremity of the town, in this direction, it is 150 ft. above the level of the Clyde. The portion of the cit on the S. bank of the Čš. called the Gorbals, o in 1841, a pop. of 39,054. Its situation, shape, and fine river, give Glasgow a striking, though miniature resemblance to London. Pop. (1841), 274,324 : viz., males, 130,478; females, 143,846; excess of females 13,368. Of the pop. 143,874 were born in the co, and 130,450 elsewhere. At present, 1845, the pop. may be estimated at about 300,000. (See post.) The original town was built on the rising ground, as an *E. to the cathedral erected in the 6th century (by Kentigern, or St. Mungo, the tutelary saint of the city), on the banks of the ravine, intersected by the Molindinar burn, which formed, for centuries, the W. boundary of the town. From this point the buildings gradually extended downwards, till they, occupied the whole of the intervening space N. of the Clyde, and ultimately in every direction, including the large suburb (the Gorbals) S. of the river. Other extensive suburban villages, such as Calton, Anderston, Cowscaddens, &c., are now regarded as forming part of the city, being continuously attached to it. The houses both of the city and suburbs are of stone, covered with slate. The principal street, running E. and W., parallel to the river, bearing the several names of Ao. Street, Trongate, and Gallowgate, is above 1, m. in length; and, though not of uniform width, is everywhere of ample dimensions. It is lined an either side with well-built houses, from 3 to 5 stories in height, having handsome shops on a level with the causeway; and is, in fact, one of the finest streets and most crowded thoroughfares in Europe. Parallel to this are many fine streets, as Ingram Street, St. Vincent Street, George Street, &c.; and these are intersected by other streets running N. and S., of which the principal and most ancient is oilo street and Saltmarket. Glasgow, is in one respect decidedly superior to London, both sides of the Clyde being bordered by fine quays; and Carlton Place, on its s. side, is one of the finest ranges of buildings in the city. ...All o of the city W. of George's square and N.W., from Argyle Street to the canal, is comparatively modern, Here, within the last 40 or 50 rears, a city, of noble streets, squares, and palaces... has een o Blythswood Square, on rising ground N. from the Broomielaw, is splendidly built, and may be regarded as the most fashionable part of the town—the Belgrave square of Glasgow. The other principal squares are St. Andrew's, St. Enoch's, and St. George's. On the extreme W. of the city, on elevated ground, is Woodside Crescent, a splendid range of buildings, com: manding an extensive view of the basin of the Clyde, and the adjacent country. But we regret to have to add, that while the newer and more fashionable parts of Glasgow will bear a comparison with the finest quarters in any of our most splendid cities, it has other quarters that do not rank above, if they be not below, the worst parts of the liberties of Dublin, St. Giles's in London, or the wynd's leading from the High street in Edinburgh. The principal district of this sort lies in the centre of the city, between the Trongate on the N., the Saltmarket on the E., the Clyde on the S-, aud Stockwell Street on the W. It consists of a labyrinth of narrow lanes or wynds, whence numberless entrances lead off to small square courts or “closes,” which usually have a dunghill in the centre. These wynds and courts are formed of old, ill-ventilated, and mostly dilapidated houses, varying from two to four stories in height, without water, and let out in stories or flats; one of the latter often serving for the residence of two or three families. Frequently, however, the flats are let out in lodgings, as many as IS or 20 individuals being occasionally found huddled together in a single room. (Symons on Artizans, &c., p. 116.) The whole district is occupied by the poorest, most depraved, and worthless part of the pop. Filth, destitution and misery, prevail to a frightful extent ; and it may be regarded as the grand source of those pestilential fevers that thence spread their destructive ravages over the entire city. There are similar, though less ex . tensive, districts in other parts of the city, off the High Street, in the Calton, &c. In 1817 gas was introduced into the city: the works occupy an area of 14,831 sq. yds. of ground. The charge for gas per metre is 9s. per 1,000 cubic foet, subject to a progressive discount, varyin : from 5 to 30 per cent., according to the quantity consumed. The city was served very inefficiently with water by public and private wells till 1806, when the “Glasgow Water Company” was formed by act of parliament. . Another company was incorporated in 1808: and lately an act of parliament was obtained for uniting these companies. The revenue of the united company, in 1836, was 25,3021. 13s. 9d. The water is got from the Clyde ; quantity furnished daily, 8,218,000 imp. galls. Lowest charge per family, 5s. 6d. per annum, rising on a graduated scale to 13s. on houses rated at 101.5 above 101. of yearly rental, 64 per cent. on rental. Public works varying from 6l. to 12/., 10s. per annum for a daily supply of 1,000 imp. galls. An excellent market-place for the sale of cattle was established in 1818. Glasgow can boast of many magnificent public buildings ; of which the cathedral, or high church, is entitled to the first notice. The original edifice, built by St. Mungo, having gone to decay, the present structure was begun by John Achaius, Bishop of Glasgow, in 1133, in the reign of David I., but was not completed for upwards of three centuries. As the building stands on an elevation (on the W. bank of the Molindinar Burn), 104 ft. above the level of the Clyde, it is seen at a great distance in almost all directions. It is a large oblong structure, in what is called the early English style, which, notwithstanding the different arras of the building, is said by Mr. Rickman to be well kept up, and to be excellently designed and executed. Its greatest length, from E. to W., is 319 ft., the breadth 63 ft., the height of the choir 90 ft., and of the nave 85 ft. A square tower, which rises from the centre of the building to the height of 30 ft. above the roof, is surmounted by an octangular tapering spire, terminating in a ball and vane 225 ft. above the floor of the choir. There is another low tower at the W. end of the N. aisle. It is said to have in all 157 windows, many of which are of ...]". workmanship. The o under the choir and chapter-house, is said, by Mr. Rickman, not to be by any in the kingdom. . . It is, from the fall of the ground, well lighted, and is an uncommonly rich specimen of early English.” It was formerly used as a church, but since 1798 has been used as a ceme. tery only. This venerable and magnificent structure, the most perfect by far of the ancient religious edifices still existing in Scotland, narrowly escaped falling a sacrifice at the aera of the Reformation to the destructive zeal of the mob; but was fortunately saved by the timely and vigorous interposition of the trades. It has recently been determined to have it thoroughly repaired and renovated; the expense to be defrayed partly by government, and partly by subscriptions from the coration, and other public bodies, and private indiviuals. It formerly contained three churches, one of which, as already stated, was situated in the crypt; but now it contains only one. The bishop's palace, or castle, as it was called, erected in 1430, stood to the S.W. of the cathedral, and was enclosed with a strong wall of stone. The ruins were removed, in 1789, to make way for the erection of the infirmary, one of the finest buildings in the o Most of the churches, both established and dissenting, are fine buildings, particularly St. Enoch's, St. Andrew’s, St. David's, and the Tron ; St. Andrew's episcopal chapel; and the R. Catholic chapel, a o Gothic edifice, in West Clyde Street. The University, including the houses for the accommodation of the professors, situated on the E. side of the High Street, is of great extent, having a front of 305 feet to the High Street, and extending 282 feet from E. to W. These buildings, occupying 4 quadrangular courts, are generally three stories high, diversified with turrets and appropriate ornaments. In connection with the college and near it, on the S.E., is the Hunterian Museum, erected in 1804, and exhibiting one of the most perfect specimens of a pure classical building to be found in the empire. It was built from funds left for the F. by the celebrated Dr.William Hunter, a native of the parish of Kilbride, near Glasgow, for the reception of the museum he bequeathed to the university. This princely donation comprises a library of from 10,000 to 12,000

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equall

vols., embracing many rare and splendid editions of the classics, and of other standard works; a choice, and not easily matched collection, of Greek and Roman coins and medals : a collection of about 60 capital pictures; and a magnificent collection of anatomical preparations, shells, minerals, zoological specimens, &c. #. truly noble museum is said to have cost Dr. Hunter 100,000l., and since it was placed in its present situation it has received many additions. The adjoining ground on the E. of the college, though called the College Garden, is a park containing several acres, enclosed by a high wall, and laid out in walks for the use of the professors and students. . The Macfarlane Observatory stands near its E. end; but a new observatory is now being erected on the Gorbals side of the Clyde. The new Royal Exchange, in Queen Street, is a splendid fabric, built in the florid Corinthian style, and surmounted by a lantern, one of the most conspicuous objects in the city. The colonnade, one of the boldest and most imposing structures of the kind in the kingdom, consists of a A. row of fluted Corinthian pillars of great height. The apartment devoted to a news-room is of great size and magnificence, being 100 feet long by 40 broad, with a richly ornamented arched roof, supported by fluted pillars. The Royal Exchange is placed in the centre of an area, two sides of which are lined with splendid and uniform ranges of buildings; while behind it is the Royal Bank, a Grecian structure, much admired for the elegant simplicity and chasteness of the design. On each side of the bank, two superb Doric arches afford access to Buchanan Street, one of the principal streets of the city. Amongst the other public buildings are the gaol and court-houses; the town-hall, and tontine buildings, at the E. end of the Trongate, opposite the statue of William III. Both these buildings are handsome structures; the latter was constructed in 1781, as its name implies, by a company of subscribers, on the principle of o The news-room on the lower floor is of very large dimensions, and, previously to the erection of the new exchange, was the grand resort of the mercantile body: the upper part is occupied as an hotel. The lunatic asylum to the N. of the city is a large and also an elegant structure, admirably adapted for its purpose. The bridewell, merchants’ hall, town hospital, trades’ hall, assembly-rooms, the Andersonian university, high school, surgeons’ hall, barracks, theatre, Hutcheson's hospital, house of refuge, lyceum, &c., deserve notice. It may here be stated that, in 1831, there were 3,184 shops of all kinds in the city and suburbs ; and that the number is now supposed to be nearly 4,000. The highest rent paid for a shop was 250l. per annum. In 1712, the highest rent of a shop was 5l., the lowest 12s. : the average a little more than 32, In connection with public buildings, may be mentioned the bridges over the Clyde, 4 in number, exclusive of a timber bridge for foot passengers. The first bridge over the river was constructed in 1345. It was originally only 12 ft. wide, and consisted of eight arches ; but its width has been increased (1771), and two of its arches built up. Of the other bridges, the newest and most superb is Glasgow Bridge, built in 1836, on the site of a former bridge, removed for the purpose. It is of Aberdeen granite, 560 ft. long, and 60 ft. wide over the parapets; and is not only one of the greatest ornaments of the city, but is §§ be wider than *} other bridge in the United Kingdom. ublic Monuments. – Of these may be enumerated an equestrian statue in bronze of William III., erected at the Cross in the Trongate, the gift of James Macrae (1735), a citizen of Glasgow, and governor of the presidency of Madras; an obelisk in honour of Lord Nelson, in the public green ; a statue of Sir John Moore (a native of Glasgow), in bronze, on a granite pedestal, by Flaxman ; a similar statue of James Watt, by Chantrey, both in George Square. In the centre of the same square, is an elegant fluted Doric pillar, about 100 ft. high, in honour of Sir Walter Scott, with a colossal statue of the great minstrel at the top: in the townhall is a statue of William Pitt, in marble, by Flaxman. Money to the amount of nearly 10,000l. has been subscribed for the erection of a triumphal arch to be surmounted by an equestrian statue of the Duke of Wellington. These monuments are exclusive of those in churchyards, of which there are 20 in the city and suburbs. The Necropolis, formed by the Merchant Company, in 1830, in an elevated park, o: suddenly to the height of 200 ft., and situated on the E. of the $1. lindinar Burn, opposite the cathedral,) in imitation of the cemetery of Père-la-Chaise in Paris, is unrivalled for picturesque effect. It occupies 7,860 square yards of ground, and is laid out with the greatest taste and judgment. Of many elegant monuments which this cemeter contains, an obelisk erected on the summit of the eminence, in honour of John Knox, surmounted by a statue of the reformer, is the most striking: like the cathedral, it is visible at a great distance in every direction. The Green may be appropriately noticed in this place. This, which is the Hyde Park of Glasgow, lies between the Clyde and the Calton and Bridgeton, and contains about 125 acres, appropriated to the recreation of the citizens. It has o been very much o ; the public washing-house having been removed to a more convenient situation, and a carriage drive carried round its circumference.

Ecclesiastical State. – Glasgow contains 12 parochial churches, the clergymen of which are paid by state endowments, each receiving an annual stipend of 425l., except the ministers of the cathedral and Barony parishes, whose incomes, arising from teinds, and including their glebes, amount to about 500l. The deficiency of parochial churches has been recently supplied '. the erection of chapels-of-ease, or supplementary parishes, quoad sacra, the incomes of the clergymen of which arise either from the proceeds of church sittings, or from a given amount of stipend, secured by a bond ...'...} entered into by certain leading persons connected with the separate parishes. The number of these quoad sacra parishes is very great. The Barony parish, with a pop. (in 1831) of 77,385, but with only one parochial clergyman, has been so subdivided that it contains no fewer than 16 such supplemental parishes, each with a separate pastor. The parish of Gorbals, with a pop. of 35,194, contains 3 such parishes; while the remaining parishes embrace 9: total of parishes, including, both the civil and quoad sacra parishes, being 40. The number of dissenters is also very great : comprising 12 o belonging to the United Associate Synod; Relief Synod, 10; Oriinal Burghers, 1 ; Original Seceders, 1 ; Reformed *resbyterians, or Cameronians, 25 Independents, 4 ; Baptists, 6: Episcopalians, 4 ; Wesleyan Methodists, 3; United Monjo. | ; Unitarians, 1 ; Roman Catholics, 7 clergymen ; Quakers, Jews, Boreans, New Jerusalem Church, and two others, 1 congregation each : total, 58. The established, as well as many of the dissenting, clergymen have numerous assistants and missionaries employed under them in the work of pastoral superintendence. These parishes and congregations embraced, in 1831, a pop. of 213,810, including some districts contiguous to, but not reckoned as in, the city. According to the return of the parochial clergy, 99,199 belonged to the estab. church, iOO,539 to other denominations; while 14,072 were not known to belong to any congregation. On the other hand, according to a return of a committee of dissenters, 92,460 belonged to the estab. church, 110,055 to other denominations ; while 11.295 were not known to belong to any congregation. (Second Report of the Royal Church Commission, 1838.) Of those not belonging to the estab. church, 26,905 were, in 1831, Roman Catholics; and “ their number,” says Dr. Cleland, “ has increased considerably since.” (New Stat. Account of Scotland, art. Głasgow.) The commissioners state (referring to all sects), “that there would appear to be about 85,179 persons in the habit of attending public worship, out of a pop. of 213,810 : and that a very large number of persons, upwards of 66,000, exclusive of children under ten years of age, are not in the habit of attending public worship, in the sense in which that term is understood by the ministers of the several congregations; and after making an allowance for old and infirm persons, and those who may necessarily be absent, that number cannot be stated at less than o It appears from the same report, that, including every place of worship, the aggregate number of seats unlet or not allocated, was 19,646. The relative numbers of the different sects may be seen from the foling table, which includes a list of baptisms, including births of the children of parents who disapproved of infant baptism, for the year ending 15th Dec. 1830. (Cleland, tut supra, p. 8.)

Children baptized in 1830,

By clergymen of the Church of Scotland - - 3,123 Do. of the United Associate Synod - 664 Do. of the itelief Synod - - - 671 Do. of the Roman Catholic Church - 915

Do. of the Episcopal Church, Methodists, Independents, and other denominations, including births among Baptists, Quakers, Jews, &c. - 1,024

Total - - 6,397

Education. – Under this head the university claims the first attention. It was founded by Bishop Turnbull, by a papal bull, dated 1450; and its privileges have been subsequently confirmed and extended by royal charters and parliamentary statutes. The discipline of the university is administered by the court of the rector (or vice-rector), and by assessors nominated o him, who have for many years been the Pool. and all the professors. The public affairs of the university are under the management of the senate, which is composed of the rector, dean of faculties, the principal, and all the professors, the latter being 21 in number. The business of the college, as a subordinate corporation, is conducted by the principal and 13 professors, called the Faculty, who, with

the rector and dean, dispense the college patronage...The rector, who is generally an eminent literary or political character, who seldom resides, or even appears, except at his inauguration, is chosen annually by the matriculated students. The office, which is now one of distinction only, has been filled by lurke, Adam Smith, Francis Jeffrey, Sir Robert Peel, &c. There is also a sinecure officer, named chancellor, nominated for life by the senate, who is generally a nobleman of distinction. The chancellor appoints a vice-chancellor, but neither has any rights or #. either in the discipline of the institution or in the exercise of its patronage. In addition to the 21 professors, there is a lecturer on the structure, functions, and diseases of the eye. . Government has also (1840 instituted a professorship of mechanics and civ engineering, and endowed it with a salary of 250l. a year. The principal presides as chairman at meetings of the senate, and generally over the institution, and is honorary professor of theology, but teaches no class. The crown is patron of the principality, and of 14 professorships, including that newly instituted; the faculty, rector, and dean, being patrons of the remaining 8 professorships. The professors derive their incomes o from the sees paid by the students (which vary from 3 to 5 guineas), and partly from funds (which amounted, in 1824, to 9,4061 a year) belonging to the college. In addition to these sources of income, government annually gives a grant, varying in amount, to augment the income of several of the chairs. It is required by law, that the §§ and all the professors be members of the estalished church: the law, however, is not strictly enforced, except in the case of the principal and theological professors. Religious distinctions are of no consequence in the case of students; those only who belong to the national church and whose parents do not live in town, are required to attend public worship in the College Chapel. The curriculum is divided into the four faculties of Arts, Divinity, Medicine, and Law ; which last is confined to a single professorship. There is only one session in the *...; beginning 10th Oct., and terminating 1st May. here are 29 bursaries, the benefits of which are extended to 65 students. Their average annual income is 1,1651.10s. 4d. ; the highest is 50l.: the lowest, 41. 10s. Mr. Snell, of Warwickshire, about a century ago, left a landed estate in that county, for the purpose of founding ten exhibitions in i. College, Oxford, in savour of students of the Episcopal Church, who have attended at least two sessions at the university of Glasgow, or one session there, and two at some other Scotch university. Among the distinguished persons who have been educated on Snell's foundation, may be mentioned Dr. Douglas, Bishop of Salisbury; Adam Smith ; and Dr. Matthew Baillie. Each exhibition is of the yearly value of 1321., and lasts for ten years. As in the other Scotch universities, there are no apartments for the residence of the students within the college. The number of students varies from 1,000 to 1,200. The graduations during the last year were as follows: —in arts, 23 ; in medicine, 1173 in surgery, 19. The university library, which was founded in the 15th century, contains nearly 100,000 volumes, and is open to the students. A valuable botanical o consisting of 8 acres, on the W. of the city, was nstituted by the united contributions of the government, the university, and the citizens of Glasgow, for the use of the professor of botany, who lectures in a hall erected within its precincts. Some of the most illustrious names in the literature of Scotland have been professors in the University of Glasgow ; amongst others may be * Hutcheson, Adam Smith, Simson, Millar, and »l

Anderson's University, or Andersonian Institution, was founded by Dr. John Anderson, Professor of Natural Philosophy in the University of Glasgow, who died in 1796, leaving his effects, including his museum and philosophical apparatus, to the institution. It is under the management of 81 trustees, who elect successors to those who retire. It possesses a fine building in Geor Street, embracing suitable class-rooms, a large hall, chemical rooms, and a museum. It consists of three distinct departments : — 1. General branches for youth, consisting of mathematics, logic and ethics, natural philosophy, chemistry, French, geography, drawing, and É. 2. A medical ... embracing all the

ranches for the various colleges of surgeons, and public boards. , 3. Mechanics' classes; comprising 50 lectures on mechanics and chemistry, in alternate winters, and drawing. Excepting those in the mechanics’ classes, the lecturers pay rents for their rooms. There is a good library, to which the students have access. The classes for mechanics in this institution were the first established in the empire.

The Glasgow mechanics’ institution was founded in 1823, chiefly by some members of the mechanics' class in Anderson's University, who felt dissatisfied with the management. ... A ticket, price 10s., admits to the classes of natural philosophy and chemistry, on each of which other branches are taught. The value of their accumulated property in books (4,000 vols.), apparatus, and models, is estimated at 3,000l. ; there is, besides, a building fund of 6301, Fn session 1839-40, 280 tickets were sold for the classes of o and mechanics, and 434 for those of botany, physiology, music, and English literature. The class fees amounted in the same year to 195l. ; the annual subscriptions and donations to 1741. A scientific and literary reading-room is attached to the institution. Four similar institutions established in the suburbs, are all well attended. The parliamentary returns show that, in 1831, when the pop., including some districts not reckoned in the city, an.ounted to near 214,000, there were 14 parochial schools with 25 masters, and 186 other schools with 202 masters. But these are exclusive of female schools, of children taught by domestic tutors, of numerous Sunday schools, and of the public institutions just described. Still, however, we incline to think that there are some omissions in the returns to parliament, inasmuch as the children at school in Glasgow is, according to them, nearly a third below the average of Scotland, the pupils not exceeding 74 per cent. of the whole o According to a return made to the General Assembly, in 1835, the children between 6 and 15 years of age unable to read, in five of the city parishes, including about a fourth part of the whole pop., amounted to 6,295. (Report of the General Assembly's Education Committee, 1835, p. 38.) The High School deserves particular mention. It was formerly an exclusively classical seminary, with the exception of a writing class, having 5 teachers for Latin and Greek, with 1 for writing; the time devoted to classical literature being from 5 to 6 hours daily. But, in 1834, it was resolved to modify the course of instruction in the school, so as to make it more suitable to the wants of a great manufacturing and commercial city. In consequence, the classical department was limited to 2 teachers, and the time to 2 hours; and teachers of English literature, geography, mathematics, modern languages, and drawing were introduced. In 1836, a chemical class was established; and soon afterwards this department was made to embrace natural philosophy audi natural history. A normal school, or a school for instructing teachers in the art of tuition, was founded by the Glasgow Educational Committee in 1836, and was the first, and may, in fact, be still regarded as the only, seminary of the kind in Scotland. Its directors must, according to its constitution, belong to the national church ; but there is no such exclusion in regard to those who are instructed in it. The fee is 31.3s, for the course of training, which may extend over a whole year. Notwithstanding their devotion to commercial pursuits, the merchants of Glasgow have always been distinguished by their attention to and patronage of literature and science. The Literary and Commercial Society was established nearly a century ago, and can exhibit à the list of its members, at different times, the names of Dr. Francis Hutcheson, Adam Smith, Dr. Joseph Black, Mr. Millar, professor of law, and other distinguished individuals. It has, indeed, since its origin, been attended by the leading citizens of Glasgow, both literary and commercial. In the range of its discussions, it includes every subject except theology and party politics. The Glasgow Philosophical Society, instituted in 1802, is also an important association. o: Maitland Club, instituted in Glasgow in 1828, is similar to the Bannatyne Club of Edinburgh, and the Roxburghe Club of ..ondon, printing for the use of its members MSS. and rare works illustrative of the early history, manners, and literature of Scotland. It was originally limited to 50 members; but has been extended to 100. Glasgow has also two statistical societies, a geological society, and several others. In addition to those belonging to the university, to Anderson's institution, and to the mechanics' institution, there are numerous subscription and circulating libraries, of which the two most important are the Glasgow public library, and Stirling's, each containing upwards of 10,000 volumes. The first newspaper published in this city, the Glasgow Courant, made its appearance in 1715; since which time, attempts to estabiish 19 have been made, but at this moment (1840) only 10 survive; 2 published thrice a week, 5 twice a week, and 3 once a week. Letterpress printing was not introduced into Glasgow till 1638, upwards of 100 years after it had been established in Edinburgh ; nor did it flourish there for nearly a century after its introduction. But about the middle of last century the Messrs. Foulis raised the Glasgow press to the highest eminence, and their editions of some of the principal Greek and Latin classics are valuable alike for the beauty of their typography, and their accuracy. In the course of the present century Messrs. John & And; ew Duncan. printers to the university, have published some splendid editions of the classics, and of work's con

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there is an annual course of 25 lectures ; and various nected with classical literature.

Glasgow is not, however, a literary mart ; and its authors usually make arrangements with Edinburgh or London houses for printing and publishing their works. The charitable institutions of the city are too numerous to be minutely specified. They comprise, amongst others, two lying-in hospitals and dispensaries, a cowpox institution, Magdalene asylum, deaf and dumb institution, blind asylum, eye infirmary, lunatic asylum, house of refuge, humane society, &c. In addition to Hutcheson's hospital, for the maintenance of decayed burgesses and their widows, and the education of hoys, sons of burgesses, there are numerous free schools for the poor, and similar institutions. About 70,000l. are expended annually for religious, benevolent, and educational purposes, under the management of the magistrates and parochial clergy, part being the produce of funds beueathed, and part the result of voluntary contributions. 'his is exclusive of Hutcheson's hospital, and three charity schools otherwise endowed. A regular police establishment was first organised in this town by act of parliament in 1800. It is now a most efficient body, consisting of 8 heads of departments, 3 lieutenants, 68 officers, 135 night watchmen, 8 coalweighers, 21 lamp-lighters, 50 firemen, and 20 supernumeraries ; in all, 318 persons. It is under the direction of the magistrates, the dean of guild, the convener of the trades' house, and one commissioner from each ward, chosen by the rate-payers ; and is supported by a tax, averaging about 5 per cent. on the rental. The number of public executions, from 1765 to 1840, a period of 75 years, was 102, being, at an average, 'i per annum. The gaol, though constructed in 1810, is deficient in accommodation ; but the bridewell is admitted to be one of the most perfect establishments of the kind in the empire. Each prisoner is confined in a separate cell, and employed at his own business. Mr. Symons, says that, in respect of cleanliness and economy, this institution leaves nothing to desire, and is a pattern for Europe. In 1837, the committals were 2,067, and the average period of confinement 63 days. Deducting, the value of the prisoners’ labour, it cost the public, during the above year, only 845l. Trade and manufactures. – Glasgow owes its present greatness to its advantageous situation on a fine river, in one of the richest coal and mineral districts in the empire. Originally, however, the Clyde was much encumbered by fords and shallows, and for a lengthened period it served rather to excite and disappoint expectations, than to confer any real commercial advantages on the city. In 1662, after several other schemes had failed, the magistrates of Glasgow purchased the ground on which Port Glasgow (16 miles lower down the river) now stands, where they formed a harbour and a graving dock, the first work of its kind in Scotland. For a considerable period the intercourse between Glasgow and its newly acquired port was principally carried on by land car. riage; but from 1665 attempts were every now and then made to deepen the river. In 1688 a quay was formed at the Broomielaw ; but even so late as 1775 no vessel, drawing 6 ft. water, could reach Glasgow, except at spring tides. At length, however, a plan, proposed in 1769 by Mr. Golburn, engineer of Chester, for deepening the river to 7 ft. at neap tides, was adopted. He proceeded to accomplish his task, partly by the emloyment of dredging machines, and partly by constructng dams and jetties, so as to confine and strengthen the course of the river. These measures have since been continuously and energetically followed up, particularly of late years; and with such success, that vessels drawing 15 ft. water come up to the city at springs, and that there is usually a depth of 5 ft. water in the river at low neaps. There are still four dredging machines and two diving bells in constant employment. The river, for 7 m. below the city, is very much contracted, and forms nearly a straight line; the sloping banks, formed of whinstone, being constructed in imitation of ashlar. The accommodation for ...}}. at the Broomielaw has been very greatly extended; but a measure is now before parliament for adding to it, by the construction of extensive docks, and other conveniences. The influence of these improvements on the shipping and trade of Glasgow has been most striking. Dr. Cleland says that, “less than 50 years ago, a few gabbards, and these only 30 or 40 tons burden, came up to Glasgow; and I recollect the time when, for weeks together, not a vessel of any description was to be found in the port of Glasgow.” (Former and Present State of Glasgow, 30.) Now, however, a greater number of sailing vessels and of steamers belong to Glasgow than to any other Scotch }. and the harbour is constantly crowded with ships rom foreign parts, coasting vessels, and steamers. The steam-packets belonging to the Clyde that ply to Liverpool, ljublin, and Belfast, are amongst the finest vessels of their class in the empire. In all, there belonged to Glasgow in 1838, 53 steamers; of the aggregate burden of 6,644 tons. Subjoined is an —

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The business connected with the port and the river is managed by parliamentary trustees. The gross revenue of the trust for the year ending the 31st of August 1839, amounted to 45,826l. 13s.6d. ; and the expenditure, including interest of debt, to 35,694l. 17s. 4d. The nett debt due by the trust amounted at the same period to 122,335l. 2s. 8d. The port dues were raised in 1826 from 1s. to 1s. 4d. per ton. Perhaps, on the whole, it is to be regretted that, instead of attempting to improve the navigation of the Clyde, a ship-canal had not been constructed from Glasgow to the deep water in the river; but it is now too late to think of such a measure. Subjoined is an

Account of the Arrivals of Sailing and Steam Vessels at the Broomielaw during the Two Years ending the

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In 1781, the revenue of the Glasgow post-office amounted to 4,3411. ; in 1810, it amounted to 27,598l. ; in 1831, to 35,6431. ; and in 1839, to 47,5271.

Canals and Railroads. – In addition to river navigation, the city enjoys the advantage of several canals and railroads. Of the former, the Forth and Clyde, generally called the Great Canal, begun in 1768, but not completed till 1798, is by far the most important. It unites the two seas on the E. and W. of Scotland, extending from Grangemouth on the Frith of Forth, to Bowling Bay on the Clyde, a distance of 35 m., with a collateral cut of 23 m. to Port Dundas, at the N. extremity of the city of Glasgow. Its medium width at the surface is 56 ft., at the bottom 27, and the depth of water 10 ft. : thus serving for the transit of vessels of upwards of 100 tons burden. The income of this canal, in 1836, was 63.7431, 16s. 7d. The Union Canal from Edinburgh joins this canal 4 m. E. Grangemouth. The other canals are, the Monkland, length 12 m., which connects Glasgow with the coal and iron mines in the pars. of Old and New Monkland ; and the Glasgow, Paisley, and Johnstone Canal. ... The depth of these canals is 6 ft. With regard to railways, the Monkland and Kirkintilloch Railway, length 94 m., connects the two parishes in question, with the Great Canal, and thereby with Glasgow. The Ballochney Railway is merely an extension of the one just named into the coal and ironstone districts. The Garnkirk and Glasgow Railway, length 84 m., forms a communication between the city and valuable mines of coal and ironstone in the par. of Cadder. In addition to these lines, a railroad between Glasgow, Paisley, and Ayr, is (July, 1840) on the verge of o'. that part of the line between Glasgow and Paisley being already in operation. In 1838, an act for a railway between E o and Glasgow, length 46 m., was obtained : the work is considerably advanced, and it is supposed will be completed in 1841.

Prior to 1300, Glasgow was merely a fishing village, that part of it lying on the river, now the Briggate, being called the Fisher-row. The business was long on a small scale, and limited to the home market; but, in 1450, the trade of fishing and curing salmon and herrings for the French market was introduced ; a traffic that was carried on with varied success for about two centuries. Indeed this seems to have been the only important branch of business carried on here till 1638, when a person of the name of Fleyming, and partners, proposed to erect aweaving factory, provided the municipal authorities would grant them encouragement. On considering this offer, the town-council gave them a lease of suitable premises, for 17 years, free of rent; an act of liberality that ran great risk of being, defeated by the opposition of the freemen weavers, who protested against the grant, on the ground that the factory would be injurious to their interests. In the end the company, to get rid of the opposition, agreed not to employ any weavers other than freemen I This was the origin of weaving factories in Glasgow. But nearly a century elapsed before the manufacture of lawns, Cambrics, and such like fabrics, was introduced. These, however, were extensively pro

duced from about 1740, till the business was superseded by the introduction of the cotton manufacture. The situation of Glasgow as to trade, in 1651, may be accurately learned from the statement of Tucker, who had been commissioned by Cromwell's government to draw up a report on the revenue of customs and excise in Scotland. “With,” says he, speaking of Glasgow, “the exception of the colleginors, all the inhabitants are traders; some to Ireland, with small smiddy coals, in open boats, from four to ten tons, from whence they bring hoops, rungs, barrel stayes, meal, oats, and butter ; some to France, with plaiding, coals, and herring, from which the return is salt, pepper, raisins, and prunes; some to Norway for timber. There hath jo. been some who ventured as far as Barbadoes, but the loss which they sustained by being obliged to come home late in the year, has made them discontinue ; thither o more. The mercantile genius of the people is strong, if they were not checked and kept under by the shallowness of their river every day more and more increasing and filling up, so that no vessel of any burthen can come up nearer the town than 14 m., where they must unlade, and send up their timber on rafts, and all other commodities by 3 or 4 tons of goods at a time, in small cobbles, or boats, of 3, 4, or 5, and none above 6 ton a boat. There is in this place a collector, a cheque, and four waiters. There are 12 vessels belonging to the merchants of this port, viz., 3 of 150 tons each, 1 of 140, 2 of 100, 1 of 50, 3 of 30, 1 of 15, and l of 12, none of which come up to the town. Total, 957 tons.” A company for carrying on the whale fishery and makin soap was formed in 1674. They employed five ships, ...i had extensive premises at Greenock for boiling blubber and curing fish. The whale fishery has long been given up ; but the soap manufacture has ever since been extensively carried on. This is evinced by the fact that the quantity of soap made in Glasgow in 1839 amounted to 5,858,844 lbs. of hard, and 2,519,120 lbs. of soft soap, being more than half the quantity of soap made during the same year in Scotland. The manufacture of ropes was commenced in 1696; and two years afterwards an act of parliament was obtained in favour of this business, imposing a duty on all ropes imported from the Sound or o seas ; and in return, the company were to advance a capital of 40,000l. Scots, and to bring in foreigners to the work. The manufacture of ropes and cordage is now also an extensive branch of industry, in which large capi. tals are invested. The tanning of leather and the brewing business were introduced ..". to the Union (1707), and have ever since, particularly the latter, formed important branches of manufacture. Almost the whole of the Scotch ale imported into our colonies is produced at Glasgow. But it was not till after the Union, in 1707, when the trade to the American and West Indian colonies was, for the first time, opened to the enterprise and activity of the Scotch, that the commercial energies of Glasgow began to be fully developed. Her merchants immediately embarked in the trade to the W. Indies and America, especially in that to Maryland and Virginia; and such was the success that attended their efforts in this new department, that in a few o Glasgow became the grand entrepôt through which the farmers general of France principally received their supplies of tobacco. But for a considerable time they carried on their colonial trade in vessels chartered from English ports; and it was not till 1718, that a ship, built in the Clyde, the o: Glasgow merchants, crossed the Atlantic : #. such an extent was this branch of commerce carried on, that, for several years prior to 1770, the annual import of tobacco into the Clyde ranged from 35,000 to 45,000 hogheads. In 1771, the quantity was 49,016 hogsheads; and in 1775, 57,143. The American war put an end to a traffic from which Glasgow

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